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Boudko Dmitri Y - - 2012
Two protein families that represent major components of essential amino acid transport in insects have been identified. They are annotated as the SLC6 and SLC7 families of transporters according to phylogenetic proximity to characterized amino acid transporters (HUGO nomenclature). Members of these families have been identified as important apical and ...
Gansäuer Andreas - - 2012
Esters are of widespread use for protecting carboxylic acids in organic synthesis. However, methods to cleave esters often employ harsh conditions. Herein, we report a new and mild method for the reductive cleavage of 2,2,2-trichloroethylesters (TCE esters). Our radical method employs Cp(2)TiCl as an electron transfer catalyst and Zn dust ...
Hohenester Simon - - 2012
Human cholangiocytes are continuously exposed to millimolar levels of hydrophobic bile salt monomers. We recently hypothesized that an apical biliary HCO3- umbrella might prevent the protonation of biliary glycine-conjugated bile salts and uncontrolled cell entry of the corresponding bile acids, and that defects in this biliary HCO3- umbrella might predispose ...
Xing-run Wang - - 2012
With the building wastes contaminated by chromium in Haibei Chemical Plan in China as objects, we studied the contents of total Cr and Cr (VI) of different sizes, analyzed the effect of 6 different washing agents, discussed the removal mechanisms of 6 different washing agents for Cr in various forms, ...
Wu Ligeng - - 2012
The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy on smear layer removal of 4 decalcifying agents: 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 20% citric acid, BioPure MTAD, and SmearClear. Forty-five single-rooted human teeth were used and prepared up to ProTaper F3. After each instrumentation, 1 mL of 3% NaOCl at ...
Bozkurt Selahattin - - 2011
Novel chiral calix[4]arene derivatives bearing amino alcohol moieties at the lower rim have been synthesized from the reaction of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene diester with various amino alcohols. The transport of amino acid esters (phenylglycine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan methyl esters hydrochloride) and mandelic acid were studied through chloroform bulk liquid membrane system using ...
Kimura Osamu - - 2011
Mechanisms of transcellular transport of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) across the small intestine were investigated using Caco-2 cells cultured on permeable membranes. The cell monolayers were incubated with MCPA, either from apical side at pH 6.0 or 7.4, or basolateral side at pH 7.4. The accumulation and apical-to-basolateral transport of MCPA ...
Smith Ewan St John - - 2011
Acid evokes pain by exciting nociceptors; the acid sensors are proton-gated ion channels that depolarize neurons. The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is exceptional in its acid insensitivity, but acid sensors (acid-sensing ion channels and the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 ion channel) in naked mole-rat nociceptors are similar to those in ...
Cui Guiying - - 2011
Previous studies suggested that four transmembrane domains 5, 6, 11, 12 make the greatest contribution to forming the pore of the CFTR chloride channel. We used excised, inside-out patches from oocytes expressing CFTR with alanine-scanning mutagenesis in amino acids in TM6 and TM12 to probe CFTR pore structure with four ...
Slattery John M - - 2011
The fluoride ion affinities (FIAs) of 33 phosphenium ions with a range of substituents were calculated using ab inito and DFT methods. The use of these FIA data as a measure of the Lewis acidities of phosphenium ions is described and the FIAs of the species studied here are compared ...
Lin Ying-Hsuan YH Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , North Carolina, United States of - - 2012
Isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX), formed from the photooxidation of isoprene under low-NO(x) conditions, have recently been proposed as precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) on the basis of mass spectrometric evidence. In the present study, IEPOX isomers were synthesized in high purity (>99%) to investigate their potential to form SOA via ...
Ma Yilong - - 2011
The remarkable ability of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) to deliver cell-impermeable compounds into living cells makes them attractive transporters for use in biology and medicine. Despite their highly efficient cellular uptake, CPPs consisting of natural amino acids always suffer from degradation and endosomal entrapment, thereby greatly limiting their application in vivo. ...
Singh Thakur Uttam - - 2011
The purpose of the study was to examine whether arachidonic acid inhibits vascular Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in pulmonary vasculature and if so, what are the mechanisms involved. Functional Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity was studied in terms of K(+)-induced relaxation in sheep pulmonary arterial rings contracted with K(+)-free solution and 5-HT. Arachidonic acid (10-100μM) caused ...
Roma Marcelo G - - 2011
UDCA (ursodeoxycholic acid) is the therapeutic agent most widely used for the treatment of cholestatic hepatopathies. Its use has expanded to other kinds of hepatic diseases, and even to extrahepatic ones. Such versatility is the result of its multiple mechanisms of action. UDCA stabilizes plasma membranes against cytolysis by tensioactive ...
Zhao Tong - - 2011
Surface contamination (skin and feathers) of broilers with Salmonella occurs primarily during growth and transportation. Immediately after transporting chickens, chicken cage doors were sprayed with a foam containing 3% levulinic acid plus 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Samples were collected for Salmonella assay after 45 min. Salmonella on cage doors ...
Lee Jong Jin - - 2011
PURPOSE: We evaluated new (111)In-labeled amino acid derivatives, in which the amino acids are conjugated with1,4,7,10-tetra-azacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,7-diacetic acid (DO2A) or 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (DO3A). METHODS: DOTA-aminoalanine (DOTA-A), DOTA-aminohomoalanine (DOTA-H), DOTA-lysine (DOTA-L), DO2A-alanine (DO2A-A), DO3A-alanine (DO3A-A) and DO3A-homoalanine (DO3A-H) were labeled with (111)In. In vitro cell uptake assays were performed ...
Dacquin J P - - 2011
Here we present the first application of pore-expanded SBA-15 in heterogeneous catalysis. Pore expansion over the range 6-14 nm confers a striking activity enhancement towards fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) synthesis from triglycerides (TAG), and free fatty acid (FFA), attributed to improved mass transport and acid site accessibility.
Blazquez Alba M G - - 2011
ABCG2 is involved in epithelial transport/barrier functions. Here we have investigated its ability to transport bile acids in liver and placenta. Cholylglycylamido fluorescein (CGamF) was exported by WIF-B9/R cells, which do not express BSEP. Sensitivity to typical inhibitors suggested that CGamF export was mainly mediated by ABCG2. In CHO cells, ...
Gilley Jennifer A - - 2011
Using a transgenic mouse (Mus musculus) in which nestin-expressing progenitors are labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein, we previously characterized the expression of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (GltI) and excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (Glast) on early neural progenitors in vivo. To address their functional role in this cell ...
Uwai Yuichi - - 2011
Kynurenic acid, a catabolite of tryptophan, is suggested to be involved in schizophrenia, and is known to be a uremic toxin, although there is little information about the mechanism of its disposition. In this study, we performed uptake experiment using Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system to examine the transport of ...
Erickson-Levendoski Elizabeth - - 2011
Objective. The vocal fold epithelium is routinely exposed to gastric contents, including acid and pepsin, during laryngopharyngeal reflux events. The epithelium may possess intrinsic defenses to reflux. The first objective of the current study was to examine whether vocal fold epithelial ion transport is one potential mechanism of defense to ...
Bozard B Renee - - 2011
Fumaric acid esters are used to treat psoriasis, an inflammatory skin disease characterized by keratinocyte proliferation. Inflammation and proliferation are hallmarks of retinal disease; hence, fumaric acid esters may have therapeutic value in retinal pathology. In diseased retinas, Müller glial cells (MCs) undergo reactive gliosis, a hyperproliferative state. MCs take ...
Zoncu Roberto R Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, - - 2011
The mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) protein kinase is a master growth regulator that is stimulated by amino acids. Amino acids activate the Rag guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases), which promote the translocation of mTORC1 to the lysosomal surface, the site of mTORC1 activation. We found that the vacuolar H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase ATPase (v-ATPase) ...
Ge Fengxia - - 2012
A nonarteriosclerotic cardiomyopathy is increasingly seen in obese patients. Seeking a rodent model, we studied cardiac histology, function, cardiomyocyte fatty acid uptake, and transporter gene expression in male C57BL/6J control mice and three obesity groups: similar mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and db/db and ob/ob mice. At sacrifice, all ...
Peng X J - - 2011
The production, use, and disposal of nanomaterials may inevitably lead to their appearance in water. With the development of new industries around nanomaterials, it seems necessary to be concerned about the transport of nanomaterials in the environment. In this paper, the transport of acid-treated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in porous media ...
Hillebrand Merle - - 2012
The neurodegenerative disease X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is characterized by the abnormal accumulation of very long chain fatty acids. Mutations in the gene encoding the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette half-transporter, adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), are the primary cause of X-ALD. To gain a better understanding of ALDP dysfunction, we searched for interaction partners ...
Sharma S K - - 2011
Authors' response: on sialic acid transport and utilization by Vibrio cholerae.
Kubeš Martin - - 2011
Arabidopsis ATP-binding cassette B4 (ABCB4) is a root-localised auxin efflux transporter with reported auxin uptake activity in low auxin concentrations. Results reported here demonstrate that ABCB4 is a substrate-activated regulator of cellular auxin levels. The contribution of ABCB4 to shootward auxin movement at the root apex increases with auxin concentration, ...
Bishop Andrew C - - 2011
Glycerophosphodiesters are the products of phospholipase-mediated deacylation of phospholipids. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a single gene, GIT1, encodes a permease responsible for importing glycerophosphodiesters, such as glycerophosphoinositol and glycerophosphocholine, into the cell. In contrast, the Candida albicans genome contains four open reading frames (ORFs) with a high degree of similarity to ...
Pan Xiaoyue - - 2012
Our knowledge of how the body absorbs triacylglycerols (TAG) from the diet and how this process is regulated has increased at a rapid rate in recent years. Dietary TAG are hydrolyzed in the intestinal lumen to free fatty acids (FFA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG), which are taken up by enterocytes from ...
Mottram Allan R - - 2011
Theories regarding the mechanism of intravenous fat emulsion for bupivacaine cardiotoxicity include creation of an intravascular lipid sink into which the cardiotoxic drug is sequestered, an improvement of impaired cardiac metabolism, and restoration of cardiomyocyte function by increasing intracellular calcium. However, work in this area is inconclusive and a more ...
Chiariello Carmine S - - 2012
Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) serve as structural components for membrane biogenesis and as primary energy sources during mitochondrial β-oxidation reactions. Hepatic LCFA uptake is complex, with characteristics suggestive of a dual-kinetic model manifested by rapid (carrier-assisted/facilitated) and delayed (passive diffusional) phases. Our previous work using mice deficient of the Iqgap2 ...
Arora Kashima - - 2011
Present study highlights the importance of RF sputtered NiO thin film deposited on platinum coated glass substrate (NiO/Pt/Ti/glass) as a potential matrix for the realization of highly sensitive and selective uric acid biosensor. Uricase has been immobilized successfully onto the surface of NiO matrix by physical adsorption technique. The prepared ...
Oka Shuntaro - - 2011
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the mechanisms of trans-1-amino-3-fluoro[1-(14)C]cyclobutanecarboxylic acid (anti-[(14)C]FACBC) transport by human-derived prostate cancer (PCa) cells and normal human prostatic epithelial cells (PrECs). METHODS: Using PCa cells (DU145, PC-3, LNCaP) and PrECs, we performed the following in vitro experiments: time-course, kinetics, competitive inhibition by synthetic/naturally occurring amino acids (AAs), exchange ...
Wahjudi Paulin N - - 2011
Cardiolipin (CL) is a unique phospholipid (PL) found in the mitochondria of mammalian cells. CL remodeling is accompanied by turnover of its fatty acid acyl groups. Abnormalities in CL remodeling have been found in Barth's syndrome, diabetes, and obesity. The objective of this study was to determine nonessential fatty acid ...
Kazantzis Melissa - - 2012
Uptake of long-chain fatty acids plays pivotal roles in metabolic homeostasis and human physiology. Uptake rates must be controlled in an organ-specific fashion to balance storage with metabolic needs during transitions between fasted and fed states. Many obesity-associated diseases, such as insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, cardiac lipotoxicity, and hepatic ...
Woyengo T A - - 2011
An experiment was conducted with piglets to determine the effect of dietary phytic acid supplementation on performance, electrophysiological properties of jejunum mounted in Ussing chambers, sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) protein expression in jejunum, and plasma glucose and Na levels. Sixteen piglets with an average initial BW of 7.40 ± ...
Ribardo Deborah A - - 2011
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of diarrheal disease in humans and an intestinal commensal in poultry and other agriculturally important animals. These zoonotic infections result in significant amounts of C. jejuni present in the food supply to contribute to disease in humans. We previously found that a transposon insertion ...
Azad Abul Kalam - - 2011
Aquaporins are integral membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of water and some small solutes across cellular membranes. X-ray crystallography of aquaporins indicates that four amino acids constitute an aromatic/arginine (ar/R) pore constriction known as the selectivity filter. On the basis of these four amino acids, tonoplast aquaporins called tonoplast ...
Kondo Mitsuyo - - 2011
H(+),K(+)-ATPase is a key enzyme in the process of gastric acid secretion, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been accepted as one of the most effective treatments for peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease. To discover a novel class of PPIs, the authors screened a low-molecular-weight compound library and identified ...
Farrell Tracy L - - 2011
Gastric absorption of feruloylquinic acid and di-O-caffeoylquinic acid analogs has never been investigated despite their potential contribution to the proposed beneficial health effects leading to reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Using a cultured gastric epithelial model, with an acidic apical pH, the relative permeability coefficients (P(app)) and metabolic fate ...
Bhavsar Shefalee K - - 2011
JAK2 (Janus kinase-2) is expressed in a wide variety of cells including tumor cells and contributes to the proliferation and survival of those cells. The gain of function mutation (V617F)JAK2 mutant is found in the majority of myeloproliferative diseases. Cell proliferation depends on the availability of amino acids. Concentrative cellular ...
Greupink Rick - - 2011
It has been reported that polymorphisms in the organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1 and SLCO1B1) result in decreased hepatic uptake of simvastatin carboxy acid, the active metabolite of simvastatin. This is not the case for fluvastatin and it has been hypothesized that for this drug other hepatic uptake pathways ...
Hueso Guillem - - 2011
Intracellular pH conditions many cellular systems but its mechanisms of regulation and perception are mostly unknown. We have identified two yeast genes important for tolerance to intracellular acidification caused by weak permeable acids. One corresponded to LEU2 and functions by removing the dependency of the leu2 mutant host strain on ...
Carew Michael W - - 2011
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein MRP1 (ABCC1) plays an important role in the cellular efflux of the high priority environmental carcinogen arsenic, as a triglutathione conjugate [As(GS)(3)]. Most mammalian cells can methylate arsenic to monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)). The trivalent ...
Zhao Zhijun - - 2011
The reactive uptake of NO(3) by particles containing four unsaturated fatty acid species was studied for the first time in a flow tube reactor coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). Using a mixed-phase relative rates technique, the reactive uptake coefficients, γ(part), were determined to be (0.27 ± 0.06) ...
Bernhardt Kristin - - 2011
The existence of a transport protein that imports cytosolic NAD(+) into peroxisomes has been controversially discussed for decades. Nevertheless, the biosynthesis of NAD(+) in the cytosol necessitates the import of NAD(+) into peroxisomes for numerous reduction/oxidation (redox) reactions. However, a gene encoding such a transport system has not yet been ...
Schubert Mitchell L - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review summarizes the past year's literature regarding the regulation of gastric exocrine and endocrine secretion, both basic science and clinical. RECENT FINDINGS: Gastric acid secretion is an elaborate and dynamic process that is regulated by neural (efferent and afferent), hormonal (e.g. gastrin), and paracrine (e.g. histamine, ...
Singer Dustin - - 2011
Neutral amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family are expressed at the apical membrane of kidney and/or small intestine, where they (re-)absorb amino acids into the body. In this review we present the results concerning the dependence of their apical expression with their association to partner proteins. We will in particular ...
Van Anholt R D - - 2011
In previous studies in freshwater tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), dietary supplementation with arachidonic acid (ArA; 20:4n - 6) had considerable, opposing effects on the main ion-transporting enzyme Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in gills and kidneys and changed the release of osmoregulatory hormones, such as cortisol. The present study was performed to assess the influence of dietary ...
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