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Cai Shengbao - - 2012
The purpose of the present work is to study the pancreatic lipase inhibitory effects of different subfractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water subfraction) from ethanol extracts of non-fermented and fungi-fermented oats, and to delineate the interactions of three primary phenolic acids in the EA subfractions. The EA subfraction ...
Huang Shurong - - 2012
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2 were shown to be activated by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) but inhibited by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, one report suggested that SFA-induced TLR activation in cell culture systems is due to contaminants in BSA used for solubilizing fatty acids. This report raised doubt about ...
Yin Lianghong - - 2012
Threonine dehydratase and acetohydroxy acid synthase are critical enzymes in the L-isoleucine biosynthesis pathway of Corynebacterium glutamicum, but their activities are usually feedback-inhibited. In this study, we characterized a feedback-resistant threonine dehydratase and an acetohydroxy acid synthase from an L-isoleucine producing strain C. glutamicum JHI3-156. Sequence analysis showed that there ...
Pyo Young-Gil - - 2012
High purity monoacylglycerol (MAG) containing pinolenic acid was synthesized via stepwise esterification of glycerol and fatty acids from pine nut oil using a cold active lipase from Penicillium camembertii as a biocatalyst. Effects of temperature, molar ratio, water content, enzyme loading, and vacuum on the synthesis of MAG by lipase-catalyzed ...
Katewa Subhash D - - 2012
Changes in fat content have been associated with dietary restriction (DR), but whether they play a causal role in mediating various responses to DR remains unknown. We demonstrate that upon DR, Drosophila melanogaster shift their metabolism toward increasing fatty-acid synthesis and breakdown, which is required for various responses to DR. ...
Wurie Haja R - - 2012
The two diacylglycerol acyltransferases, DGAT1 and DGAT2 are known to have non-redundant functions, in spite of catalysing the same reaction and being present in the same cell types. The basis for this distinctiveness, which is reflected in the very different phenotypes of Dgat1(-/-) and Dgat2(-/-) mice, has not been resolved. ...
Fu Jie - - 2012
Cornus wilsoniana Wanger is a woody oil plant distributed in the south region of the Yellow River, China. Its oil has been taken as edible oil for over 100 y, and consumption of such oil is believed to prevent hyperlipidemia in Chinese folk recipe. This study has investigated the hypolipidemic ...
Chistyakov V A - - 2012
The plastoquinone derivative 10-(6'-plastoquinonyl)decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1) has the ability to scavenge superoxide anion radical. This ability is manifested both in vitro and in vivo in experiments with the bacterium Escherichia coli. The protective effect of SkQ1 in vivo significantly exceeds that of ascorbic acid.
Zarubina I V - - 2012
Pronounced antihypoxic and antioxidant effects of preventive injection of succinic acid, aminothiol antihypoxants gutimine and amtizol, and succinate-containing aminothiol antihypoxants gutimine succinate and amtizol succinate to Wistar rats with acute hypoxic hypoxia have been demonstrated. Exogenous succinic acid was inferior to aminothiol compounds by antihypoxic effect, but superior to them ...
Zivanovic Ana - - 2012
c-AMP dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A, PKA) is an important enzyme involved in the regulation of an increasing number of physiological processes including immune function, cardiovascular disease, memory disorders and cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the PKA inhibitory activity of a range of algal extracts, ...
Niu Yunwei - - 2012
Five cherry wines exhibiting marked differences in taste and mouthfeel were selected for the study. The taste and mouthfeel of cherry wines were described by four sensory terms as sour, sweet, bitter and astringent. Eight organic acids, seventeen amino acids, three sugars and tannic acid were determined by high performance ...
Ties Paige - - 2012
Ten different varieties of tomatoes were separated into peel and flesh and each portion was measured separately. Headspace volatiles were measured in real time using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. Lipoxygenase activity was measured using the adsorption of conjugated dienes formed by lipoxygenase. Lipid was extracted and fatty acids ...
Buthelezi Sithabile - - 2012
Crocodile oil has been used by traditional practitioners world-wide to treat microbial infections and inflammatory conditions. However, the scientific rationale behind its use is not completely understood. This study provides an updated fatty acid profile and novel scientific evidence of the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of crocodile oil, obtained from ...
Kost Gina Chun - - 2012
Clavulanic acid is a psychoactive compound that has been shown to modulate central nervous system activity. Importantly, in neurotoxin-induced animal models, clavulanic acid has been shown to improve motor function (Huh et al., 2010) suggesting that it can be neuroprotective; however, the mechanism as how clavulanic acid can induce neuroprotection ...
Pérez Bianca - - 2012
Cinnamic acid derivatives containing a 4-amino-7-chloroquinoline scaffold (blue) and substituted cinnamoyl building blocks (green) linked through an alkylamine chain (red) were found to have potent (11-59 nM) in vitro activities against erythrocytic chloroquine- resistant Plasmodium falciparum.
Mays Charles E - - 2012
Quinacrine and related heterocyclic compounds have antiprion activity. Since the infectious pathogen of prion diseases is composed of multimeric PrP(Sc) assemblies, we hypothesized that this antiprion property could be enhanced by attaching multiple quinacrine-derived chloroquinoline or acridine moieties to a scaffold. In addition to exploring Congo red dye and tetraphenylporphyrin ...
Jorge Adriano Tadeu Siqueira - - 2012
Several treatments for skin whitening are available today, but few of them are completely adequate, especially due to the carcinogenic potential attributed to classical drugs like hydroquinone, arbutin and kojic acid. In order to provide an alternative and safer technology for whitening, we developed two botanical compounds originated from Brazilian ...
Wybenga Gjalt G - - 2012
Chiral β-amino acids occur as constituents of various natural and synthetic compounds with potentially useful bioactivities. The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent S-selective transaminase from Mesorhizobium sp. strain LUK (MesAT) is a fold type I aminotransferase that can be used for the preparation of enantiopure β-Phe and derivatives thereof. Using x-ray crystallography, ...
Omanakuttan Athira - - 2012
Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a wide variety of pathophysiological conditions. To further define the mechanism of CNSL action, we investigated the effect of cashew nut shell extract (CNSE) on two matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-2/gelatinase A and MMP-9/gelatinase B, which are ...
Petrônio Maicon S - - 2012
Hen egg white lysozyme (HEL), an antibacterial enzyme, is a prototype protein for studying the physical and chemical events that underlie the formation of amyloid fibril aggregates. Here, we studied alterations in enzymatic activity and aggregation provoked by oxidation of HEL by hypochlorous acid (HOCl), hypobromous acid (HOBr), taurine chloramine ...
Takahashi Daisuke - - 2012
Target-selective photodegradation of 3-deoxy-d-manno-2-octulopyranosonic acid (KDO) was achieved without additives and under neutral conditions using a designed anthraquinone-boronic acid hybrid and long wavelength UV light irradiation. The hybrid can photodegrade lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and inhibit macrophage activation induced by LPS.
Wiemuth Dominik - - 2012
Brain liver intestine Na(+) channel (BLINaC) is an ion channel of the DEG/ENaC gene family of unknown function. BLINaC from rats (rBLINaC) and humans (INaC) is inactive at rest, and its mode of activation has remained unclear. Here, we show that the BLINaC protein localizes to cholangiocytes, epithelial cells that ...
Rivero Omar - - 2012
Ascorbic acid molecules in either acid or conjugate base forms have been oxidized on self-doping carboxylated polyaniline thin films. The kinetic model proposed by Bartlett et al. has been successfully applied to the catalytic reactions. Active sites in the polymer have been identified as the rings having quinoid character. The ...
Sieniawska Elwira - - 2012
A simple HPLC method has been used for separation and quantitative analysis of the phenolic acids in the methanolic extracts of Ligusticum mutellina aerial parts. Chlorogenic acid was the predominant phenolic acid. Additionally, gallic, p-OH-benzoic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were identified. Moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity (MIC = 1.25-2.5 mg mL(-1)) was observed ...
Lam Alan K - - 2012
Pancreatic islet β-cells metabolically sense nutrients to maintain blood glucose homeostasis through the regulated secretion of insulin. Long-term exposure to a mixed supply of excess glucose and fatty acids induces β-cell dysfunction and type II diabetes in a process termed glucolipotoxicity. Despite a number of documented mechanisms for glucolipotoxicity, the ...
Walters Pollak Dana - - 2012
Delta (Δ) 5 desaturase is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of health-beneficial long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3) via the "desaturation and elongation" pathways. A full length Δ5 desaturase gene from Euglena gracilis (EgΔ5D) was isolated by ...
Ebrahiminia Ali - - 2012
Acoustic cavitation plays an important role in sonochemical processes and the rate of sonochemical reaction is influenced by sonication parameters. There are several methods to evaluate cavitation activity such as chemical dosimetry. In this study, to comparison between iodide dosimetry and terephthalic acid dosimetry, efficacy of sonication parameters in reactive ...
Jubie Selvaraj - - 2012
Stearic acid, a saturated fatty acid was isolated from the microalga Spirulina platensis. Some novel stearic acid analogues having 1,3,4-oxadiazole, 1,2,4-triazole and 1,2,4-triazolo-[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazole are synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR and mass spectral analysis. All the synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity by using cup plate method. The synthesized ...
Cherian Philip T - - 2012
PlsY is the essential first step in membrane phospholipid synthesis of Gram-positive pathogens. PlsY catalyzes the transfer of the fatty acid from acyl-phosphate to the 1-position of glycerol-3-phosphate to form the first intermediate in membrane biogenesis. A series of non-metabolizable, acyl-sulfamate analogs of the acyl-phosphate PlsY substrate were prepared and ...
Zhang Jing - - 2012
Ophiopogonpolysaccharide (OPS) was extracted by water decoction and ethanol precipitation, purified through eliminating protein by trichloroacetic acid method and column chromatography of DEAE-Cellulose-52, then sulfatedly modified by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method according to three-factors, ratio of chlorosulfonic acid to pyridine, reaction temperature and reaction time, and three level L(9)(3(4)) orthogonal designed ...
Furuya Toshiki - - 2012
Caffeic acid is a biologically active molecule that has various beneficial properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we explored the catalytic potential of a bacterial cytochrome P450, CYP199A2, for the biotechnological production of caffeic acid. When the CYP199A2 enzyme was reacted with p-coumaric acid, it stoichiometrically ...
Wisastra Rosalina - - 2012
Lipoxygenases catalyze the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid, which play a crucial role in inflammatory responses. Selective inhibitors may provide a new therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. In this study, we describe the identification of a novel soybean lipoxygenase-1 (SLO-1) inhibitor and a potato 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) ...
Ramos-Roman Maria A - - 2012
Insulin control of fatty acid metabolism has long been deemed dominated by suppression of adipose lipolysis. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that this single role of insulin is insufficient to explain observed fatty acid dynamics. Fatty acid kinetics were measured during a meal tolerance ...
Xia Ze-Feng - - 2012
Nesfatin-1, a novel hypothalamic peptide, inhibits nocturnal feeding behavior and gastrointestinal motility in rodents. The effects of nesfatin-1 on gastrointestinal secretory function, including gastric acid production, have not been evaluated. Nesfatin-1 was injected into the fourth intracerebral ventricle (4V) of chronically cannulated rats to identify a nesfatin dose sufficient to ...
Wang Ye - - 2012
SCOPE: Evidence suggests a neutral to beneficial role of certain trans fatty acids (TFA) from natural ruminant sources. Trans11-18:1 (vaccenic acid, VA), the most predominant ruminant TFA and a precursor to conjugated linoleic acid, has been shown to improve atherogenic dyslipidemia and symptoms of hepatic steatosis in animal models. The ...
Nakamura Hideaki - - 2012
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) causes impaired hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generation. Consequently, neutrophils in patients with CGD fail to kill infecting pathogens. We expected that supplementation with H(2)O(2) would effectively restore the bactericidal function of neutrophils in CGD. Here, we used polyethylene glycol-conjugated d-amino acid oxidase (PEG-DAO) as an H(2)O(2) source. ...
de Sousa Fábio Borges - - 2012
Antiulcerogenic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Celtis iguanaea leaves (CEE) was observed with experimental models such as ethanol, indomethacin, stress and pyloric ligation-induced gastric ulcers. Results obtained from indomethacin-induced ulcer showed the hexane fraction (HF) as the active fraction of CEE. This fraction inhibits the gastric acid secretion, increasing ...
Kovacik Jozef - - 2012
The impact of salinity (S) or nitrogen deficiency (-N) on copper (Cu) uptake and changes to metabolism were studied in the combined treatments after 7 days of exposure. S suppressed growth, water content, soluble proteins and reducing sugars more negatively than -N. ROS (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide) were differentially but ...
Harbaugh Matthew P MP Family Medicine, UPMC St. Margarets, Pittsburgh, PA, United - - 2013
Intake of the marine-based, n-3 fatty acids and engagement in physical activity are inversely related to cardiac morbidity and mortality. Among putative mechanisms, both n-3 fatty acids and physical activity may act through modulation of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system. This investigation examined the independent and interactive associations of ...
Chen Liujuan - - 2012
Selective H transfer by ABC: A new asymmetric binary acid catalyst was developed to promote 1,5-H transfer specifically and stereoselectively in tert-aminocyclization reactions with excellent activity, high enantioselectivity, and broad substrate scope. The H atom (in red) was proven to transfer through a stereospecific suprafacial pathway.
Stratford Malcolm - - 2012
Moulds are able to cause spoilage in preserved foods through degradation of the preservatives using the Pad-decarboxylation system. This causes, for example, decarboxylation of the preservative sorbic acid to 1,3-pentadiene, a volatile compound with a kerosene-like odour. Neither the natural role of this system nor the range of potential substrates ...
Zhu Ting-Shun - - 2012
A pincer-like chiral auxiliary strategy for synthesizing various optically active α,α-disubstituted amino acids in high yields with excellent enantioselectivities is described.
Isobe Kimiyasu - - 2012
An l-amino acid oxidase was found from a newly isolated strain, Pseudomonas sp. AIU 813. This enzyme was remarkably induced by incubation with l-lysine as a nitrogen source, and efficiently purified using an affinity chromatography with l-lysine as ligand. The enzyme oxidized l-lysine, l-ornithine and l-arginine, but not other l-amino ...
Di Sotto Antonella - - 2012
The ability of the sodium salt of 3,4-secoisopimar-4(18),7,15-trien-3-oic acid (1), a diterpenoid obtained from Salvia cinnabarina, to inhibit the genotoxic effect of ethyl methanesulfonate (a clastogenic agent) and colcemid (an aneugenic agent), was studied using a micronucleus assay on cultured human lymphocytes. Cells were treated with 1 before (pretreatment), during ...
Liu Tie Fu - - 2012
The early initiation phase of acute inflammation is anabolic and primarily requires glycolysis with reduced mitochondrial glucose oxidation for energy, whereas the later adaptation phase is catabolic and primarily requires fatty acid oxidation for energy. We reported previously that switching from the early to the late acute inflammatory response following ...
Hoque Md Anamul - - 2012
Methylglyoxal (MG) is one of the aldehydes accumulated in plants under environmental stress. Cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (cAPX) plays a key role in the protection of cells from oxidative damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species in higher plants. A cDNA encoding cAPX, named NtcAPX, was isolated from Nicotiana tabacum. We characterized ...
Hansen Finn K - - 2012
A series of 3-hydroxybenzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxylic acid derivatives has been prepared and subsequently evaluated with regards to the inhibition of 5-LOX/COX. Structure optimization furnished derivatives with promising in vitro activity as dual 5-LOX/COX inhibitors with submicromolar IC(50) values for inhibition of 5-LOX and COX-1, respectively.
Rossi Fanny - - 2012
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Senescent leaves of Heliotropium foertherianum Diane & Hilger (Boraginaceae) are traditionally used in the Pacific region to treat Ciguatera Fish Poisoning. This plant contains rosmarinic acid that is known for its multiple biological activities. In the present study, H. foertherianum aqueous extract, rosmarinic acid and its derivatives were ...
Aoun Manar - - 2012
No data are reported on changes in mitochondrial membrane phospholipids in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We determined the content of mitochondrial membrane phospholipids from rats with non alcoholic liver steatosis, with a particular attention for cardiolipin (CL) content and its fatty acid composition, and their relation with the activity of ...
Lou Wen-Yong - - 2012
A novel bagasse-based solid acid catalyst was successfully prepared through sulfonation of incompletely carbonized bagasse. A range of conditions for producing the catalyst were investigated, and the optimized catalyst, produced under carbonization at 648 K for 0.5 h and sulfonation at 423 K for 15 h, showed excellent catalytic activity and resulted in around ...
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