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Huang Sheng-Teng - - 2011
This study aimed to assess the potential anti-angiogenic mechanism of Phyllanthus urinaria (P. urinaria) and characterize the major compound in P. urinaria that exerts anti-angiogenic effect. The water extract of P. urinaria and Ellagic Acid were used to evaluate the anti-angiogenic effect in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in chicken embryo and ...
Hinz Marty - - 2011
THE MONOAMINES SEROTONIN AND DOPAMINE ARE KNOWN TO EXIST IN TWO SEPARATE STATES: the endogenous state and the competitive inhibition state. The presence of the competitive inhibition state has been known to science for many years, but from a functional standpoint it has been noted in the literature as being ...
Krammer Julia - - 2011
Understanding the mechanisms of long chain fatty acid (LCFA) uptake in hepatic cells is of high medical importance to treat and to prevent fatty liver disease (FLD). ACSs (Acyl-CoA synthetases) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the esterification of fatty acids (FA) with CoA. Recent studies suggest that ACS ...
Duncan Rebecca P - - 2011
A major goal of molecular evolutionary biology is to understand the fate and consequences of duplicated genes. In this context, aphids are intriguing because the newly sequenced pea aphid genome harbors an extraordinary number of lineage-specific gene duplications relative to other insect genomes. Though many of their duplicated genes may ...
Sathishkumar Kunju - - 2011
Exposure of pregnant mothers to elevated concentrations of circulating testosterone levels is associated with fetal growth restriction and delivery of small-for-gestational-age babies. We examined whether maternal testosterone crosses the placenta to directly suppress fetal growth or if it modifies placental function to reduce the capacity for transport of nutrients to ...
Ballatori Nazzareno - - 2011
The heteromeric organic solute transporter alpha-beta (Ostα-Ostβ) is expressed at relatively high levels on the basolateral membrane of enterocytes, where it plays a critical role in the intestinal absorption of bile acids and the enterohepatic circulation. However, this transporter is also expressed in nearly all human tissues, including those that ...
Lan Tian - - 2011
Mutations in the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (SLC10A2) block intestinal bile acid absorption, resulting in a compensatory increase in hepatic bile acid synthesis. Inactivation of the basolateral membrane bile acid transporter (OSTα-OSTβ) also impairs intestinal bile acid absorption, but hepatic bile acid synthesis was paradoxically repressed. We hypothesized that ...
Gran Petra - - 2011
The branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) leucine has been identified to be a key regulator of skeletal muscle anabolism. Activation of anabolic signalling occurs via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) through an undefined mechanism. System A and L solute carriers transport essential amino acids across plasma membranes; however it remains ...
Heather Lisa C LC Cardiac Metabolism Research Group, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. - - 2011
In the hypertrophied human heart, fatty acid metabolism is decreased and glucose utilisation is increased. We hypothesized that the sarcolemmal and mitochondrial proteins involved in these key metabolic pathways would mirror these changes, providing a mechanism to account for the modified metabolic flux measured in the human heart. Echocardiography was ...
Shriver Leah P LP Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California , San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California. 92093. - - 2011
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and a leading cause of neurological disability. The complex immunopathology and variable disease course of multiple sclerosis have limited effective treatment of all patients. Altering the metabolism of immune cells may be an attractive strategy to modify their ...
Hart Benjamin R - - 2011
The Lrp/AsnC family of transcription factors links gene regulation to metabolism in bacteria and archaea. Members of this family, collectively, respond to a wide range of amino acids as coregulators. In Escherichia coli, Lrp regulates over 200 genes directly and is well known to respond to leucine and, to a ...
Fang Yigang - - 2011
We report a study on encapsulation of various amino acids into gas-phase sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (NaAOT) reverse micelles, using electrospray ionization guided-ion-beam tandem mass spectrometry. Collision-induced dissociation of mass-selected reverse micellar ions with Xe was performed to probe structures of gas-phase micellar assemblies, identify solute-surfactant interactions, and determine preferential incorporation ...
Ogawa Jun - - 2011
4-Hydroxyisoleucine (HIL) found in fenugreek seeds has insulinotropic and anti-obesity effects and is expected to be a novel orally active drug for insulin-independent diabetes. Here, we show that the newly isolated strain Bacillus thuringiensis 2e2 and the closely related strain B. thuringiensis ATCC 35646 operate a novel metabolic pathway for ...
Kim Jeong-Eun - - 2011
Rheum undulatum root has been used traditionally in Korea for the treatment of dental diseases. The purpose of this study was to separate a fraction from R. undulatum showing anti-acid production activity against Streptococcus mutans biofilms and identify the main components in that fraction. Methanol extract of R. undulatum root ...
Zhao Tong - - 2010
Studies were conducted to determine the best concentration and exposure time for treatment of alfalfa seeds with levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella without adversely affecting seed germination. Alfalfa seeds inoculated with a five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella Typhimurium ...
Zhang Li - - 2010
The effects of tannic acid, which is present in many plants, on the structure of gluten proteins and the properties of dough and bread were studied. Tannic acid was added at levels of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 g kg(-1) during the dough-making process. The added tannic acid acted negatively on ...
Sharma Amrita - - 2010
Boswellic acids (BAs) are isolated from oleo gum resin of Boswellia serrata and are reported to be effective as anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, and anti-tumor. Pharmacokinetic studies of boswellic acid reveal its poor absorption through the intestine. The objective of the present study is to enhance bioavailability of boswellic acid by ...
Morais Mauro C C - - 2010
Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), found in many plants either in free-form or part of tannins, is known to possess anti-microbial, antioxidant and cytotoxic properties. NFκB regulates the expression of several genes involved in carcinogenesis. These include anti-apoptotic, cytokines and cell cycle-regulatory genes. It is well established that the transcriptional factor ...
Thompson Keith K Division of Applied Medicine, University of Aberdeen, UK. - - 2011
The acute-phase response (APR) to aminobisphosphonates is triggered by activation of γδ T cells, resulting in pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Statins prevent aminobisphosphonate-induced γδ T cell activation in vitro, raising the possibility that statins might prevent the APR in vivo. The objective of this study was to determine whether fluvastatin prevents ...
Lan Ping - - 2011
Novel anti-HIV-1 agents derived from betulinic acid have been greatly concerned. 3D-QSAR and molecular docking studies were applied to rationalize the structural requirements responsible for the anti-HIV activity of these compounds. The CoMFA and CoMSIA models resulted from 28 molecules gave r(cv)² values of 0.599 and 0.630, r² values of ...
Pereira Maria Izabel - - 2010
Successive aqueous and alkaline extraction of the thallus of the lichenized fungus Heterodermia obscurata provided a highly branched glucomannan fraction (GM), whose chemical structure was determined. This was based on monosaccharide composition, methylation, partial acid hydrolysis, and NMR spectroscopic analysis. It consisted of a main chain of (1→6)-linked α-D-mannopyranosyl units, ...
Xu Yichun - - 2010
Rosmarinic acid is a major phenylpropanoid isolated from Prunella vulgaris L., which is a composition of herbal tea for centuries in China. However, the anti-invasion activity on Ls174-T human colon carcinoma cells has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the anti-metastasis functions according to wound healing assay, adhesion ...
Willis Lauren M - - 2010
Walnuts are a rich source of essential fatty acids, including the polyunsaturated fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid. Essential fatty acids have been shown to modulate a number of cellular processes in the brain, including the activation state of microglia. Microglial activation can result in the generation of cytotoxic ...
Rho Ho Sik - - 2010
This study was conducted to examine the tyrosinase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory activities of kojic acid derivatives. A series of kojic acid derivatives containing thioether, sulfoxide, and sulfone linkages were synthesized. In the tyrosinase assay, kojyl thioether derivatives containing appropriate lipophilic alkyl chains (pentane, hexane, and cyclohexane) showed potent inhibitory activity. ...
Kwon Seung-Hwan - - 2010
Chlorogenic acid is a major polyphenolic component of many plants and beverages, and is particularly abundant in coffee. We evaluated the neuroprotective effects of chlorogenic acid on learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), a muscarinic antagonist, using the Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests. ...
Saltiel Alan R - - 2010
The omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects in humans. Now, Oh et al. (2010) demonstrate that the G protein-coupled receptor GPR120 is a receptor for omega-3 fatty acids on macrophages and fat cells. Activation of GPR120 by omega-3 fatty acids inhibits multiple inflammation cascades in macrophages and reverses ...
Moradi Alireza - - 2010
A series of 2-phenoxynicotinic acid hydrazides were synthesized and evaluated for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Several compounds having an unsubstituted phenyl/4-pyridyl or C-4 methoxy substituent on the terminal phenyl ring showed moderate to high analgesic or anti-inflammatory activity in comparison to mefenamic acid as the reference drug. The compounds ...
Lee Ji Yun - - 2011
Clerodendron trichotomum leaves and Rumex aquatica herbs are used as a folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, but their active ingredients are not known until now. We isolated caffeic acid and phenylpropanoid glycosides, 1-O-caffeoyl glycoside and acteoside [β-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) ethyl-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→3)-β-d-(4-O-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside] from their ethylacetate fractions, respectively, and evaluated their anti-asthmatic ...
Mohamed Riyaz - - 2010
The halo 6-fatty acid esters of L-ascorbic acid 3a, 3b and 6-fatty acid esters of L-ascorbic acid 5a-g were achieved from L-ascorbic acid 1. Compounds 3a, 3b and 5a-g were evaluated for anti-oxidant, anti-lipid peroxidation, and secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) inhibition in vitro, and sPLA(2) induced mouse paw edema. All ...
Rodrigues Hosana Gomes - - 2010
The high ingestion of oleic (OLA) and linoleic (LNA) acids by Western populations, the presence of inflammatory diseases in these populations, and the importance of neutrophils in the inflammatory process led us to investigate the effects of oral ingestion of unesterified OLA and LNA on rat neutrophil function. Pure OLA ...
Sakuma Satoru - - 2010
Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to exhibit a number of therapeutic effects in animal models and patients, such as anti-hypertensive, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-arteriosclerotic, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-diabetic effects. However, the underlying mechanism is not well-characterized. In the present study, the effects of cis(c)9, trans(t)11-CLA on the differentiation of mouse ...
Andrews Philip C - - 2011
Bismuth(III) complexes of NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs) and substituted benzoic acids (o-methoxybenzoic acid, m-methoxybenzoic acid, o-nitrobenzoic acid, 3,5-diacetamidobenzoic acid, and 5-[(R/S)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl carbamoyl]-2-pyridine carboxylic acid) have been synthesised and fully characterised. Two new bis-carboxylato bismuth complexes have been characterised by single crystal X-ray diffraction, namely [PhBi(o-MeOC(6)H(4)CO(2))(2)(bipy)]·0.5EtOH (bipy=2,2'-bipyridine) and [PhBi(C(9)H(11)N(2)O(3)CO(2))(2)(H(2)O)]·6H(2)O. All ...
Cai Ying - - 2011
Different extracts of Rhodobryum giganteum Par. were screened with mice model of acute myocardial hypoxia induced by isoproterenol and pituitrin, eight compounds, i.e. p-hydroxycinnamic acid, caffeic acid-4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, salicin, 7,8-dihydroxy coumarin, menthol, allantoin, palmitic acid, palmitamide were isolated and identified from the active fraction, among which p-hydroxycinnamic acid and 7,8-dihydroxy coumarin ...
Ma Chao-Mei - - 2010
New derivatives of caffeic acid and quinic acid were synthesized and their anti-fungal and inhibitory activities on fungal 1,3-β-glucan synthase were determined in comparison with those of the corresponding chlorogenic acid derivatives. All the chlorogenic, quinic and caffeic acid derivatives that were coupled with an H(2)N-orn-4-(octyloxy) aniline group (1, 1b ...
Park S Y - - 2010
Placental extracts (PE) have been used for years as a folk remedy in Asian countries. PE mediates alleviation of menopausal symptoms, wound healing, liver regeneration and anti-inflammatory responses. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of PE on rats exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The composition of amino acids, sugars ...
Bannenberg Gerard - - 2010
A new genus of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) which include several families of distinct local mediators (lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins) are actively involved in the clearance and regulation of inflammatory exudates to permit restoration of tissue homeostasis. Classic lipid mediators that are temporally regulated are formed from arachidonic acid, ...
Kala Balasubiramanian Kamatchi - - 2010
Three accessions of the under-utilized legume itching bean (Mucuna pruriens var. pruriens) were analysed for proximate composition, mineral profiles, vitamins (niacin and ascorbic acid), fatty acid profiles, amino acid profiles of total seed protein, in vitro protein digestibility and certain anti-nutritional factors. All three accessions of M. pruriens var. pruriens ...
Hensley Kenneth - - 2010
Lanthionine (Lan), the thioether analog of cystine, is a natural but nonproteogenic amino acid thought to form naturally in mammals through promiscuous reactivity of the transsulfuration enzyme cystathionine-beta-synthase (CbetaS). Lanthionine exists at appreciable concentrations in mammalian brain, where it undergoes aminotransferase conversion to yield an unusual cyclic thioether, lanthionine ketimine ...
Corbett Stephanie - - 2010
Few studies have investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of ellagic acid and no published studies have examined the effects of ellagic acid in combination with anesthetic adjuvants. In this study, 54 Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of six groups: (1) vehicle; (2) ketorolac and vehicle; (3) meloxicam and vehicle; (4) ...
Bae Ji-Young - - 2010
Ellagic acid, a polyphenol compound present in berries and pomegranate, has received attention as an agent that may have potential bioactivities preventing chronic diseases. This study examined photoprotective effects of ellagic acid on collagen breakdown and inflammatory responses in UV (ultraviolet)-B irradiated human skin cells and hairless mice. Ellagic acid ...
Huang Li-Jing - - 2010
Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd., as a pharmaceutical supplement, is widely used in northern China to treat respiratory diseases. Our previous studies showed the ethanol extract of P. bretschneideri had significant anti-inflammatory activity. To isolate and identify the active ingredients, the ethanol extract was separated into petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and ...
Mastrofrancesco Arianna - - 2010
Azelaic acid (AzA), a nine-carbon dicarboxylic acid, is an agent for the topical treatment of acne. It has also been shown to be effective in rosacea; however, the mechanism of action has not been clarified. Because inflammation is a common feature of both conditions, we investigated the effects of azelaic ...
Davis Erica C - - 2010
Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation is a common sequelae of inflammatory dermatoses that tends to affect darker skinned patients with greater frequency and severity. Epidemiological studies show that dyschromias, including postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, are among the most common reasons darker racial/ethnic groups seek the care of a dermatologist. The treatment of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation should ...
Kosina Pavel - - 2010
Macleaya cordata (plume poppy) is a source of bioactive compounds, mainly isoquinoline alkaloids which are used in phytopreparations with anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. In this study, the alkaloids sanguinarine, chelerythrine, their dihydro derivatives, protopine and allocryptopine and phenolics, gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, m-hydroxybenzoic, gentisic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids were ...
Balvers Michiel G J - - 2010
n-3 PUFAs have beneficial health effects which are believed to be partly related to their anti-inflammatory properties, however the exact mechanisms behind this are unknown. One possible explanation could be via their conversion to N-acyl ethanolamines (NAEs), which are known to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Using fatty acid precursors we showed ...
Shen Diandian - - 2010
Oregano (Origanum spp.), a popular herb in western and Middle Eastern cuisine, was reported to show anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo but without any information as to the compounds responsible, whether the plants were authenticated or only contained true Origanum spp. Using a wide range of botanically authenticated ...
Takeda Yoshinori - - 2010
A morroniside cinnamic acid conjugate was prepared and evaluated on E-selectin mediated cell-cell adhesion as an important role in inflammatory processes. 7-O-Cinnamoylmorroniside exhibited excellent anti-inflammatory activity (IC(50)=49.3 microM) by inhibiting the expression of E-selectin; further, it was more active than another cinnamic-acid-conjugated iridoid glycoside (harpagoside; IC(50)=88.2 microM), 7-O-methylmorroniside, and morroniside ...
Mokale Santosh N - - 2010
A series of 3-(4,6-disubtituted-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-yl) propanoic acid derivatives has been synthesized by condensation of thiourea, 5-(4-subtituted phenyl)-5-oxopentanoic acid and substituted aldehyde. The synthesized compounds were screened for their anti-inflammatory activity using rat paw edema method. Most of the compounds from the series showed significant (p <0.05) anti-inflammatory activity.
Nakanishi Masako - - 2010
Increased production of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in sensory neurons is implicated in inflammatory pain. The inflammatory site is acidic due to proton release from infiltrating inflammatory cells. Acid activation of peripheral nociceptors relays pain signals to the CNS. Here, we examined whether acid activated the transient receptor potential vanilloid ...
Kim Cinoo - - 2010
To evaluate the inhibitory effect of chlorogenic acid on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a rat model. Intraperitoneal injection of chlorogenic acid (10 mg/kg) was initiated one day prior to laser photocoagulation and continued for eight days. Eyes were removed 14 days after laser photocoagulation. Fluorescein angiography was employed at ...
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