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Ties Paige - - 2012
Ten different varieties of tomatoes were separated into peel and flesh and each portion was measured separately. Headspace volatiles were measured in real time using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. Lipoxygenase activity was measured using the adsorption of conjugated dienes formed by lipoxygenase. Lipid was extracted and fatty acids ...
Buthelezi Sithabile - - 2012
Crocodile oil has been used by traditional practitioners world-wide to treat microbial infections and inflammatory conditions. However, the scientific rationale behind its use is not completely understood. This study provides an updated fatty acid profile and novel scientific evidence of the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of crocodile oil, obtained from ...
Kost Gina Chun - - 2012
Clavulanic acid is a psychoactive compound that has been shown to modulate central nervous system activity. Importantly, in neurotoxin-induced animal models, clavulanic acid has been shown to improve motor function (Huh et al., 2010) suggesting that it can be neuroprotective; however, the mechanism as how clavulanic acid can induce neuroprotection ...
Pérez Bianca - - 2012
Cinnamic acid derivatives containing a 4-amino-7-chloroquinoline scaffold (blue) and substituted cinnamoyl building blocks (green) linked through an alkylamine chain (red) were found to have potent (11-59 nM) in vitro activities against erythrocytic chloroquine- resistant Plasmodium falciparum.
Mays Charles E - - 2012
Quinacrine and related heterocyclic compounds have antiprion activity. Since the infectious pathogen of prion diseases is composed of multimeric PrP(Sc) assemblies, we hypothesized that this antiprion property could be enhanced by attaching multiple quinacrine-derived chloroquinoline or acridine moieties to a scaffold. In addition to exploring Congo red dye and tetraphenylporphyrin ...
Jorge Adriano Tadeu Siqueira - - 2012
Several treatments for skin whitening are available today, but few of them are completely adequate, especially due to the carcinogenic potential attributed to classical drugs like hydroquinone, arbutin and kojic acid. In order to provide an alternative and safer technology for whitening, we developed two botanical compounds originated from Brazilian ...
Wybenga Gjalt G - - 2012
Chiral β-amino acids occur as constituents of various natural and synthetic compounds with potentially useful bioactivities. The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent S-selective transaminase from Mesorhizobium sp. strain LUK (MesAT) is a fold type I aminotransferase that can be used for the preparation of enantiopure β-Phe and derivatives thereof. Using x-ray crystallography, ...
Omanakuttan Athira - - 2012
Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a wide variety of pathophysiological conditions. To further define the mechanism of CNSL action, we investigated the effect of cashew nut shell extract (CNSE) on two matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-2/gelatinase A and MMP-9/gelatinase B, which are ...
Petrônio Maicon S - - 2012
Hen egg white lysozyme (HEL), an antibacterial enzyme, is a prototype protein for studying the physical and chemical events that underlie the formation of amyloid fibril aggregates. Here, we studied alterations in enzymatic activity and aggregation provoked by oxidation of HEL by hypochlorous acid (HOCl), hypobromous acid (HOBr), taurine chloramine ...
Takahashi Daisuke - - 2012
Target-selective photodegradation of 3-deoxy-d-manno-2-octulopyranosonic acid (KDO) was achieved without additives and under neutral conditions using a designed anthraquinone-boronic acid hybrid and long wavelength UV light irradiation. The hybrid can photodegrade lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and inhibit macrophage activation induced by LPS.
Wiemuth Dominik - - 2012
Brain liver intestine Na(+) channel (BLINaC) is an ion channel of the DEG/ENaC gene family of unknown function. BLINaC from rats (rBLINaC) and humans (INaC) is inactive at rest, and its mode of activation has remained unclear. Here, we show that the BLINaC protein localizes to cholangiocytes, epithelial cells that ...
Rivero Omar - - 2012
Ascorbic acid molecules in either acid or conjugate base forms have been oxidized on self-doping carboxylated polyaniline thin films. The kinetic model proposed by Bartlett et al. has been successfully applied to the catalytic reactions. Active sites in the polymer have been identified as the rings having quinoid character. The ...
Sieniawska Elwira - - 2012
A simple HPLC method has been used for separation and quantitative analysis of the phenolic acids in the methanolic extracts of Ligusticum mutellina aerial parts. Chlorogenic acid was the predominant phenolic acid. Additionally, gallic, p-OH-benzoic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were identified. Moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity (MIC = 1.25-2.5 mg mL(-1)) was observed ...
Lam Alan K - - 2012
Pancreatic islet β-cells metabolically sense nutrients to maintain blood glucose homeostasis through the regulated secretion of insulin. Long-term exposure to a mixed supply of excess glucose and fatty acids induces β-cell dysfunction and type II diabetes in a process termed glucolipotoxicity. Despite a number of documented mechanisms for glucolipotoxicity, the ...
Walters Pollak Dana - - 2012
Delta (Δ) 5 desaturase is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of health-beneficial long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3) via the "desaturation and elongation" pathways. A full length Δ5 desaturase gene from Euglena gracilis (EgΔ5D) was isolated by ...
Ebrahiminia Ali - - 2012
Acoustic cavitation plays an important role in sonochemical processes and the rate of sonochemical reaction is influenced by sonication parameters. There are several methods to evaluate cavitation activity such as chemical dosimetry. In this study, to comparison between iodide dosimetry and terephthalic acid dosimetry, efficacy of sonication parameters in reactive ...
Jubie Selvaraj - - 2012
Stearic acid, a saturated fatty acid was isolated from the microalga Spirulina platensis. Some novel stearic acid analogues having 1,3,4-oxadiazole, 1,2,4-triazole and 1,2,4-triazolo-[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazole are synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR and mass spectral analysis. All the synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity by using cup plate method. The synthesized ...
Cherian Philip T - - 2012
PlsY is the essential first step in membrane phospholipid synthesis of Gram-positive pathogens. PlsY catalyzes the transfer of the fatty acid from acyl-phosphate to the 1-position of glycerol-3-phosphate to form the first intermediate in membrane biogenesis. A series of non-metabolizable, acyl-sulfamate analogs of the acyl-phosphate PlsY substrate were prepared and ...
Zhang Jing - - 2012
Ophiopogonpolysaccharide (OPS) was extracted by water decoction and ethanol precipitation, purified through eliminating protein by trichloroacetic acid method and column chromatography of DEAE-Cellulose-52, then sulfatedly modified by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method according to three-factors, ratio of chlorosulfonic acid to pyridine, reaction temperature and reaction time, and three level L(9)(3(4)) orthogonal designed ...
Furuya Toshiki - - 2012
Caffeic acid is a biologically active molecule that has various beneficial properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we explored the catalytic potential of a bacterial cytochrome P450, CYP199A2, for the biotechnological production of caffeic acid. When the CYP199A2 enzyme was reacted with p-coumaric acid, it stoichiometrically ...
Wisastra Rosalina - - 2012
Lipoxygenases catalyze the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid, which play a crucial role in inflammatory responses. Selective inhibitors may provide a new therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. In this study, we describe the identification of a novel soybean lipoxygenase-1 (SLO-1) inhibitor and a potato 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) ...
Ramos-Roman Maria A - - 2012
Insulin control of fatty acid metabolism has long been deemed dominated by suppression of adipose lipolysis. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that this single role of insulin is insufficient to explain observed fatty acid dynamics. Fatty acid kinetics were measured during a meal tolerance ...
Xia Ze-Feng - - 2012
Nesfatin-1, a novel hypothalamic peptide, inhibits nocturnal feeding behavior and gastrointestinal motility in rodents. The effects of nesfatin-1 on gastrointestinal secretory function, including gastric acid production, have not been evaluated. Nesfatin-1 was injected into the fourth intracerebral ventricle (4V) of chronically cannulated rats to identify a nesfatin dose sufficient to ...
Wang Ye - - 2012
SCOPE: Evidence suggests a neutral to beneficial role of certain trans fatty acids (TFA) from natural ruminant sources. Trans11-18:1 (vaccenic acid, VA), the most predominant ruminant TFA and a precursor to conjugated linoleic acid, has been shown to improve atherogenic dyslipidemia and symptoms of hepatic steatosis in animal models. The ...
Nakamura Hideaki - - 2012
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) causes impaired hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generation. Consequently, neutrophils in patients with CGD fail to kill infecting pathogens. We expected that supplementation with H(2)O(2) would effectively restore the bactericidal function of neutrophils in CGD. Here, we used polyethylene glycol-conjugated d-amino acid oxidase (PEG-DAO) as an H(2)O(2) source. ...
de Sousa Fábio Borges - - 2012
Antiulcerogenic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Celtis iguanaea leaves (CEE) was observed with experimental models such as ethanol, indomethacin, stress and pyloric ligation-induced gastric ulcers. Results obtained from indomethacin-induced ulcer showed the hexane fraction (HF) as the active fraction of CEE. This fraction inhibits the gastric acid secretion, increasing ...
Kovacik Jozef - - 2012
The impact of salinity (S) or nitrogen deficiency (-N) on copper (Cu) uptake and changes to metabolism were studied in the combined treatments after 7 days of exposure. S suppressed growth, water content, soluble proteins and reducing sugars more negatively than -N. ROS (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide) were differentially but ...
Harbaugh Matthew P MP Family Medicine, UPMC St. Margarets, Pittsburgh, PA, United - - 2013
Intake of the marine-based, n-3 fatty acids and engagement in physical activity are inversely related to cardiac morbidity and mortality. Among putative mechanisms, both n-3 fatty acids and physical activity may act through modulation of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system. This investigation examined the independent and interactive associations of ...
Chen Liujuan - - 2012
Selective H transfer by ABC: A new asymmetric binary acid catalyst was developed to promote 1,5-H transfer specifically and stereoselectively in tert-aminocyclization reactions with excellent activity, high enantioselectivity, and broad substrate scope. The H atom (in red) was proven to transfer through a stereospecific suprafacial pathway.
Stratford Malcolm - - 2012
Moulds are able to cause spoilage in preserved foods through degradation of the preservatives using the Pad-decarboxylation system. This causes, for example, decarboxylation of the preservative sorbic acid to 1,3-pentadiene, a volatile compound with a kerosene-like odour. Neither the natural role of this system nor the range of potential substrates ...
Zhu Ting-Shun - - 2012
A pincer-like chiral auxiliary strategy for synthesizing various optically active α,α-disubstituted amino acids in high yields with excellent enantioselectivities is described.
Isobe Kimiyasu - - 2012
An l-amino acid oxidase was found from a newly isolated strain, Pseudomonas sp. AIU 813. This enzyme was remarkably induced by incubation with l-lysine as a nitrogen source, and efficiently purified using an affinity chromatography with l-lysine as ligand. The enzyme oxidized l-lysine, l-ornithine and l-arginine, but not other l-amino ...
Di Sotto Antonella - - 2012
The ability of the sodium salt of 3,4-secoisopimar-4(18),7,15-trien-3-oic acid (1), a diterpenoid obtained from Salvia cinnabarina, to inhibit the genotoxic effect of ethyl methanesulfonate (a clastogenic agent) and colcemid (an aneugenic agent), was studied using a micronucleus assay on cultured human lymphocytes. Cells were treated with 1 before (pretreatment), during ...
Liu Tie Fu - - 2012
The early initiation phase of acute inflammation is anabolic and primarily requires glycolysis with reduced mitochondrial glucose oxidation for energy, whereas the later adaptation phase is catabolic and primarily requires fatty acid oxidation for energy. We reported previously that switching from the early to the late acute inflammatory response following ...
Hoque Md Anamul - - 2012
Methylglyoxal (MG) is one of the aldehydes accumulated in plants under environmental stress. Cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (cAPX) plays a key role in the protection of cells from oxidative damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species in higher plants. A cDNA encoding cAPX, named NtcAPX, was isolated from Nicotiana tabacum. We characterized ...
Hansen Finn K - - 2012
A series of 3-hydroxybenzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxylic acid derivatives has been prepared and subsequently evaluated with regards to the inhibition of 5-LOX/COX. Structure optimization furnished derivatives with promising in vitro activity as dual 5-LOX/COX inhibitors with submicromolar IC(50) values for inhibition of 5-LOX and COX-1, respectively.
Rossi Fanny - - 2012
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Senescent leaves of Heliotropium foertherianum Diane & Hilger (Boraginaceae) are traditionally used in the Pacific region to treat Ciguatera Fish Poisoning. This plant contains rosmarinic acid that is known for its multiple biological activities. In the present study, H. foertherianum aqueous extract, rosmarinic acid and its derivatives were ...
Aoun Manar - - 2012
No data are reported on changes in mitochondrial membrane phospholipids in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We determined the content of mitochondrial membrane phospholipids from rats with non alcoholic liver steatosis, with a particular attention for cardiolipin (CL) content and its fatty acid composition, and their relation with the activity of ...
Lou Wen-Yong - - 2012
A novel bagasse-based solid acid catalyst was successfully prepared through sulfonation of incompletely carbonized bagasse. A range of conditions for producing the catalyst were investigated, and the optimized catalyst, produced under carbonization at 648 K for 0.5 h and sulfonation at 423 K for 15 h, showed excellent catalytic activity and resulted in around ...
Alotaibi Mshari A - - 2012
Acidic heteropoly salt Cs(2.5)H(0.5)PW(12)O(40) doped with Pt nanoparticles is a highly active and selective catalyst for one-step hydrogenation of methyl isobutyl and diisobutyl ketones to the corresponding alkanes in the gas phase at 100 °C with 97-99% yield via metal-acid bifunctional catalysis.
Dong Yanpeng - - 2012
The functions of two long-chain fatty acid CoA ligase genes (facl) in crude oil-degrading Geobacillus thermodenitrificans NG80-2 were characterized. Facl1 and Facl2 encoded by GTNG_0892 and GTNG_1447 were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified as His-tagged fusion proteins. Both enzymes utilized a broad range of fatty acids ranging from acetic ...
Kuo Jong-Jen - - 2012
Insulin resistance occurs in almost all patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and mitochondrial dysfunction likely plays a pivotal role in the progression of fatty liver into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Curcumin is a compound derived from the spice turmeric, a spice that is a potent antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-hepatotoxic ...
Kamiyama Masumi - - 2012
Saponarin, a flavonoid found in young green barley leaves possessed potent antioxidant activities, which were determined by its inhibition of malonaldehyde (MA) formation from various lipids oxidized by UV-light or Fenton's reagent. Lipids used were squalene, ethyl linoleate, ethyl linolenate, ethyl arachidonate, octadecatetraenoic acid (ODTA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid ...
Simon S - - 2012
Phospholipids are widely used excipients for pharmaceutical formulations, such as for preparing biphasic systems or to solubilize or encapsulate poorly soluble drugs. The present study investigates a new property of this class of substance: its ability to inhibit the efflux transporter Pglycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp is expressed in the intestinal epithelium, ...
Pepe Dominique - - 2012
Cutaneous delivery of combinations of antioxidants offers the possibility of enhanced protection against UV-radiation. In this study, we investigated the potential of sugar-based microemulsions containing monoglycerides to promote simultaneous cutaneous delivery of lycopene and ascorbic acid, and increase tissue antioxidant activity. Lycopene and ascorbic acid were incorporated (0.04% and 0.2% ...
Samorì Chiara - - 2012
Acid catalysts were prepared by sulfonation of carbon materials obtained from the pyrolysis of sugar beet molasses, a cheap, viscous byproduct in the processing of sugar beets into sugar. Conditions for the pyrolysis of molasses (temperature and time) influenced catalyst performance; the best combination came from pyrolysis at low temperature ...
Huang Janice V - - 2012
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) is a key regulator of fatty acid metabolism, promoting its storage in adipose tissue and reducing circulating concentrations of free fatty acids. Activation of PPAR-γ has favorable effects on measures of adipocyte function, insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein metabolism, and vascular structure and function. Despite these effects, ...
Du Zixiu - - 2012
Spermine, an endogenous amino-group bearing monomer that condenses DNA in sperm, was used as the basic building block to form polycationic nucleic acid carriers via condensation with one of three linker molecules - bischloroformate, succinyl chloride, and glyoxal. The three cationic polymers, polyspermine carbamate (PSP-Carb), polyspermine amide (PSP-Amide) and polyspermine ...
Yuki Keiji - - 2012
An EtOH extract of Valeriana fauriei was found to exhibit potent inhibition of fat accumulation against 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes. After performing several chromatographic steps, we successfully isolated the conjugated linoleic acid derivative, 9-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (9-HODE). Synthesized 9-HODE and its analogs showed inhibitory activity against fat accumulation.
Gomaa Mohamed S - - 2012
Retinoic acid (RA), the biologically active metabolite of vitamin A, is used medicinally for the treatment of hyperproliferative diseases including dermatological conditions and cancer. The antiproliferative effects of RA have been well documented as well as the limitations owing to toxicity and the development of resistance to RA therapy. RA ...
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