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Schubert Mitchell L - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review summarizes the past year's literature regarding the regulation of gastric exocrine and endocrine secretion, both basic science and clinical. RECENT FINDINGS: Gastric acid secretion is an elaborate and dynamic process that is regulated by neural (efferent and afferent), hormonal (e.g. gastrin), and paracrine (e.g. histamine, ...
Singer Dustin - - 2011
Neutral amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family are expressed at the apical membrane of kidney and/or small intestine, where they (re-)absorb amino acids into the body. In this review we present the results concerning the dependence of their apical expression with their association to partner proteins. We will in particular ...
Van Anholt R D - - 2011
In previous studies in freshwater tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), dietary supplementation with arachidonic acid (ArA; 20:4n - 6) had considerable, opposing effects on the main ion-transporting enzyme Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in gills and kidneys and changed the release of osmoregulatory hormones, such as cortisol. The present study was performed to assess the influence of dietary ...
Mahalingam Alamelu - - 2011
In conjunction with the routine role of delivering the active ingredient, carefully designed drug delivery vehicles can also provide ancillary functions that augment the overall efficacy of the system. Inspired by the ability of the cervicovaginal mucus to impede the movement of HIV virions at acidic pH, we have engineered ...
Skowrońska Marta - - 2012
Ammonia is a neurotoxin involved in the pathogenesis of neurological conditions associated with hyperammonemia, including hepatic encephalopathy, a condition associated with acute--(ALF) or chronic liver failure. This article reviews evidence that apart from directly affecting the metabolism and function of the central nervous system cells, ammonia influences the passage of ...
Kolhatkar Vidula - - 2012
A prodrug approach that employs the human apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter (hASBT) for absorption requires a recognition moiety for hASBT. Bile acids are natural ligands for hASBT, but are hormones with high molecular weight, such that a recognition moiety that is not a bile acid may be advantageous. ...
van den Akker Chris H P - - 2011
Human fetal metabolism is largely unexplored. Understanding how a healthy fetus achieves its fast growth rates could eventually play a pivotal role in improving future nutritional strategies for premature infants. To quantify specific fetal amino acid kinetics, eight healthy pregnant women received prior to elective cesarean section at term, continuous ...
Kusinski L C LC Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, School of Biomedicine, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester M13 9WL, - - 2011
Deletion of the placental-specific P0 transcript of the insulin-like growth factor gene (Igf2) reduces placental growth from early pregnancy onwards. In Igf2 P0 knockout fetuses (P0), maternofetal flux of (14)C-methylaminoisobutyric acid ((14)C-MeAIB) mediated by system A amino acid transporter activity is increased at embryonic day 16 (E16), but this stimulation ...
Marion Carolyn - - 2011
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and results in over 1 million deaths each year worldwide. Asymptomatic colonization of the airway precedes disease, and acquisition of carbohydrates from the host environment is necessary for bacterial survival. We previously demonstrated that S. pneumoniae cleaves sialic acid from human ...
Vanderpool Carin K - - 2011
The bacterial small RNA GcvB has been known as a translational repressor of mRNAs encoding amino acid transporters and has been postulated to limit uptake of unnecessary amino acids under nutrient-rich conditions. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Sharma et al. (2011) provide evidence for a much broader role for GcvB ...
McConathy Jonathan - - 2011
Radiohalogenated α-amino acids are a diverse and useful class tumor imaging agents suitable for positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography. These tracers target the increased rates of amino acid transport exhibited by many tumor cells. The most established clinical use for radiolabeled amino acids is imaging primary ...
Miyaji Takaaki - - 2011
Sialin, the protein coded by SLC17A5, is responsible for membrane potential (Δψ)-driven aspartate and glutamate transport into synaptic vesicles as well as H(+) /sialic acid co-transport in lysosomes. Rodent sialin mutants harboring the mutations associated with Salla disease in humans did not transport aspartate and glutamate whereas H(+) /sialic acid ...
Jonker Johan W - - 2011
Cholestatic liver disorders encompass hepatobiliary diseases of diverse etiologies characterized by the accumulation of bile acids, bilirubin and cholesterol as the result of impaired secretion of bile. Members of the nuclear receptor (NR) family of ligand-modulated transcription factors are implicated in the adaptive response to cholestasis. NRs coordinately regulate bile ...
Peura Lauri Tobias - - 2011
Central nervous system (CNS) drug delivery is a major challenge in drug development because the blood-brain barrier (BBB) efficiently restricts the entry of drug molecules into the CNS at sufficient amounts. The brain uptake of poorly penetrating drugs could be improved by utilizing the transporters at the BBB with prodrug ...
Kimura Osamu - - 2011
We investigated whether the uptake of triclopyr (3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) and dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) across the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells was mediated via proton-linked monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCTs). The uptake of triclopyr from the apical membranes was fast, pH-, temperature-, and concentration dependent, required metabolic energy to proceed, ...
Mahmmoud Yasser A - - 2011
Nigella sativa seed oil was found to contain a modulator of Na,K-ATPase. Separation analyses combined with (1)H NMR and GCMS identified the inhibitory fraction as a mixture of oleic and linoleic acids. These two fatty acids are specifically concentrated in several medicinal plant oils, and have particularly been implicated in ...
Melton Elaina M - - 2011
The trafficking of fatty acids across the membrane and into downstream metabolic pathways requires their activation to CoA thioesters. Members of the fatty acid transport protein/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (FATP/Acsvl) family are emerging as key players in the trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into the cell and in intracellular ...
Denstadli Vegard - - 2011
An increasingly larger proportion of the oils used in diets for farmed fish are plant derived and rapeseed oil is most commonly used. Despite high dietary lipid levels and a marked change in lipid composition, the transport and metabolic fate of absorbed fatty acids is not fully understood in teleost ...
Troiber Christina - - 2011
Polymer polydispersity, random conjugation of functional groups and poorly understood structure activity relationships have constantly hampered the progress in the development of nucleic acid carriers. This review focuses on the synthetic concepts for generation of precise polymers, site-specific conjugation strategies and multifunctional conjugates for nucleic acid transport. Dendrimers, defined peptide ...
Digel Margarete - - 2011
The function of membrane proteins in long chain fatty acid transport is controversial. The acyl-CoA synthetase FATP4 has been suggested to facilitate fatty acid uptake indirectly by its enzymatic activity, or directly by transport across the plasma membrane. Here, we investigated the function of FATP4 in basal and insulin mediated ...
Strauss Kevin A - - 2011
Striatal degeneration from glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (glutaric aciduria type 1, GA1) is associated with cerebral formation and entrapment of glutaryl-CoA and its derivatives that depend on cerebral lysine influx. In 2006 we designed a lysine-free study formula enriched with arginine to selectively block lysine transport across cerebral endothelia and thereby ...
Bustos Ana Yanina - - 2011
To study whether an active bile acid (BA) efflux occurs in Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1098 as well as the nature (ATP or proton motive force [PMF] mediated primary transport) of the BA extrusion mechanism. BAs are powerful detergents which disorganize the lipid bilayer structure of cellular membranes. Specific bile resistance ...
Montagnani Marco - - 2011
Due to the importance of intestinal transport in pharmacological studies and the emerging role of intestinal signaling activity in the gut-liver axis, we have developed a new method to investigate intestinal transport and liver signaling using cell and serum free mesenteric perfusion system in the rat. The method regarding bile ...
Wen Jin-Hua - - 2011
The aim of this study was to explore potential herb-drug interaction between danshensu or ursolic acid and rosuvastatin. Compared to the control group given rosuvastatin alone, the concurrent use of danshensu (46 mg/kg) or ursolic acid (80 mg/kg) prior to the oral administration of rosuvastatin (100 mg/kg) increased the systemic exposure of rosuvastatin ...
Li Tian - - 2011
Plant nodulin-26 intrinsic proteins (NIPs) are members of the aquaporin superfamily that serve as multifunctional transporters of uncharged metabolites. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a specific NIP pore subclass, known as the NIP II proteins, are represented by AtNIP5;1 and AtNIP6;1, which encode channel proteins expressed in roots and leaf nodes respectively ...
Yoshizawa-Fujita Masahiro - - 2011
An ionic liquid having a hydroxyl group, choline bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([N(111(2OH))][N(Tf)(2)]), was synthesized to investigate the effect of hydroxyl groups on the proton transport. 1,1,1-Trifluoro-N-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methanesulfoneamide (HN(Tf)(2)) as a proton source was mixed with the choline derivative at various molar ratios. Their thermal properties, viscosities, and ionic conductivities were investigated. [N(111(2OH))][N(Tf)(2)] showed ...
Sharma Cynthia M - - 2011
GcvB is one of the most highly conserved Hfq-associated small RNAs in Gram-negative bacteria and was previously reported to repress several ABC transporters for amino acids. To determine the full extent of GcvB-mediated regulation in Salmonella, we combined a genome-wide experimental approach with biocomputational target prediction. Comparative pulse expression of ...
Uwai Yuichi - - 2011
Several kinds of food have been shown to influence the absorption and metabolism of drugs, although there is little information about their effect on renal excretion of drugs. In this study, we performed uptake experiments using Xenopus laevis oocytes to assess the inhibitory effects of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and ...
Carey Anne-Marie AM Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU, - - 2011
• Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. • Arsenic species were delivered through cut ...
Alves Sheila - - 2011
Nickel speciation was studied in the xylem sap of Alyssum serpyllifolium ssp. lusitanicum, a Ni-hyperaccumulator endemic to the serpentine soils of northeast Portugal. The xylem sap was collected from plants growing in its native habitat and characterized in terms of carboxylic and amino acids content. The speciation of nickel was ...
Roqueta-Rivera Manuel - - 2011
An omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is enriched in testicular membrane phospholipids, but its function is not well understood. The Fads2 gene encodes an enzyme required for the endogenous synthesis of DHA. Using Fads2-null mice (Fads2-/-), we found in our preceding studies that DHA deficiency caused the arrest of ...
Kimura Osamu - - 2011
The intestinal absorption mechanism of domoic acid (DA) was investigated using Caco-2 cells. DA is a tricarboxylic amino acid that contains a glutamic acid moiety, and causes deficits in short-term memory by binding to glutamate receptors as an agonist of glutamic acid. Caco-2 cell monolayers cultured on permeable membranes were ...
da Silva Tatiana Claro - - 2011
The human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (hASBT, SLC10A2) plays a critical role in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, as well as in cholesterol homeostasis. ASBT reclaims bile acids from the distal ileum via active sodium co-transport, in a multistep process, orchestrated by key residues in exofacial loop regions, ...
Bröer Angelika - - 2011
Amino acid uptake in the intestine and kidney is mediated by a variety of amino acid transporters. To understand the role of epithelial neutral amino acid uptake in whole body homeostasis, we analyzed mice lacking the apical broad-spectrum neutral (0) amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (Slc6a19). A general neutral aminoaciduria was ...
Bröer Stefan - - 2011
Amino acids are essential building blocks of all mammalian cells. In addition to their role in protein synthesis, amino acids play an important role as energy fuels, precursors for a variety of metabolites and as signalling molecules. Disorders associated with the malfunction of amino acid transporters reflect the variety of ...
de Andrade Bruna B - - 2011
Ent-kaur-16(17)-en-19-oic acid (kaurenoic acid, KA) is a tetracyclic diterpene prototype for natural anticaries agents. Six KA derivatives were prepared and their antimicrobial activity against the main microorganisms involved in the caries process evaluated. The sodium salt of KA (KA-Na) was the most active, displaying very promising MIC values for most ...
Li Qun - - 2011
To investigate policosanol absorption by brush border membrane (BBM), metabolism in CaCo-2 enterocytes, and transport of policosanol metabolites across the basolateral membrane (BLM). It was hypothesized that policosanol is partially oxidized into fatty acids and then is incorporated into other lipids. Policosanol was emulsified with phosphatidylcholine in the culture medium. ...
Cutler Joshua I - - 2011
Polyvalent oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates possess several unique emergent properties, including enhanced cellular uptake, high antisense bioactivity, and nuclease resistance, which hypothetically originate from the dense packing and orientation of oligonucleotides on the surface of the nanoparticle. In this Communication, we describe a new class of polyvalent nucleic acid nanostructures (PNANs), which ...
Kuduk Scott D - - 2011
A series of benzothiophene methyl amines were examined in an effort to identify non-amidine chemotypes with reduced polypharmacology from existing leads with the goal of finding potent ASIC3 channel blockers to advance the therapeutic evaluation of ASIC3 inhibition.
Price Daniel R G - - 2011
In insects some of the most ecologically important symbioses are nutritional symbioses that provide hosts with novel traits and thereby facilitate exploitation of otherwise inaccessible niches. One such symbiosis is the ancient obligate intracellular symbiosis of aphids with the γ-proteobacteria, Buchnera aphidicola. While the nutritional basis of the aphid/Buchnera symbiosis ...
Oppedisano Francesca - - 2011
The neutral amino acid transporter B°-like from rat kidney, previously reconstituted in liposomes, was identified as B°AT1 by a specific antibody. Collectrin was present in the brush-border extract but not in functionally active proteoliposomes, indicating that it was not required for the transport function. Neutral amino acids behaved as competitive ...
Ovesen Rikke Gleerup - - 2011
Cyclotides are bioactive, stable mini-proteins produced in high amounts in Violaceae and Rubiaceae with promising pharmaceutical and agrochemical applications. Environmental issues must be addressed before large-scale plant cultivation of cyclotides for pharmaceutical or pesticidal purposes can commence. The objective of the present study was to investigate sorption of the cyclotide ...
Pękala Jolanta - - 2011
L-Carnitine is an endogenous molecule involved in fatty acid metabolism, biosynthesized within the human body using amino acids: L-lysine and L-methionine, as substrates. L-Carnitine can also be found in many foods, but red meats, such as beef and lamb, are the best choices for adding carnitine into the diet. Good ...
Chiba Shoetsu - - 2011
Renal excretion is an important elimination pathway for substances associated with forensic toxicology, such as medicines, agricultural chemicals, and industrial chemicals. This study aimed to elucidate the renal elimination pathway of substances using culture cells stably expressing the human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) gene. Substances tested were diazepam, triazolam, ...
Biondo Thais Maíra A - - 2011
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. (Asteraceae) is a species native to South America used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and liver diseases, kidney disorders and diabetes. Previous studies from this laboratory confirmed the antacid and antiulcer activities of the plant aqueous extract (AE) in rat and mouse ...
Khnykin Denis - - 2011
Skin epidermis is an active site of lipid synthesis. The intercellular lipids of human stratum corneum (SC) are unique in composition and quite different from the lipids found in most biological membranes. The three major lipids in the SC are free fatty acids, cholesterol and ceramides. Fatty acids can be ...
Pinto Daniela - - 2011
Aims:  To analyse VBNC state induction in Escherichia coli and resuscitation of VBNC suspensions in several conditions. Methods and Results:  VBNC were induced in four media, two temperatures and six strains but only cells produced at 4°C were able to resuscitate. Resuscitation of 14 VBNC suspensions obtained in several conditions ...
Brown Hannah K - - 2011
The anti-resorptive agent zoledronic acid inhibits key enzymes in the mevalonate pathway, disrupting post-translational modification and thereby correct protein localization and function. Inhibition of prenylation may also be responsible for the reported anti-tumour effects of zoledronic acid, but the specific molecular targets have not been identified. Cenp-F/mitosin, a kinetochore-associated protein ...
Cheng Yanli - - 2011
To study the characteristics of precipitation in eastern China, an automatic sampler was used to collect rainwater samples from 19 precipitation events at Mangdang Mountain, Nanping City, Fujiang Province, in the spring of 2009. We used ion chromatography to analyze the ionic components and concentrations, and inductively coupled plasma mass ...
Bekhit Amany - - 2011
The roles of OmpC and OmpF in acidic resistance (AR) were examined. When ompC and ompF were deleted, AR was decreased. The decreased level of AR seen in the mutant that was deficient in ompC and ompF was elevated by the addition of glutamate, but not by the addition of ...
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