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Results 551 - 600 of 3194
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Wilks Jessica C - - 2009
Acid and base environmental stress responses were investigated in Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis AG174 cultures in buffered potassium-modified Luria broth were switched from pH 8.5 to pH 6.0 and recovered growth rapidly, whereas cultures switched from pH 6.0 to pH 8.5 showed a long lag time. Log-phase cultures at pH ...
Li Jing - - 2009
The saccharification process of swine manure by conventional and microwave-assisted acid pretreated were investigated using cellulose enzymes, respectively. The optima for microwave-assisted acid pretreated swine manure is achieved when swine manure of 50 g l(-1) of substrate concentration and water amount 40 ml was pretreated by 4% H2SO4 concentration with ...
Quilo S A - - 2009
Beef trimmings were treated with 3% potassium lactate (KL), 4% sodium metasilicate (NMS), 0.02% peroxyacetic acid (PAA) or 0.1% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) or left untreated (CON). Beef trimmings were ground, pattied, and sampled for 7 days. Under simulated retail display, instrumental color, sensory characteristics, TBARS, pH, and Lee-Kramer shear ...
Shi Cheng-Yao - - 2009
Extracellular acidic pH activated chloride channels (I(Cl,acid)) have been characterized in HEK 293 cells and mammalian cardiac myocytes. This study was designed to evaluate the expression of I(Cl,acid) in RAW264.7 monocytic-macrophage and human peripheral monocytes and to investigate the effect of simvastatin on I(Cl,acid). In two kinds of cells, the ...
Neff Keil J - - 2009
Episodic stream acidification from atmospheric deposition is suspected to detrimentally impact native southern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) headwater streams. To test the hypothesis that episodes of stream acidification cause physiological distress to native trout, caged fish at three sites were exposed to acid ...
Clarke A T AT Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, 44 Church Street, Western Infirmary, Glasgow G11 6NT, - - 2009
The proximal cardia region of the stomach has a high incidence of inflammation, metaplasia and neoplasia. It demonstrates less acid buffering following meals than the more distal stomach. Novel high definition pHmetry was employed to investigate acidity at the cardia under fasting conditions and in response to a meal. 15 ...
Van Nostrand Joy D - - 2008
Burkholderia vietnamiensis PR1(301) (PR1) exhibits pH-dependent nickel (Ni) tolerance, with lower Ni toxicity observed at pH 5 than at pH 7. The Ni tolerance mechanism in PR1 is currently unknown, and traditional mechanisms of Ni resistance do not appear to be present. Therefore, 2D gel electrophoresis was used to examine ...
Warren L A - - 2008
In this work, we experimentally evaluate pH and SO4(2-) dynamics associated with abiotic and microbial S2O3(2-) oxidation under varying [O2], [Fe(III)] and microbial strain/consortia (two pure strains, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, their consortia, and two enrichments from an acidic environmental system, Moose Lake 2002 and Moose Lake 2003). Results of ...
Schauer Alexandra - - 2009
The yeast vacuole plays a crucial role in cell homeostasis including pH regulation and degradation of proteins and organelles. Class C VPS genes code for proteins essential for vacuolar and endosomal vesicle fusion, their deletion results in the absence of a detectable vacuole. We found that single gene deletions of ...
Zhou Yan - - 2008
Nitrite has generally been recognized as an inhibitor of N2O reduction during denitrification. This inhibitory effect is investigated under various pH conditions using a denitrifying-enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) sludge. The degree of inhibition was observed to correlate much more strongly with the free nitrous acid (FNA) concentration than with ...
Kaneko Kenitiro - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of choledochal cysts are caused by protein plugs made of lithostathine, which block the long common channel and increase pancreaticobiliary ductal pressure. Agents that dissolve protein plugs can provide relief from or prevent symptoms. In the present study, drugs reportedly effective for pancreatic and biliary stones were used ...
Giannuzzo Maria - - 2008
pH-Sensitive hydrogels of dextran were synthesized by photochemical cross-linking reaction of methacrylate dextran (DEX-MA) at different derivatization degree, functionalized with acidic residues through reaction with phthalic anhydride. The hydrogels were characterized by FT-IR spectra, swelling measurements, experiments of chemical and enzymatic hydrolyses. The swelling data agreed with the formation of ...
Neale Peta A - - 2009
The interaction of estradiol, estrone, progesterone and testosterone with environmentally relevant concentrations of Aldrich humic acid, alginic acid and tannic acid was studied using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Since bulk organic matter and certain hormones such as estradiol and estrone contain dissociable functional groups, the effect of pH on sorption was ...
Wen Yi - - 2009
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the acidic gastric environment, in contrast to all other neutralophiles, whose acid resistance and tolerance responses allow only gastric transit. This acid adaptation is dependent on regulation of gene expression in response to pH changes in the periplasm and cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic histidine kinase, HP0244, which until ...
Yamamura Hisao - - 2008
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is caused by the reflux of gastric contents into the oesophagus, and thus the oesophageal lumen is damaged by gastric acid. The acid sensor involved in oesophageal epithelial defense is still unclear. Recently, we described that the epithelial Na(+) channel delta subunit (ENaCdelta) is a candidate molecule ...
Ko Ko-Chun - - 2008
The ink of sea hares (Aplysia californica) contains escapin, an L-amino acid oxidase that metabolizes L-lysine, thereby producing a mixture that kills microbes and deters attacking predators. This secretion contains H2O2,ammonia, and an equilibrium mixture of "escapin intermediate product" (EIP-K) that includes alpha-keto-epsilon-aminocaproic acid and several other molecules. Components of ...
Mah Jae-Hyung - - 2008
In this study, various mineral supplements, such as chloride salts (CaCl2, MgCl2, MnCl2, FeCl2 and KCl) supplying cations and calcium salts (CaCl2, CaCO3, CaSO4, Ca(OH)2 and CaHPO4) supplying anions, were tested if they could stimulate the sporulation of Clostridium sporogenes, a surrogate microorganism for C. botulinum. Of the cations tested, ...
Chen Jui-Lin - - 2009
In this study, the acid tolerance of Bacillus cereus 1-4-1 after adaptation at pH 5.5 for 1, 2 and 4 h was first determined. The survival of acid-adapted and non-adapted cells of B. cereus in phosphate buffer solution (PBS pH 4.0) containing various organic acids such as acetic, propionic, citric, ...
Vela Marcelo F - - 2008
The role of acid is very well established in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease and acid suppression constitutes the main approach to its medical treatment. With the current frequent use of proton pump inhibitors, we are seeing increasing numbers of patients in whom symptoms persist despite pharmacological acid suppression. ...
Mujumdar Siddharthya K - - 2008
pH-sensitive nanoclay composite hydrogels based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) were synthesized by copolymerization with cationic and anionic comonomers. Laponite nanoclay particles served as multifunctional crosslinkers, producing hydrogels with exceptionally high mechanical strengths, as measured by elongation at break. Cationic copolymer gels based on NIPA and dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate were prepared by aqueous free ...
Sebok A - - 2008
This paper presents a derivatization, mass fragmentation study relating to the most common six cholic acids, such as cholic, lithocholic, chenodeoxycholic, ursodeoxycholic, 3-hydroxy,7-ketocholanic and dehydrocholic acids, identified and quantified as pollutants in the aquatic environment at the first time. Derivatizations have been performed with the two-step process (1: oximation, 2: ...
Fan Xuetong - - 2008
Furan, a potential carcinogen, can be induced by heat from sugars, ascorbic acid, and fatty acids. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of pH, phosphate, temperature, and heating time on furan formation. Heat-induced furan formation from free sugars, ascorbic acid, and linoleic acid was profoundly affected ...
Skandamis Panagiotis N - - 2009
Microorganisms persisting in slaughter plant environments may develop acid resistance and be translocated to other environmental surfaces or products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to form biofilms and maintain acid resistance, under different culture habituation scenarios, on stainless steel coupons (2 ...
Huang De-Yin - - 2009
With the aim of understanding the origin of acid rains in South China, we analyzed rainwaters collected from Guangzhou, China, between March 2005 and February 2006. The pH of rainwater collected during the monitoring period varied from 4.22 to 5.87; acid rain represented about 94% of total precipitation during this ...
Manente Sabrina - - 2008
The acridine orange (AO) and neutral red (NR) dyes, commonly used as probes to measure the internal pH in acidic vesicles, are compared in this article. The comparison between the two dyes (arising from calculations taking into account their analytical constants) illustrated that the use of AO is preferential to ...
Gonugunta Vijay K - - 2008
Abscisic acid (ABA) raised the cytosolic pH and nitric oxide (NO) levels in guard cells while inducing stomatal closure in epidermis of Pisum sativum. Butyrate (a weak acid) reduced the cytosolic pH/NO production and prevented stomatal closure by ABA. Methylamine (a weak base) enhanced the cytosolic alkalinization and aggravated stomatal ...
Xu H - - 2008
Aims: To evaluate the cross-protected Salmonella enterica cells under acid and cold stress conditions. Methods and Results: The acid-adapted S. enterica cells were exposed to pH 4.0 at 4 and 20 degrees C. Recovery of sublethally injured cells was estimated by the difference between the counts obtained on trypticase soy ...
Mao Juan - - 2009
This study reports the possibility of enhancing the reactive dye biosorption capacity of Corynebacterium glutamicum via its cross-linking with polyethylenimine (PEI). The amine groups in the cell wall of C. glutamicum were found to electrostatically interact with reactive dye anions. Thus, cross-linking the biomass with PEI enhanced the primary and ...
Li Qiang - - 2010
Succinic acid is a useful chemical and its purification from fermentation broth by ion-exchange resins has widely drawn attention. In this study, pH neutralization in the process of adsorption of succinic acid from model solutions and fermentation broth by anion-exchange resin NERCB 04 has been tested. Adsorption capacity of NERCB ...
Richmond Craig J - - 2008
A switchable organic system involving four distinct states that can be interconverted by use of both pH and redox chemistry as control parameters has been developed. The key molecules involved in this system are the phenanthridine-based heterocycles 1-isobutyl-1,2,3,12b-tetrahydroimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine (TIP) and 5-[2-(isobutylamino)ethyl]phenanthridinium (AEP). These two states are interchangeable via pH control, ...
Dryer Deborah J - - 2008
The effects of pH changes on the absorbance spectra of fulvic acids, which constitute a major part of natural organic matter (NOM) were examined based primarily on the example of standard Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA). Differential absorbance spectra of SRFA generated at varying pH values were determined to be ...
Santos Vânia C - - 2008
Nutrient digestion and absorption after blood feeding are important events for Lutzomyia longipalpis, which uses these nutrients to produce eggs. In this context, the pH inside the digestive tract is an important physiological feature as it can markedly influence the digestive process as well as interfere with Leishmania development in ...
Humeres Eduardo - - 2008
In this work, the acid cleavage at 25 degrees C in 20% v/v aqueous ethanol of a series of analogues of piperidine dithiocarbamate X(C2H4)2NCS2(-) (X = CH2, CHCH3, NH, NCH3, S, O) was studied. The pH-rate profiles were obtained in the range of H(o)-5 and pH 5. They all presented ...
Tsai Chia-Feng - - 2008
Despite recent advances in instrumentation and analytical strategies for identification and quantitation of protein phosphorylation, a highly specific enrichment protocol is still a challenge in large-scale studies. Here, we report a simple pH/acid control method that addresses the poor specificity seriously criticized in IMAC. Detailed evaluation of the capture and ...
Gössner Anita S - - 2008
A moderately acid-tolerant, malodorous bacterium, strain FP, was isolated from peat that had a pore water pH of c. 4.2. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of FP was closely related to that of acetogens Clostridium drakei, Clostridium scatologenes, and Clostridium carboxidivorans. The DNA-DNA reassociation values obtained with DNA from FP ...
López-Nicolás José Manuel - - 2008
Whether or not (E)-resveratrol can be used as a functional ingredient in foods depends on its structure at different concentrations and pH values. For this reason, the aggregation state of (E)-resveratrol at acidic and basic pH is investigated here for the first time. The data show that (E)-resveratrol forms aggregates ...
Wood Hannah L - - 2008
Ocean acidification is the lowering of pH in the oceans as a result of increasing uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is entering the oceans at a greater rate than ever before, reducing the ocean's natural buffering capacity and lowering pH. Previous work on the biological consequences of ocean ...
Hakamada Sayaka - - 2008
Cytochrome c(552) (PH c(552)) from moderately thermophilic Hydrogenophilus thermoluteolus exhibits stability intermediate between those of cytochrome c(552) (HT c(552)) from thermophilic Hydrogenobacter thermophilus and cytochrome c(551) (PA c(551)) from mesophilic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To understand the mechanism of stabilization of PH c(552), we introduced mutations into PH c(552) at five sites, ...
Zhao He - - 2008
Humic acid (HA) was extracted and separated into different molecular weight (MW) fractions, then coagulated by aluminum chloride and polyaluminum chloride (PACl). The removal of disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors and the aluminum speciation variation of the coagulants were investigated in detail. In particular, the role of aluminum speciation in the ...
Obolensky Alexa - - 2008
Multiple linear regression models were used to examine relationships between water quality, treatment, and disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in Information Collection Rule field data. Finished water models were specified using a cross-validation approach based on data for 225 free chlorine treatment plants. Turbidity, bromide, temperature, alkalinity, total organic carbon, ultraviolet ...
Park Su Jung - - 2008
The layers of keratinocytes form an acid mantle on the surface of the skin. Herein, we investigated the effects of acidic pH on the membrane current and [Ca(2+)](c) of human primary keratinocytes from foreskins and human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). Acidic extracellular pH (pH(e)</= 5.5) activated outwardly rectifying Cl(-) current ...
Fukuda Masakazu - - 2008
The molecular mechanism by which nascent HDL forms via the interaction of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and transmembrane ABCA1 is poorly understood. Here, because ABCA1 has been reported to localize to acidic intracellular compartments, including the Golgi and endosome, we studied the interaction of apoA-I with model membranes under acidic conditions. ...
Vandal Omar H - - 2008
Acidification of the phagosome is considered to be a major mechanism used by macrophages against bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Mtb blocks phagosome acidification, but interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) restores acidification and confers antimycobacterial activity. Nonetheless, it remains unclear whether acid kills Mtb, whether the intrabacterial pH of any pathogen falls when ...
Paslawski Janice C - - 2009
Naphthenic acids are a complex mixture of organic compounds which naturally occur in crude oil. Low molecular weight components of the naphthenic acids are known to be toxic in aquatic environments and there is a need to better understand the factors controlling the kinetics of their biodegradation. In this study, ...
Backhaus Claudia - - 2008
The tryptophan metabolites kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, anthranilic, 3-hydroxyanthranilic and 3-methoxyanthranilic acids were compared with regard to diazotation by .NO or NO+, using three different donors, nitrite at pH 5, PAPA-NONOate at pH 7.4 and NO+SbF(6)- at pH 2.0. With all three sources of NO species, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid were readily ...
Knorr Veronika - - 2008
Two types of acid-degradable nonviral gene carriers, OEI-MK and OEI-BAA, were synthesized by polymerizing oligoethylenimine of 800 Da (OEI800) with the pH-sensitive acetone ketal cross-linker 2,2-bis(N-maleimidoethyloxy) propane (MK) or the 4-methoxybenzaldehyde bisacrylate acetal cross-linker 1,1-bis-(2-acryloyloxy ethoxy)-[4-methoxy-phenyl]methane) (BAA). Corresponding acid-insensitive counterparts (OEI-BM and LT-OEI-HD) were synthesized as well, representing control polymers. ...
Feng Xiaohai - - 2010
The production of propionic acid by Propionibacterium freudenreichii CCTCC M207015 was investigated in a 7.5-l stirred-tank fermentor. Batch fermentations by P. freudenreichii CCTCC M207015 at various pH values ranging from 5.5 to 7.0 were studied. Based on the analysis of the time course of specific cell growth rate (mu (x)) ...
Valinoti Ana Carolina - - 2008
This study evaluated the effects of acidic medicines (Dimetapp and Claritin), under pH-cycling conditions, on the surface degradation of four composite resins (microhybrid: TPH, Concept, Opallis and Nanofilled: Supreme). Thirty disc-shaped specimens ([symbol: see text] = 5.0 mm/thickness = 2.0 mm) of each composite were randomly assigned to 3 groups ...
Feng Leiyu - - 2009
The effects of solids retention time (SRT) and temperature on waste activated sludge (WAS) hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation were investigated in a series of continuous-flow reactors at pH 10. The experimental results showed that the increase of either SRT or temperature benefited the hydrolysis of WAS and ...
Namani Trishool - - 2008
The first forms of cellular life required a source of amphiphilic compounds capable of assembling into stable boundary structures. Membranes composed of fatty acids have been proposed as model systems of primitive membranes, but their bilayer structure is stable only within a narrow pH range and low ionic strength. They ...
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