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Results 551 - 600 of 3177
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Chen Jui-Lin - - 2009
In this study, the acid tolerance of Bacillus cereus 1-4-1 after adaptation at pH 5.5 for 1, 2 and 4 h was first determined. The survival of acid-adapted and non-adapted cells of B. cereus in phosphate buffer solution (PBS pH 4.0) containing various organic acids such as acetic, propionic, citric, ...
Vela Marcelo F - - 2008
The role of acid is very well established in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease and acid suppression constitutes the main approach to its medical treatment. With the current frequent use of proton pump inhibitors, we are seeing increasing numbers of patients in whom symptoms persist despite pharmacological acid suppression. ...
Mujumdar Siddharthya K - - 2008
pH-sensitive nanoclay composite hydrogels based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) were synthesized by copolymerization with cationic and anionic comonomers. Laponite nanoclay particles served as multifunctional crosslinkers, producing hydrogels with exceptionally high mechanical strengths, as measured by elongation at break. Cationic copolymer gels based on NIPA and dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate were prepared by aqueous free ...
Sebok A - - 2008
This paper presents a derivatization, mass fragmentation study relating to the most common six cholic acids, such as cholic, lithocholic, chenodeoxycholic, ursodeoxycholic, 3-hydroxy,7-ketocholanic and dehydrocholic acids, identified and quantified as pollutants in the aquatic environment at the first time. Derivatizations have been performed with the two-step process (1: oximation, 2: ...
Fan Xuetong - - 2008
Furan, a potential carcinogen, can be induced by heat from sugars, ascorbic acid, and fatty acids. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of pH, phosphate, temperature, and heating time on furan formation. Heat-induced furan formation from free sugars, ascorbic acid, and linoleic acid was profoundly affected ...
Skandamis Panagiotis N - - 2009
Microorganisms persisting in slaughter plant environments may develop acid resistance and be translocated to other environmental surfaces or products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to form biofilms and maintain acid resistance, under different culture habituation scenarios, on stainless steel coupons (2 ...
Huang De-Yin - - 2009
With the aim of understanding the origin of acid rains in South China, we analyzed rainwaters collected from Guangzhou, China, between March 2005 and February 2006. The pH of rainwater collected during the monitoring period varied from 4.22 to 5.87; acid rain represented about 94% of total precipitation during this ...
Manente Sabrina - - 2008
The acridine orange (AO) and neutral red (NR) dyes, commonly used as probes to measure the internal pH in acidic vesicles, are compared in this article. The comparison between the two dyes (arising from calculations taking into account their analytical constants) illustrated that the use of AO is preferential to ...
Gonugunta Vijay K - - 2008
Abscisic acid (ABA) raised the cytosolic pH and nitric oxide (NO) levels in guard cells while inducing stomatal closure in epidermis of Pisum sativum. Butyrate (a weak acid) reduced the cytosolic pH/NO production and prevented stomatal closure by ABA. Methylamine (a weak base) enhanced the cytosolic alkalinization and aggravated stomatal ...
Xu H - - 2008
Aims: To evaluate the cross-protected Salmonella enterica cells under acid and cold stress conditions. Methods and Results: The acid-adapted S. enterica cells were exposed to pH 4.0 at 4 and 20 degrees C. Recovery of sublethally injured cells was estimated by the difference between the counts obtained on trypticase soy ...
Mao Juan - - 2009
This study reports the possibility of enhancing the reactive dye biosorption capacity of Corynebacterium glutamicum via its cross-linking with polyethylenimine (PEI). The amine groups in the cell wall of C. glutamicum were found to electrostatically interact with reactive dye anions. Thus, cross-linking the biomass with PEI enhanced the primary and ...
Li Qiang - - 2010
Succinic acid is a useful chemical and its purification from fermentation broth by ion-exchange resins has widely drawn attention. In this study, pH neutralization in the process of adsorption of succinic acid from model solutions and fermentation broth by anion-exchange resin NERCB 04 has been tested. Adsorption capacity of NERCB ...
Richmond Craig J - - 2008
A switchable organic system involving four distinct states that can be interconverted by use of both pH and redox chemistry as control parameters has been developed. The key molecules involved in this system are the phenanthridine-based heterocycles 1-isobutyl-1,2,3,12b-tetrahydroimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine (TIP) and 5-[2-(isobutylamino)ethyl]phenanthridinium (AEP). These two states are interchangeable via pH control, ...
Dryer Deborah J - - 2008
The effects of pH changes on the absorbance spectra of fulvic acids, which constitute a major part of natural organic matter (NOM) were examined based primarily on the example of standard Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA). Differential absorbance spectra of SRFA generated at varying pH values were determined to be ...
Santos Vânia C - - 2008
Nutrient digestion and absorption after blood feeding are important events for Lutzomyia longipalpis, which uses these nutrients to produce eggs. In this context, the pH inside the digestive tract is an important physiological feature as it can markedly influence the digestive process as well as interfere with Leishmania development in ...
Humeres Eduardo - - 2008
In this work, the acid cleavage at 25 degrees C in 20% v/v aqueous ethanol of a series of analogues of piperidine dithiocarbamate X(C2H4)2NCS2(-) (X = CH2, CHCH3, NH, NCH3, S, O) was studied. The pH-rate profiles were obtained in the range of H(o)-5 and pH 5. They all presented ...
Tsai Chia-Feng - - 2008
Despite recent advances in instrumentation and analytical strategies for identification and quantitation of protein phosphorylation, a highly specific enrichment protocol is still a challenge in large-scale studies. Here, we report a simple pH/acid control method that addresses the poor specificity seriously criticized in IMAC. Detailed evaluation of the capture and ...
Gössner Anita S - - 2008
A moderately acid-tolerant, malodorous bacterium, strain FP, was isolated from peat that had a pore water pH of c. 4.2. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of FP was closely related to that of acetogens Clostridium drakei, Clostridium scatologenes, and Clostridium carboxidivorans. The DNA-DNA reassociation values obtained with DNA from FP ...
López-Nicolás José Manuel - - 2008
Whether or not (E)-resveratrol can be used as a functional ingredient in foods depends on its structure at different concentrations and pH values. For this reason, the aggregation state of (E)-resveratrol at acidic and basic pH is investigated here for the first time. The data show that (E)-resveratrol forms aggregates ...
Wood Hannah L - - 2008
Ocean acidification is the lowering of pH in the oceans as a result of increasing uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is entering the oceans at a greater rate than ever before, reducing the ocean's natural buffering capacity and lowering pH. Previous work on the biological consequences of ocean ...
Hakamada Sayaka - - 2008
Cytochrome c(552) (PH c(552)) from moderately thermophilic Hydrogenophilus thermoluteolus exhibits stability intermediate between those of cytochrome c(552) (HT c(552)) from thermophilic Hydrogenobacter thermophilus and cytochrome c(551) (PA c(551)) from mesophilic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To understand the mechanism of stabilization of PH c(552), we introduced mutations into PH c(552) at five sites, ...
Zhao He - - 2008
Humic acid (HA) was extracted and separated into different molecular weight (MW) fractions, then coagulated by aluminum chloride and polyaluminum chloride (PACl). The removal of disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors and the aluminum speciation variation of the coagulants were investigated in detail. In particular, the role of aluminum speciation in the ...
Obolensky Alexa - - 2008
Multiple linear regression models were used to examine relationships between water quality, treatment, and disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in Information Collection Rule field data. Finished water models were specified using a cross-validation approach based on data for 225 free chlorine treatment plants. Turbidity, bromide, temperature, alkalinity, total organic carbon, ultraviolet ...
Park Su Jung - - 2008
The layers of keratinocytes form an acid mantle on the surface of the skin. Herein, we investigated the effects of acidic pH on the membrane current and [Ca(2+)](c) of human primary keratinocytes from foreskins and human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). Acidic extracellular pH (pH(e)</= 5.5) activated outwardly rectifying Cl(-) current ...
Fukuda Masakazu - - 2008
The molecular mechanism by which nascent HDL forms via the interaction of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and transmembrane ABCA1 is poorly understood. Here, because ABCA1 has been reported to localize to acidic intracellular compartments, including the Golgi and endosome, we studied the interaction of apoA-I with model membranes under acidic conditions. ...
Vandal Omar H - - 2008
Acidification of the phagosome is considered to be a major mechanism used by macrophages against bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Mtb blocks phagosome acidification, but interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) restores acidification and confers antimycobacterial activity. Nonetheless, it remains unclear whether acid kills Mtb, whether the intrabacterial pH of any pathogen falls when ...
Paslawski Janice C - - 2009
Naphthenic acids are a complex mixture of organic compounds which naturally occur in crude oil. Low molecular weight components of the naphthenic acids are known to be toxic in aquatic environments and there is a need to better understand the factors controlling the kinetics of their biodegradation. In this study, ...
Backhaus Claudia - - 2008
The tryptophan metabolites kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, anthranilic, 3-hydroxyanthranilic and 3-methoxyanthranilic acids were compared with regard to diazotation by .NO or NO+, using three different donors, nitrite at pH 5, PAPA-NONOate at pH 7.4 and NO+SbF(6)- at pH 2.0. With all three sources of NO species, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid were readily ...
Knorr Veronika - - 2008
Two types of acid-degradable nonviral gene carriers, OEI-MK and OEI-BAA, were synthesized by polymerizing oligoethylenimine of 800 Da (OEI800) with the pH-sensitive acetone ketal cross-linker 2,2-bis(N-maleimidoethyloxy) propane (MK) or the 4-methoxybenzaldehyde bisacrylate acetal cross-linker 1,1-bis-(2-acryloyloxy ethoxy)-[4-methoxy-phenyl]methane) (BAA). Corresponding acid-insensitive counterparts (OEI-BM and LT-OEI-HD) were synthesized as well, representing control polymers. ...
Feng Xiaohai - - 2010
The production of propionic acid by Propionibacterium freudenreichii CCTCC M207015 was investigated in a 7.5-l stirred-tank fermentor. Batch fermentations by P. freudenreichii CCTCC M207015 at various pH values ranging from 5.5 to 7.0 were studied. Based on the analysis of the time course of specific cell growth rate (mu (x)) ...
Valinoti Ana Carolina - - 2008
This study evaluated the effects of acidic medicines (Dimetapp and Claritin), under pH-cycling conditions, on the surface degradation of four composite resins (microhybrid: TPH, Concept, Opallis and Nanofilled: Supreme). Thirty disc-shaped specimens ([symbol: see text] = 5.0 mm/thickness = 2.0 mm) of each composite were randomly assigned to 3 groups ...
Feng Leiyu - - 2009
The effects of solids retention time (SRT) and temperature on waste activated sludge (WAS) hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation were investigated in a series of continuous-flow reactors at pH 10. The experimental results showed that the increase of either SRT or temperature benefited the hydrolysis of WAS and ...
Namani Trishool - - 2008
The first forms of cellular life required a source of amphiphilic compounds capable of assembling into stable boundary structures. Membranes composed of fatty acids have been proposed as model systems of primitive membranes, but their bilayer structure is stable only within a narrow pH range and low ionic strength. They ...
Van Damme Paul André - - 2008
Several High Andes Rivers are characterized by inorganic water pollution known as acid mine drainage (AMD). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between metal concentrations in the sediments and the macroinvertebrate communities in two river basins affected by AMD. In general, the taxon diversity of the ...
Valdez Carlos A - - 2008
Glycosylated diazeniumdiolates of structure R 2NN(O)NO-R' (R' = a saccharide residue) are potential prodrugs of the nitric oxide (NO)-releasing but acid-sensitive R 2NN(O)NO (-) ion. Moreover, cleaving the acid-stable glycosides under alkaline conditions provides a convenient protecting group strategy for diazeniumdiolate ions. Here, we report comparative hydrolysis rate data for ...
Gosset Gaëlle - - 2008
The 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) characteristics, toxicity, and cellular penetration of five linear or cyclic alpha-aminophosphonate highly sensitive pH probes were investigated in Dictyostelium discoideum cells and isolated rat hearts and were compared with three phosphonic acid derivatives. The line width broadening at pH approximately pK(a), which was satisfactorily ...
Ges Igor A - - 2008
The metabolic activity of cells can be monitored by measuring the pH in the extracellular environment. Microfabrication and microfluidic technologies allow the sensor size and the extracellular volumes to be comparable to single cells. A glass substrate with thin film pH sensitive IrO( x ) electrodes was sealed to a ...
Moon Won - - 2008
Twenty-four-hour ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring is considered the gold standard for diagnosing gastroesophageal reflux disease. The aim of this study was to quantify normal distal esophageal acid parameters in healthy Koreans. Thirty healthy adults who were not on medication and were free from gastrointestinal symptoms were analyzed. Ambulatory esophageal acid ...
Gethin Georgina T GT Research Centre, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Royal College of Surgeons, Ireland (RCSI), Dublin, Ireland. - - 2008
Chronic non healing wounds have an elevated alkaline environment. The acidic pH of Manuka honey makes it a potential treatment for lowering wound pH, but the duration of effect is unknown. Lowering wound pH can potentially reduce protease activity, increase fibroblast activity and increase oxygen release consequently aiding wound healing. ...
Celotto A C - - 2008
Acid-base homeostasis maintains systemic arterial pH within a narrow range. Whereas the normal range of pH for clinical laboratories is 7.35-7.45, in vivo pH is maintained within a much narrower range. In clinical and experimental settings, blood pH can vary in response to respiratory or renal impairment. This altered pH ...
Chhabra Meenu - - 2008
Laccase from basidiomycete fungus Cyathus bulleri was evaluated for its ability to decolorize a number of reactive and acidic dyes in the presence of natural and synthetic mediators. The extent of decolorization was monitored at different mediator/dye concentrations and incubation time. Among the synthetic mediators, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was effective ...
Suzuki Kingo - - 2008
In vitro studies have shown that acidic conditions impair spreading of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which is prerequisite for activation of microbicidal functions. However, the mechanisms by which pH affects polymorphonuclear leukocytes functions remain obscure. Moreover, in vitro observations seem to contradict the fact that an acidic microenvironment often prevails at sites ...
Petrin Zlatko - - 2008
Large-scale human activities including the extensive combustion of fossil fuels have caused acidification of freshwater systems on a continental scale, resulting in reduced species diversity and, in some instances, impaired ecological functioning. In regions where acidity is natural, however, species diversity and functioning seem to be less affected. This contrasting ...
del Genio Gianmattia - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that Nissen fundoplication controls acid gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Combined 24-h pH and multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII-pH) allows detection of both acid and nonacid GER. Antireflux surgery is considered for any patient whose medical therapy is not efficient, particularly patients with nonacid gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Nevertheless, ...
Taconi Katherine A - - 2008
Operating an anaerobic digester at low pH could offer several advantages over operation at neutral pH. Most wastewater streams targeted for anaerobic digestion are inherently acidic, requiring alkalinity supplementation (at added expense) to buffer the pH at neutral. Additionally, previously published work completed by the authors using batch systems suggested ...
Tømmeraas Kristoffer - - 2008
Hyaluronic acid (HA) was hydrolyzed using varying temperatures (40, 60, and 80 degrees C) and acid concentrations (0.0010, 0.010, 0.10, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 M HCl). The degradation process was monitored by determination of weight average molecular weight ( M w) by size-exclusion chromatography with online multiangle laser light scattering, ...
Levin Jacquelyn - - 2008
Skin surface acidity can be measured according to two criteria, its value given by pH and its strength determined by the ability of the skin to resist an acidic/alkaline aggression (i.e. acidic/alkaline resistance and neutralization tests). It is the quantitative extent to which the skin resists these changes that defines ...
Bredenoord A J - - 2008
Impedance monitoring is a new technique that can be used to detect the flow of fluids and gas through hollow viscera. With impedance monitoring gastro-oesophageal reflux can be detected independent of its acidity by differences in electrical impedance between the mucosal surface, fluids and gas that surround the catheter. Clinically, ...
Schenk Jonas - - 2008
An on-line pH monitoring method based on mid-infrared spectroscopy relevant to bioprocesses is presented. This approach is non-invasive and does not require the addition of indicators or dyes, since it relies on the analysis of species of common buffers used in culture media, such as phosphate buffer. Starting with titrations ...
Ma Zhi-Yong - - 2008
Extracellular acidic pH-activated chloride channel I(Cl, acid), has been characterized in HEK 293 cells and mammalian cardiac myocytes. This study was designed to characterize I(Cl,acid) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs). The activation and deactivation of the current rapidly and repeatedly follows the change of the extracellular solution at pH ...
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