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Carletti Jaqueline Vieira - - 2012
Folic acid plays an important role in neuroplasticity and acts as a neuroprotective agent, as observed in experimental brain ischemia studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of folic acid on locomotor activity, aversive memory and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in the frontal cortex and striatum in animals ...
Srilatha K - - 2012
Biodiesel synthesis from rice bran fatty acids (RBFA) was carried out using cesium exchanged 12-tungstophosphoric acid (TPA) catalysts. The physico-chemical properties of the catalysts were derived from X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of NH(3) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characterization techniques revealed that ...
Skytt Dorte M - - 2012
Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and astrocytes are key players in sustaining glutamate homeostasis. Astrocytes take up the predominant part of glutamate after neurotransmission and metabolism of glutamate is necessary for a continuous efficient removal of glutamate from the synaptic area. Glutamate may either be ...
Anderson Robin C - - 2012
Strategies are sought to reduce intestinal colonisation of food-producing animals by Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness worldwide. Presently, we tested the antimicrobial activity of hydrolysable-rich blackberry, cranberry and chestnut tannin extracts and condensed tannin-rich mimosa, quebracho and sorghum tannins (each at 100 mg/mL) against C. jejuni ...
Morabito R - - 2012
Nematocytes' discharge is triggered to perform both defense and predation strategies in cnidarians and occurs under chemico-physical stimulation. In this study, different compounds such as amino acids and proteins (mucin, albumin, poly-L: -lysine, trypsin), sugars and N-acetylate sugars (N-acetyl neuraminic acid, N-acetyl galactosamine, sucrose, glucose, agarose and trehalose), nucleotides (ATP ...
Kadirvel Manikandan - - 2012
Ester prodrugs have the potential to eliminate the gastrotoxicity associated with the carboxylic acid group of indomethacin. 4,6-Bis-O-2'-[1'-(4″-chlorobenzoyl)-5'-methoxy-2'-methyl-1'H-indol-3'-acetyl]-myo-inositol-1,3,5-orthoacetate (2) was synthesised and evaluated as a COX-2 inhibitor. It adopts a conformationally restricted chair with two indomethacin groups in the sterically hindered 1,3-diaxial positions. Acid-induced cleavage of the orthoacetate lock of ...
Honda Malca Sumire - - 2012
CYP153A from Marinobacter aquaeolei has been identified as a fatty acid ω-hydroxylase with a broad substrate range. Two hotspots predicted to influence substrate specificity and selectivity were exchanged. Mutant G307A is 2- to 20-fold more active towards fatty acids than the wild-type. Residue L354 is determinant for the enzyme ω-regioselectivity.
Xie Haibo - - 2012
In this work, we found that lignosulfonic acid (LS), which is a waste byproduct from the paper industry, in ionic liquids (ILs) can catalyze the dehydration of fructose and inulin into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) efficiently, which is a promising potential substitute for petroleum-based building blocks. The effects of reaction time, temperature, ...
Wereszka K K Department of Ruminant Physiology of Nutrition, The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Instytucka 3, 05-110, Jablonna near Warsaw, Poland. - - 2012
The ciliate Diploplastron affine is known as a common species of the rumen fauna in cattle and sheep. This protozoon is able to digest cellulose, whereas its amylolytic activity is not well known. The objective of the reported studies was to examine the ability of D. affine to digest starch ...
Yang Fang - - 2012
Dual-action catalyst: A Brønsted acid catalyzed regioselective cycloisomerization was found to be highly effective for the preparation of structurally diverse 2,3-dihydro-4H-pyran-4-ones in a 6-exo-trig manner from the corresponding 5,2-enyne-1-ones. In this reaction, the Brønsted acid acts as a dual catalyst activating both the carbonyl and alkene moieties in a cascade ...
Veras Helenicy N H - - 2012
This work reports the chemical composition of the essential oil of Lippia sidoides (EOLS) and evaluation of the topical effect of EOLS and thymol against different irritant agents in vivo. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis identified the main constituents: thymol (84.9%) and p-cymene ...
Adolph Stephanie - - 2012
In this paper, using the monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7, we systematically investigate the impact of macrophage enrichment with unsaturated fatty acids on cellular radical synthesis. We found that the intracellular production of reactive nitrogen and oxygen intermediates depends on the activation status of the macrophages. For unstimulated macrophages PUFA enrichment ...
Arikawa Yasuyoshi - - 2012
In our pursuit of developing a novel and potent potassium-competitive acid blocker (P-CAB), we synthesized pyrrole derivatives focusing on compounds with low logD and high ligand-lipophilicity efficiency (LLE) values. Among the compounds synthesized, the compound <bold>13e</bold> exhibited potent H<sup>+</sup>,K<sup>+</sup>-ATPase inhibitory activity, and potent gastric acid secretion inhibitory action in vivo. ...
Koide Haruki - - 2012
SMTPs are a family of small-molecule plasminogen modulators that enhance plasminogen activation. SMTP-7, one of the most potent congeners, is effective in treating thrombotic cerebral infarction. The SMTP molecule consists of a tricyclic γ-lactam moiety, a geranylmethyl group, and an N-linked side chain. The presence of both an aromatic group ...
León-Carmona Jorge Rafael - - 2012
The peroxyl radical scavenging activity of four hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HCAD) has been studied in non-polar and aqueous solutions, using the density functional theory. The studied HCAD are: ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid), p-coumaric acid (trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid), caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid), and dihydrocaffeic acid (3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propionic acid). It was found that the ...
Pooya Shabnam - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Folate and cobalamin are methyl donors needed for synthesizing methionine, which is the precursor of S-adenosylmethionine, the substrate of methylation in epigenetic and epigenomic pathways. Methyl donor deficiency produces liver steatosis and predisposes to metabolic syndrome. Whether impaired fatty acid oxidation contributes to this steatosis remains unknown. METHODS: We ...
Sova Matej - - 2012
Cinnamic acid is an organic acid occurring naturally in plants that has low toxicity and a broad spectrum of biological activities. In the search for novel pharmacologically active compounds, cinnamic acid derivatives are important and promising compounds with high potential for development into drugs. Many cinnamic acid derivatives, especially those ...
Cho Jun-Cheol - - 2012
We synthesized benzoate ester derivatives of kojic acid with and without adamantane moiety. Benzoate derivatives 2a-e that did not contain an adamantane moiety showed potent tyrosinase inhibitory activities. However, depigmenting activity was not noted in a cell-based assay. Contrasting results were obtained for benzoate derivatives (3a-e) containing an adamantane moiety. ...
Bauer Julia - - 2012
Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE(2) synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate ...
Gawlik-Dziki Urszula - - 2012
Phenolic acids profile and antioxidant activity of six diverse varieties of spelt are reported. Antioxidant activity was assessed using eight methods based on different mechanism of action. Phenolic acids composition of spelt differed significantly between varieties and ranged from 506.6 to 1257.4 g/g DW. Ferulic and sinapinic acids were the ...
Oshima Naohiro - - 2012
Fractionation of acetone and methanol extracts of Viola yedoensis, under the guidance of inhibition against Clostridium histolyticum collagenase (ChC), resulted in the isolation of esculetin (1) (IC(50) 12 μM) and scopoletin (2) (IC(50) 1.8 μM) as the active constituents, together with trans-p-coumaric acid (3), cis-p-coumaric acid (4), 3-O-β-D: -glucosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnosylkaempferol (5), rutin (6), ...
Lima T A - - 2012
Two special dynamical transitions of universal character have recently been observed in macromolecules (lysozyme, myoglobin, bacteriorhodopsin, DNA and RNA) at T* ∼ 100-150 K and T(D) ∼ 180-220 K. The underlying mechanisms governing these transitions have been the subject of debate. In the present work, a survey is reported on the temperature dependence of structural, vibrational ...
Serpi Michaela - - 2012
(<italic>D</italic>)-Glucosamine and other nutritional supplements have emerged as safe alternative therapies for osteoarthritis (OA), a chronic and degenerative articular joint disease. In our preceding paper a series of novel O-6 phosphate <italic>N</italic>-acetyl (<italic>D</italic>)-glucosamine prodrugs aimed at improving the oral bioavailability of <italic>N</italic>-acetyl-(<italic>D</italic>)-glucosamine as its putative bio-active phosphate form, were shown ...
Segev Nava N Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA. - - 2012
TORC1 activity in all eukaryotes is dependent on amino acid availability. However, the mechanism through which TORC1 senses amino acids is still a mystery. In the current issues of Molecular Cell and Cell, Bonfils et al. (2012) and Han et al. (2012) implicate leucyl-tRNA synthetase in this evolving story.
Singh Vikram - - 2012
"Turn-on" optical detection of parts-per-million (ppm) levels of ascorbic acid (AA) in water has been determined using a redox-active monolayer on glass.
Hsu Chih-An - - 2012
This study identifies a new fungal strain, <i>Lentinus</i> sp., that can produce extracellular forms of laccases with an activity of approximately 58,300 U/l. A purified laccase (designated lcc3) was identified by LC-ESI MS/MS as an N-linkage glycosylated protein. The isolated lcc3 cDNA is composed of 1563 bp encoding for a ...
Kosińska Agnieszka - - 2012
Avocado processing by the food and cosmetic industries yields a considerable amount of phenolic-rich by-products such as peels and seeds. Utilisation of these by-products would be favourable from economic point of view. Eighty percent methanolic extracts obtained from lyophilised ground peels and seeds of avocado (Persea Americana Mill.) of the ...
Sun Zhongyan - - 2012
Beta-eleostearic acid (β-ESA, 9E11E13E-18:3), a linolenic acid isomer with a conjugated triene system, is a natural and biologically active compound. Herein, we investigated effects of β-eleostearic acid on T24 human bladder cancer cells. In this study, results showed that β-eleostearic acid had strong cytotoxicity to induce cell apoptosis, which was ...
Kuan I-Ching - - 2012
Several alkyl-substituted methoxysilanes were evaluated as potential activity and stability enhancing agents for biomimetic silicification of Rhodosporidium toruloides D: -amino acid oxidase (RtDAO). When methyl-substituted silanes along with tetramethoxysilane were used as silicic acid precursors for polyallylamine (PAA)-or R5 peptide-catalyzed silicic encapsulation, the RtDAO activity increased with the degree of ...
Negoro Nobuyuki - - 2012
G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40)/free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) is a free fatty acid (FFA) receptor that mediates FFA-amplified glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. We previously identified (2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-3-yl)acetic acid derivative 2 as a candidate, but it had relatively high lipophilicity. Adding a polar functional group on 2 yielded ...
Li Fei - - 2012
Functionalization with the sulfonic acid group as the directing group in a C-H activation reaction has been revealed for the first time. [60]Fullerene has been employed in the unprecedented palladium-catalyzed C-H activation reaction of arylsulfonic acids to afford [60]fullerene-fused sultones.
Lee Joo-Won - - 2012
In this study, we demonstrate that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) with glabridin alleviates adiposity and hyperlipidemia in obesity. In several obese rodent models, glabridin decreased body weight and adiposity with a concomitant reduction in fat cell size. Further, glabridin ameliorated fatty liver and plasma levels of triglyceride and ...
Annadhasan M - - 2012
Aqueous solution containing two additives, silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) and sodium salt of N-cholyl amino acid were irradiated by sunlight for the synthesis of spherical shaped AgNPs without the need for an additional stabilizer or capping agent. Variations of N-cholyl amino acid concentration provided good control over the morphology of the ...
Qu Yuan - - 2012
Two new cerebrosides, termitomycesphins G and H, were isolated from the edible Chinese mushroom, Termitomyces albuminosus (Berk.) Herm., and exhibited neuritogenic activity against PC12 cells. Their structures and absolute stereochemistry were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and by a comparison of the specific rotation of the hydrogenated products from termitomycesphins H ...
Kang Hahk-Soo - - 2012
Stigonemapeptin (1), a depsipeptide containing an Ahp (3-amino-6-hydroxy-2-piperidone) residue, was isolated from a bloom sample of the freshwater cyanobacterium Stigonema sp. collected from North Nokomis Lake in the Highland Lake District of northern Wisconsin. The planar structure was determined by 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as HRESIMS analysis. ...
Görmer Kristina - - 2012
A dynamic de-/repalmitoylation cycle determines localization and activity of H- and N-Ras. This combined cellular de- and repalmitoylation machinery has been shown to be substrate tolerant-it accepts variation of amino acid sequence, structure and configuration. Here, semisynthetic Ras-proteins in which the C-terminal amino acids are replaced by peptoid residues are ...
Li Yi - - 2012
An efficient and straightforward method for the preparation of highly enantiomerically enriched β,γ-unsaturated α-amino acid derivatives by a Lewis acid promoted diastereoselective Petasis reaction of vinylboronic acid, N-tert-butanesulfinamide, and glyoxylic acid has been developed. The synthetic utilities of the approach were demonstrated by the rapid and convenient construction of challenging ...
Cho Jung-Nam - - 2012
For optimal survival, various environmental and endogenous factors should be monitored to determine the appropriate timing for seed germination. Light is a major environmental factor affecting seed germination, which is perceived by phytochromes. The light-dependent activation of phytochrome B (PHYB) modulates abscisic acid and gibberellic acid signaling and metabolism. Thus ...
Zhu Saijie - - 2012
Stimulus-sensitive micelles are attractive anticancer drug delivery systems. Herein we reported a novel strategy to engineer acid-sensitive micelles using a amphiphilic material synthesized by directly conjugating the hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a hydrophobic stearic acid derivative (C18) using an acid-sensitive hydrazone bond (PHC). An acid-insensitive PEG-amide-C18 (PAC) compound was ...
Rosa Andrea Pereira - - 2012
Phenylketonuria is a recessive autosomal disorder that is caused by a deficiency in the activity of phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase, which converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to the accumulation of phenylalanine and its metabolites phenyllactic acid, phenylacetic acid, and phenylpyruvic acid in the blood and tissues of patients. Phenylketonuria is characterized by severe ...
Yamano Yumiko - - 2012
N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) including N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and N-palmitoylethanolamine are endogenous lipid mediators. These molecules are degraded to the corresponding fatty acids and ethanolamine by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or NAE-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA). Lipophilic amines, especially pentadecylamine (2c) and tridecyl 2-aminoacetate (11b), were found to exhibit potent NAAA inhibitory activities ...
Manosroi Aranya - - 2012
The 20mM cationic niosomes composed of Tween61/cholesterol/CTAB at 1:1:0.5M ratio which gave the best physical appearance, particle size, zeta potential and in vitro cytotoxicity were selected from six cationic niosomes prepared from various cationic lipids. The selected cationic niosomes were loaded with the semi-purified fraction 3 of Oryza sativa (OSF3) ...
Ullah A - - 2012
l-Amino acid oxidases (LAAOs) are flavoenzymes that catalytically deaminate l-amino acids to corresponding α-keto acids with the concomitant production of ammonia (NH(3)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Particularly, snake venom LAAOs have been attracted much attention due to their diverse clinical and biological effects, interfering on human coagulation factors and being ...
Astiz Mariana - - 2012
The present work studies the potential restorative effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 5 μM/24 h) on the dimethoate (DMT)-induced inhibition of testosterone biosynthesis in Leydig cells isolated from rat testes. Various fatty acids (FA) from the n-6 (18:2, 20:3, 20:4, 22:4 and 22:5) and n-3 (18.3, 20:5, 22:5, 22:6) series were ...
González-Trujano María Eva - - 2012
Agastache mexicana is a plant in high demand that has long been used in Mexican folk medicine to treat anxiety, insomnia, and stomachache, among other afflictions. Ursolic acid and acacetin were isolated and identified as two possible active compounds of A. mexicana aerial parts. An antinociceptive response was demonstrated in a ...
Nozaki Emi - - 2012
Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a naturally occurring phospholipid mediator possessing cyclic phosphate ring, which is necessary for its specific biological activities. To stabilize cyclic phosphate ring of cPA, we synthesized a series of cPA derivatives. We have shown that racemic 3-S-cPA, with a phosphate oxygen atom replaced with a ...
Conforti F - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: To date, Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato (F. carica) has not been studied from a phototoxic point of view. In the present work, aerial components of F. carica from Italy, were examined to assess their antioxidant and phototoxic activity on human melanoma cells. A relationship between antioxidant, phototoxic activities ...
Heller Stephen T - - 2012
Carbonylimidazole derivatives have been found to be highly active acylation reagents for esterification and amidation in the presence of pyridinium salts. These reactions are thought to involve both Brønsted acid and nucleophilic catalysis. This mode of activation has been applied to the synthesis of difficult to access oxazolidinones, as well ...
Millerioux Yoann - - 2012
Insect stage trypanosomes use an "acetate shuttle" to transfer mitochondrial acetyl-CoA to the cytosol for the essential fatty acid biosynthesis. The mitochondrial acetate sources are acetate:succinate CoA-transferase (ASCT) and an unknown enzymatic activity. We have identified a gene encoding acetyl-CoA thioesterase (ACH) activity, which is shown to be the second ...
Du Dongsheng - - 2012
Anti-complementary activity-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of Prunella vulgaris spikes led to the isolation of a new, unusual delta11(12) triterpene, 3beta,13beta-dihydroxyolic-11-ene-28-oic acid (1), along with thirteen known triterpenes (2-14). The structure of the new compound was established by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. All the isolates were evaluated ...
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