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Brosché Mikael - - 2012
Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is linked to signalling in both developmental and stress responses. The level of ROS is controlled by both production and removal through various scavengers including ascorbic acid and glutathione. Here, the role of low ascorbic acid or glutathione concentrations was investigated on ozone-induced cell ...
Takemoto Yumi - - 2012
Functional roles of amino acids have increasingly become the focus of research. This paper summarizes amino acids that influence cardiovascular system via the brain of conscious rats. This paper firstly describes why amino acids are selected and outlines how the brain regulates blood pressure and regional blood flow. This section ...
Ibrahim Taghreed A - - 2012
A petroleum ether extract (PEE) and a methanolic extract (ME) of aerial parts of <em>Salvia bicolor </em>Desf were prepared, and their chemical compositions and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antimicrobial activities were evaluated. GC/MS analysis of the PEE revealed the presence of 20 compounds in the unsaponifiable matter, among which β-sitosterol ...
- - 2012
It is suggested that the pH of the bleaching gel may cause the 'enamel softening'.
Musharraf Syed Ghulam - - 2012
Microalgae have attracted major interest as a sustainable source for biodiesel production on commercial scale. This paper describes the screening of six microalgal species, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Scenedesmus acuminatus, Nannochloropsis sp., Anabaena sp., Chlorella sp. and Oscillatoria sp., isolated from fresh and marine water resources of southern Pakistan for biodiesel ...
De Tullio Mario C - - 2012
When considering the history of vitamin C, and the names given to this molecule in early days, the Latin proverb nomen est omen suddenly comes to mind. Around 1920, when Casimir Funk introduced the term Vitamin C to indicate the nutritional factor necessary to prevent the pathological state known as ...
Nagano Yumiko - - 2012
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) often cause gastrointestinal complications such as gastric ulcers and erosions. Recent studies on the pathogenesis have revealed that NSAIDs induce lipid peroxidation in gastric epithelial cells by generating superoxide in mitochondria, independently with cyclooxygenase inhibition and the subsequent prostaglandin deficiency. More recently, gastric hydrochloric acid (HCl) ...
Rege Sameera A - - 2012
Owing to the tendency of essential fatty acids (EFAs) to undergo autoxidation, their storage becomes a key problem. Generally, they are stabilized by synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ that are toxic in nature. Recently many studies were reported where these EFAs are stabilized by natural antioxidants. In the present study, curcuminoids ...
Salvador Jorge A R - - 2012
A new, straightforward and high yielding procedure to convert oleanolic acid derivatives into the corresponding δ-hydroxy-γ-lactones, by using the convenient oxidizing agent magnesium bis(monoperoxyphthalate) hexahydrate (MMPP) in refluxing acetonitrile, is reported. In addition, a two-step procedure for the preparation of oleanolic 12-oxo-28-carboxylic acid derivatives directly from Δ(12)-oleananes, without the need ...
Onyango Laura A - - 2012
The effect of temperature fluctuation is an important factor in bacterial growth especially for pathogens such as the staphylococci that have to remain viable during potentially harsh and prolonged transfer conditions between hosts. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. ...
Skaff Ojia - - 2012
Elevated MPO (myeloperoxidase) levels are associated with multiple human inflammatory pathologies. MPO catalyses the oxidation of Cl-, Br- and SCN- by H2O2 to generate the powerful oxidants hypochlorous acid (HOCl), hypobromous acid (HOBr) and hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) respectively. These species are antibacterial agents, but misplaced or excessive production is implicated ...
Wergeland S S Department of Neurology, Norwegian Multiple Sclerosis Competence Centre, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway. - - 2012
Results from epidemiological and uncontrolled intervention studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) suggest a beneficial disease-modifying effect of increased intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). To review the current evidence from animal studies and randomised controlled trials on the therapeutic effect of PUFAs in MS. We searched PubMed and Medline for ...
Salazar Carolina C Department of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle No. 305220, Denton, TX 76203, USA. - - 2012
In spite of the large arsenal of methodologies developed for amino acid assessment in complex matrices, their implementation in metabolomics studies involving wide-ranging mutant screening is hampered by their lack of high-throughput, sensitivity, reproducibility, and/or wide dynamic range. In response to the challenge of developing amino acid analysis methods that ...
Jin Ming M Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, - - 2012
Uric acid is the product of purine metabolism. It is known that hyperuricemia, defined as high levels of blood uric acid, is the major etiological factor of gout. A number of epidemiological reports have increasingly linked hyperuricemia with cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Studies highlighting the pathogenic mechanisms of uric acid ...
Wang Yulei - - 2011
Effects of amino acids on co-production of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and glutathione (GSH) with Candida utilis CCTCC M 209298 were investigated. Both methionine and cysteine showed positive effects on improving intracellular SAM and GSH content simultaneously. Batch fermentative co-production of SAM and GSH was conducted in a 5L stirred fermentor, where ...
Bowne Jairus B - - 2011
Drought has serious effects on the physiology of cereal crops. At the cellular and specifically the metabolite level, many individual compounds are increased to provide osmoprotective functions, prevent the dissociation of enzymes, and to decrease the number of reactive oxygen species present in the cell. We have used a targeted ...
Farooqui A A - - 2011
Neuroprotectins, resolvins, and maresins are subfamilies of endogenous oxygenated metabolites derived from n-3 or ω-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids). These metabolites are associated with signal transduction processes involved in downregulation of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and apoptosis. Eicosapentaenoic acid-derived E-series resolvins (RvE1 and RvE2) and docosahexaenoic acid-derived D-series resolvins ...
Tyurina Yulia Y YY Center for Free Radical and Antioxidant Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA. - - 2012
Peroxidation of cardiolipin in mitochondria is essential for the execution of apoptosis. We suggested that integration of oleic acid into cardiolipin generates non-oxidizable cardiolipin species hence protects cells against apoptosis. We synthesized mitochondria-targeted triphenylphosphonium oleic acid ester. Using lipidomics analysis we found that pretreatment of mouse embryonic cells with triphenylphosphonium ...
Schönfeld Peter - - 2011
Mitochondria from brown adipose tissue (BATM) have a high enzymatic capacity for fatty acid oxidation and therefore are an ideal model to examine the sites of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during fatty acid oxidation. ROS generation by BATM (isolated from 3-week-old rats) was measured during acylcarnitine oxidation as release ...
Tsai Shih-Jei - - 2011
The effects of trans fatty acids, elaidic acid (trans-9, C18:1) and linoelaidic acid (trans-9, trans-12 C18:2), at 20 or 40 μM in nerve growth factor differentiated PC12 cells with or without beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) were examined. Elaidic acid treatment alone did not affect cell viability and oxidative injury associated markers (P > 0.05). ...
Garrido Jorge - - 2011
Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) are phenolic compounds present in dietary plants, which possess considerable antioxidant activity. In order to increase the lipophilicity of HCAs, with the aim of improving their cellular absorption and expansion of their use in lipophilic media, methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl esters of caffeic acid and ferulic ...
Xiao Jianbo - - 2011
An acidic polysaccharide from the green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) beyond the useful date was isolated and characterized. Crude polysaccharides (TPS) was extracted with hot water and separated on a DEAE Sepharose FF gel filtration column to obtain ATPS1. The structure of ATPS1 was characterized by HPGPC, IR, UV, (1)H ...
Saha Siddhartha S - - 2011
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of α-eleostearic acid and punicic acid, two isomers of conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) present in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and snake gourd oil (Trichosanthes anguina), respectively, against oxidative stress, inflammatory challenge and aberration in erythrocyte morphology due to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. ...
Sun Zhaoguo - - 2011
Interactive effects of cadmium (Cd(2+)) and acid rain on photosynthetic light reaction in soybean seedlings were investigated under hydroponic conditions. Single treatment with Cd(2+) or acid rain and the combined treatment decreased the content of chlorophyll, Hill reaction rate, the activity of Mg(2+)-ATPase, maximal photochemical efficiency and maximal quantum yield, ...
Aydillo Carlos - - 2011
The asymmetric sulfa-Michael additions of appropriately protected l- and d-cysteine derivatives to new chiral dehydroamino acid derivatives have been developed as key steps in the synthesis of biologically important cysteine derivatives, such as lanthionine (Lan) and β-methyllanthionine (MeLan), which are unusual bis-α-amino acids found in the emerging lantibiotics such as ...
Alves Martins Dulce - - 2011
Dietary fatty acid supply can affect stress response in fish during early development. Although knowledge on the mechanisms involved in fatty acid regulation of stress tolerance is scarce, it has often been hypothesised that eicosanoid profiles can influence cortisol production. Genomic cortisol actions are mediated by cytosolic receptors which may ...
Laszlo Joseph A - - 2011
Antioxidants have critical roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis and disease-state prevention. The multi-functional agent α-lipoic acid offers numerous beneficial effects to oxidatively stressed tissues. α-Lipoic acid was enzymatically incorporated into a triglyceride in conjunction with oleic acid, creating lipoyl dioleoylglycerol, and chemically reduced to form dihydrolipoyl dioleoylglycerol. The triglyceride forms ...
Bhatia Surabhi - - 2011
Apolipoprotein-D (apoD) is upregulated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and upon oxidative stress. ApoD inhibits brain lipid peroxidation in vivo but the mechanism is unknown. Specific Met residues may inhibit lipid peroxidation by reducing radical-propagating lipid hydroperoxides to non-reactive hydroxides via a reaction that generates methionine sulfoxide (MetSO). Since apoD has ...
Batista Elenilze Figueiredo - - 2011
Chemical investigation of extracts from the stems and leaves of Alchorneopsis floribunda Müll. Arg., collected in the Amazon region, was performed. The main isolated compounds were triterpenes (α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol, betulin, betulinic acid, uvaol, erythrodiol and oleanolic acid) and phenolic acid derivatives from 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (gallic and protocatechuic acids and ...
Shao Suqin - - 2011
A comparative metabolomic analysis was conducted on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with and without patulin treatment using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based approach. A total of 72 metabolites were detected and compared, including 16 amino acids, 29 organic acids and alcohols, 19 sugars and sugar alcohols, 2 nucleotides, and 6 miscellaneous compounds. Principle ...
Kim Ji Eun - - 2011
Leuconostoc mesenteroides is a commercially important lactic acid bacterium currently used as a starter for kimchi and kefir. However, its sensitivity to acid stress limits its performance. L. mesenteroides was grown in a medium supplemented with 3.2 or 6.4 mM glutathione (GSH), and cell survival rates were measured during a long-term ...
Zhou Zhi-You - - 2011
Butylphenyl-functionalized Pt nanoparticles (Pt-BP) with an average core diameter of 2.93 ± 0.49 nm were synthesized by the co-reduction of butylphenyl diazonium salt and H(2)PtCl(4). Cyclic voltammetric studies of the Pt-BP nanoparticles showed a much less pronounced hysteresis between the oxidation currents of formic acid in the forward and reverse ...
Mayr Johannes A - - 2011
Lipoic acid is an essential prosthetic group of four mitochondrial enzymes involved in the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate, and branched chain amino acids and in the glycine cleavage. Lipoic acid is synthesized stepwise within mitochondria through a process that includes lipoic acid synthetase. We identified the homozygous mutation c.746G>A ...
Peng Dunfa D Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, - - 2012
Exposure of the oesophageal mucosa to gastric acid and bile acids leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a known risk factor for Barrett's oesophagus and progression to oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). This study investigated the functions of glutathione peroxidase 7 (GPX7), frequently silenced in OAC, and its capacity ...
Khan Jahangir - - 2012
Hyperlipidemia is one known etiology of acute pancreatitis. Alcohol use is known to induce changes in lipid metabolism and might alter the serum lipid and fatty acid profile. We hypothesized that these changes may explain individual susceptibility of developing acute pancreatitis. We compared lipid and fatty acid profiles of patients ...
Patel Vrunda - - 2011
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin, have been associated with the damage to the gastrointestinal tract. One proposed mechanism of injury to the gastrointestinal mucosa by NSAIDs is oxygen radical-dependent microvascular injury. There is reasonable evidence to support the benefit of the addition of ascorbic acid, an ingredient with antioxidant ...
Wang Miaomiao - - 2011
The present paper studies the effects of precursor amino acids, i.e., L: -glutamic acid (Glu), L: -glycine (Gly), and L: -cysteine (Cys), on the glutathione (GSH) production. The three amino acids were added during the fermentations. The GSH production was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was observed that ...
Centini Marisanna - - 2011
We synthesized several new multifunctional molecules derived from natural sources such as amino acids and hydroxycinnamic acids. They exhibit various activities such as emulsifying, UV-protecting and radical scavenging, thereby conforming to the latest requirements for cosmetic ingredients. The synthesis comprises only a few steps: i) the amino acid, whose acid ...
Liu Ze - - 2011
Multiphase acid-catalyzed oxidation by hydrogen peroxide has been suggested to be a potential route to secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene and its gas-phase oxidation products, but the kinetics and chemical mechanism remain largely uncertain. Here we report the first measurement of uptake of methacrolein into aqueous solutions of sulfuric ...
Schrader C - - 2011
Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an enzyme which is mainly synthesized in the liver. PON1 circulates in the blood bound to HDL and delays or prevents the oxidation of LDL. Single nucleotide polymorphisms significantly determine PON1 status in humans. A high PON1 status may be associated with a reduced cardiovascular disease ...
Gu Xiaodong - - 2012
Many of the pathological effects of lipid peroxidation are mediated by aldehydes generated through fragmentation of lipid peroxides. Among these aldehydes, the γ-hydroxy- and γ-oxo-α,β-alkenals, e.g., 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and 4-oxo-2-nonenal (ONE), are especially prone to modifying proteins and DNA through covalent adduction. In addition the "mirror image" γ-hydroxy- and γ-oxo-α,β-alkenal ...
Yu Zhiqiang - - 2011
Reducible poly(amido amine)s (HPAAs) with acid labile groups have been prepared via Michael addition polymerization. These PAAs are very sensitive to reducing agents such as dithiothreitol (DTT) and glutathione (GSH), and sensitive to pH. The polymers show good condensing property for DNA and good gene transfection efficiency.
Sautier Brice - - 2011
Unsaturated, differentially substituted Meldrum's acid derivatives undergo cascade cyclizations upon ester reduction with SmI(2)-H(2)O. The cascade cyclizations proceed in good yield and with high diastereocontrol and convert simple, achiral starting materials to complex molecular architectures, bearing up to four stereocenters, in a single operation. The cascades are triggered by the ...
Szeląg Małgorzata - - 2012
Quantum-chemical computations were used to investigate the structure-antioxidant parameter relationships of α-lipoic acid and its natural metabolites bisnorlipoic acid and tetranorlipoic acid in their oxidized and reduced forms. The enantiomers of lipoic and dihydrolipoic acid were optimized using the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p), B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ and MP2(full)/6-31+G(d,p) levels of theory as isolated molecules and ...
de Jong Ana Rae - - 2011
The relative reactivity of glucuronic acid esters was established in a series of competition experiments, in which two thioglucoside and/or thioglucuronic acid ester donors competed for a limited amount of activator (NIS-TfOH). Although glucuronic acid esters are often considered to be of very low reactivity, the series of competition reactions ...
Kumar Puneet - - 2012
Huntington's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that gradually reduces memory, cognitive skills and normal movements of affected individuals. Systemic administration of 3-Nitropropionic acid induces selective striatal lesions in rodents and non-human primates. Therefore, the present study has been designed to elucidate the comparative mechanistic profile of gabapentin, lamotrigine and ...
Gan Lu-Jing - - 2011
The effect of the purple-fleshed sweet potato extract (PFSPE) on oxidation stabilities of a model oil-in-water emulsion prepared with enzymatically synthesized fish oil-soybean oil structured lipid (SL) vs physically blended lipid (PBL) without modification were evaluated. The anthocyanins in PFSPE were analyzed and identified by HPLC-MS. The fatty acid composition ...
Ahmed Mukhtiar - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: To assess the content and composition of fatty acids and tocopherols in commercially available oil capsules, and to assay thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as a marker of oxidation in these oils. METHODS: Fish and seal oil capsules were analyzed for their contents of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (DPA, ...
Pillai Krishna - - 2011
BACKGROUND: This study examines the potential efficacy of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid in the dissolution of mucinous ascites from pseudomyxoma peritonei. METHODS: The mucolytic action of both ascorbic acid (0%-0.2%) and hydrogen peroxide (0%-3%) are investigated as single agent on mucin samples derived from patient. This was followed by ...
León-Carmona Jorge Rafael - - 2011
The reactions of uric and 1-methyluric acids in non-polar environments, as well as those of the corresponding urate anions in aqueous solution, with •OH, •OCH3, •OOH, and •OOCH3 have been studied using the Density Functional Theory. Different mechanisms of reactions have been taken into account, and their relative importance on ...
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