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Romagnoli Gabriele - - 2012
Fusel alcohols are precursors and contributors to flavor and aroma compounds in fermented beverages, and some are under investigation as biofuels. The decarboxylation of 2-oxo acids is a key step in the Ehrlich pathway for fusel alcohol production. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, five genes share sequence similarity with genes encoding thiamine ...
Yamanaka Masahiro - - 2012
D: -Amino acids are stereoisomers of L: -amino acids. They are often called unnatural amino acids, but several D: -amino acids have been found in mammalian brains. Among them, D: -serine is abundant in the forebrain and functions as a co-agonist of NMDA receptors to enhance neurotransmission. D: -Amino-acid oxidase ...
Dowling Jennifer K - - 2012
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) can modulate the immune response, however the mechanism by which they exert this effect remains unclear. Previous studies have clearly demonstrated that the cis-9, trans-11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA), found predominantly in beef and dairy products, can modulate the response of immune cells to ...
Wang Hua - - 2012
An efficient catalytic decarboxylative acylation of unactivated sp(2) (alkenyl) C-H bonds has been developed. Various substituted α-oxocarboxylic acids with different electronic properties react under mild conditions to afford a diverse range of β-acyl enamide products in good yields. The reaction is proposed to proceed via a cyclic vinylpalladium intermediate, facilitating ...
Burney Sarah - - 2012
A quick switch: A single amino acid substitution at a conserved residue (D396N) of Arabidopsis cryptochrome-1 (Atcry1) confers single-stranded DNA repair activity in vitro, conferring photolyase activity onto the cryptochrome. The mutant protein undergoes photoreduction of flavin to the fully reduced anionic form, similar to photolyases and unlike wild-type cryptochromes.
Schriever Sonja C - - 2012
The regulation of cell growth and protein biosynthesis is triggered by the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) responding to amino acids, especially leucine. The molecular mechanisms linking leucine to mTORC1 activation are not well understood. We analyzed whether the free intracellular leucine availability, a metabolite of leucine catabolism ...
Lane Darius J R - - 2012
Vitamin C (ascorbate) plays important neuroprotective and neuromodulatory roles in the mammalian brain. Astrocytes are crucially involved in brain ascorbate homeostasis and may assist in regenerating extracellular ascorbate from its oxidised forms. Ascorbate accumulated by astrocytes can be released rapidly by a process that is stimulated by the excitatory amino ...
Anandan Ramaswamy - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the renoprotective effect of hesperidin (HDN), a citrus flavanoid with anti-oxidant properties against gentamicin (GEN)-induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar albino rats. METHODS: Urea, uric acid, creatinine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitric oxide (NO), total cholesterol, free fatty acids, and triglyceride ...
Marušić Nives - - 2012
This work is focused on the determination of compounds of nutritional interest that are naturally present in pork meat and how they are affected during the processing of dry-cured ham. Such compounds are creatine, creatinine, coenzyme Q(10), glutathione, carnosine, anserine, carnitine, taurine, cystine, cysteine and the essential amino acids. Their ...
Teixidó E - - 2012
In this study we analyzed some aspects of the assessment of developmental delay in the zebrafish embryotoxicity/teratogenicity test and explored the suitability of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as a biochemical marker and as a higher throughput alternative to morphological endpoints such as head-trunk angle, tail length and morphological score. Embryos were ...
Mohti Azmah - - 2012
The behavioral responses of guppy Poecilia reticulata (Poeciliidae) and prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Palaemonidae) individuals exposed to acid mine drainage (AMD) were monitored online in the laboratory with a Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor™ (MFB). These responses were compared to those to reference water acidified to the respective pH values (ACID). Test animals ...
Chen Xiaofeng - - 2012
A highly efficient cross-coupling of diarylborinic acids and anhydrides with aryl chlorides and bromides has been effected by using a palladium catalyst system co-supported by a strong σ-donor N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC), N,N'-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl) imidazol-2-ylidene, and a strong π-acceptor phosphite, triphenylphosphite, in tert-BuOH in the present of K3PO4•3H2O. Unsymmetrical biaryls with a ...
Chen Szu-Jung - - 2012
Sciadonic acid (SCA; Δ5,11,14-20:3), a non-methylene-interrupted polyunsaturated fatty acid (NMIFA), can substitute for arachidonic acid (AA) and reduce prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) synthesis in macrophages. However, little is known about how SCA exerts its anti-inflammatory effects. The objectives of this study were to purify SCA from seeds of Podocarpus nagi and ...
Boonman Narumon - - 2012
Acanthamoeba is a genus of free-living protozoa that can cause sight- and life-threatening diseases in man. Its control is still problematic due to the lack of effective and nontoxic acanthamoebicidal agents. Herein, we report the first finding of an in vitro killing effect of fusaric acid and dehydrofusaric acid, isolated ...
Marcus Elizabeth A - - 2012
Helicobacter pylori survives and grows at low pHs via acid acclimation mechanisms that enable periplasmic pH homeostasis. Important components include a cytoplasmic urease; a pH-gated urea channel, UreI; and periplasmic α-carbonic anhydrase. To allow the rapid adjustment of periplasmic pH, acid acclimation components are recruited to the inner membrane in ...
Behera Bhaskar C - - 2012
Context: Lichens have been used for various purposes such as dyes, perfumes and remedies in folk medicine indicating the pharmaceutical potential of lichens. Objective: Lichen growth in nature is very slow. To overcome this major drawback, we standardized the culture media to culture the lichen Usnea complanata (Müll.Arg.) Motyka (Parmeliaceae) ...
Jakobsson Elina - - 2012
Polysialic acid is an α2,8-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid polymer found on the surface of both bacterial and eukaryotic cells. Endosialidases are bacteriophageborne glycosyl hydrolases that specifically cleave polysialic acid. The crystal structure of an endosialidase reveals a trimeric mushroom-shaped molecule which, in addition to the active site, harbors two additional polysialic ...
Carpenter Caitlyn D - - 2012
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Common juniper, Juniperus communis, is amongst the plants most frequently used by the indigenous peoples of North America for medicinal purposes. The First Nations of the Canadian Maritimes use infusions of juniper primarily as a tonic and for the treatment of tuberculosis. Previous investigations of extracts derived from ...
Sun Hao-Peng - - 2012
The natural product gambogic acid exhibits high potency in inhibiting cancer cell lines. Rational medicinal modifications on gambogic acid will improve its physicochemical properties and drug-like characters. To investigate the structureactivity relationship of gambogic acid and also to find rational modification position on its chemical skeleton, we designed, synthesized, and ...
Pallini Alexandra - - 2012
Endothelin-1 inhibits collecting duct sodium reabsorption and stimulates proximal and distal tubule acidification in experimental animals both directly and indirectly via increased mineralocorticoid activity. Diet-induced acid loads have been shown to increase renal endothelin-1 activity, and it is hypothesized that increased dietary acid-induced endothelin-1 activity may be a causative progression ...
Crump Katie E - - 2012
B-cell receptor (BCR) ligation generates reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) that play a role in cellular responses. Although ROIs can oxidize all macromolecules, it was unclear which modifications control B-cell responses. In this study, we demonstrate the importance of the first oxidation product of cysteine, sulfenic acid, and its reversible formation ...
Suzuki Shingo - - 2012
Although it is known that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in neuronal survival and differentiation, its effect on lipid homeostasis is poorly understood. To understand them, we here investigated the effect of BDNF on the fatty acid composition of primary neurons. A detailed analysis of the fatty ...
Gandhi Akanksha - - 2012
In this study, the impact of fermentation of Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat) by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis was investigated. The interaction between starter culture and buckwheat dough matrix was evaluated with respect to microbial count, final pH, organic acids, total phenolic content and antioxidant potential. An increase of one log cycle ...
Garg Priyanka - - 2012
Niflumic acid, 2-{[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]amino}pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (NFA), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that blocks cyclooxygenase (COX), was shown previously to activate [Na(+)](i)-regulated Slo2.1 channels. In this study, we report that other fenamates, including flufenamic acid, mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, meclofenamic acid, and a phenyl acetic acid derivative, diclofenac, also are low-potency (EC(50) = ...
Dini Cecilia - - 2012
Phage therapy by oral administration requires enhanced resistance of phages to the harsh gastric conditions. The aim of this work is the microencapsulation of phages in natural biopolymeric matrices as a protective barrier against the gastric environment. Alginate and pectin are used as base polymers. Further emulsification with oleic acid ...
Magnusson Carlos D - - 2012
A novel approach has been developed for activating the highly bioactive long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids EPA and DHA as oxime esters and incorporating them exclusively to the end-positions of glycerol and enantiopure 1-O-alkylglycerols. The Candida antarctica lipase B was observed to display a superb regioselectivity when using the acetoxime ...
Dezmirean Gratia Ioana - - 2012
Honey as rich source of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants serves as health-promoting nutrient in the human body. Here, we present the first time a comparative study of nutritional profiles (e.g., acidities; sugar, organic acid profile; total polyphenolic, flavonoid content) for different unifloral, multifloral honeys and their fermented products, in correlation ...
Parsons Joshua B - - 2012
The skin represents an important barrier for pathogens and is known to produce fatty acids that are toxic toward gram-positive bacteria. A screen of fatty acids as growth inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus revealed structure-specific antibacterial activity. Fatty acids like oleate (18:1Δ9) were nontoxic, whereas palmitoleate (16:1Δ9) was a potent growth ...
Jain Shashank - - 2012
Development of effective, yet safe, antithrombotic agents has been challenging because such agents increase the propensity of patients to bleed. Recently, naturally occurring polyphosphates such as extracellular DNA, RNA, and inorganic polyphosphates have been shown to activate blood coagulation. In this report, we evaluate the anticoagulant and antithrombotic activity of ...
Rao Ajmeera Rama - - 2012
The polyol enzyme aldose reductase (AR) and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) play an important role in diabetic complications such as cataracts. The purpose of this study was to investigate four standardized plant extracts used for the treatment of diabetes and related diseases, and their principal components for AR inhibitory activity ...
Ohlmann Dominik M - - 2012
The dimeric palladium(I) complex [Pd(µ-Br)tBu3P]2 was found to possess unique activity for the catalytic double-bond migration within unsaturated compounds. This isomerization catalyst is fully compatible with state-of-the-art olefin metathesis catalysts. In the presence of bifunctional catalyst systems consisting of [Pd(µ-Br)tBu3P]2 and NHC-indylidene ruthenium complexes, unsaturated compounds are continuously converted into ...
Kuo Yung-Ting - - 2012
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease can be attributed to the imbalance between lipogenesis and lipolysis in the liver. Alpha-lipoic acid has been shown to activate the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling pathway and to effectively inhibit the lipogenesis pathway in liver. However, whether alpha-lipoic acid stimulates lipolysis remains unclear. Recently, adipose ...
Negro Carmine - - 2012
Buglossoides purpureocaerulea is a little-known plant used in the folk tradition for the preparation of a decoction in Sud, Italy, where it is appreciated for its beneficial effects on liver diseases. These properties may be due to the presence of antioxidant compounds. This study presents the phenolic characterisation and the ...
Loock J W - - 2012
Objective:  Primary: to compare one-off administration of boric acid powder with courses of 1% acetic acid and ciprofloxacin eardrops in treating active chronic otitis media. Secondary: to evaluate the effectiveness of Quadriderm® cream in resistant active chronic otitis media; and to document side effects of these treatments, especially hearing loss. ...
Wu Wengen - - 2012
The boroProline-based dipeptidyl boronic acids were among the first DPP-IV inhibitors identified, and remain the most potent known. We introduced various substitutions at the 4-position of the boroProline ring regioselectively and stereoselectively, and incorporated these aminoboronic acids into a series of 4-substituted boroPro-based dipeptides. Among these dipeptidyl boronic acids, Arg-(4S)-boroHyp ...
Hensen Sanne M M - - 2012
Mammalian cells respond to a lack of amino acids by activating a transcriptional program with the transcription factor ATF4 as one of the main actors. When cells are faced with cytoplasmic proteotoxic stress, a quite different transcriptional response is mounted, the heat shock response, which is mediated by HSF1. Here, ...
Foulke-Abel Jennifer - - 2012
The pathway for substrate transacylation between a fungal type I fatty acid synthase (FAS) and a nonreducing polyketide synthase (NR-PKS) was determined by in vitro reconstitution of dissected domains. System kinetics were influenced by domain dissections, and the FAS phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPT) monodomain exhibited coenzyme A selectivity for the post-translational ...
Mu Wanmeng - - 2012
3-Phenyllactic acid (PLA), which is an organic acid widely existing in honey and lactic acid bacteria fermented food, can be produced by many microorganisms, especially lactic acid bacteria. It was proved as an ideal antimicrobial compound with broad and effective antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and fungi. In addition, it ...
Zhao Nan - - 2012
Known SABATH methyltransferases, all of which were identified from seed plants, catalyze methylation of either the carboxyl group of a variety of low molecular weight metabolites or the nitrogen moiety of precursors of caffeine. In this study, the SABATH family from the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens was identified and characterized. Four ...
Ostinelli Luca - - 2012
Vanadium-containing saponite samples were synthesized in a one-pot synthetic procedure with the aim of preparing samples for potential application as fillers for polymeric composites. These vanadium-modified materials were prepared from an acid support by adopting a synthetic strategy that allowed us to introduce isolated structural V species (H/V-SAP). The physicochemical ...
Decker Martina - - 2012
Epoxide hydrolases are a small superfamily of enzymes important for the detoxification of chemically reactive xenobiotic epoxides and for the processing of endogenous epoxides that act as signaling molecules. Here, we report the identification of two human epoxide hydrolases: EH3 and EH4. They share 45% sequence identity, thus representing a ...
Larsson Kristian - - 2012
Metal recovery is an essential part of the recycling of hybrid electric vehicle battery waste and the first step in a hydrometallurgical treatment is dissolution of the solid material. The properties of separated battery electrode materials were investigated. Focus was put on both the solid waste and then the dissolution ...
Dong Kaiwu - - 2012
A type of chiral Rh(I) catalysts containing monodentate phosphorous acid diesters tautomerized from its secondary phosphine oxide was discovered by serendipitous hydrolysis of phosphoramidite ligands. The evolved catalyst demonstrated unprecedented enantioselectivities (98->99% ee's) and high catalytic activities (as low as 0.01 mol % catalyst loading) in asymmetric hydrogenation of a ...
Molitor Daniel - - 2012
Bioactivity-guided isolation led to the identification of phenguignardic acid (2), a new phytotoxic secondary metabolite from submerged cultures of grape black rot fungus, Guignardia bidwellii. The compound is structurally related to guignardic acid (1), a dioxolanone moiety-containing metabolite isolated previously from Guignardia species. However, in contrast to guignardic acid, which ...
Demir Dudu - - 2012
Prophenoloxidase (PPO) was purified from Galleria mellonella L. A 67-fold purification of the proenzyme with 352% yield was achieved by using a Sepharose 4B-L-tyrosine-p-amino benzoic acid affinity column. The purified enzyme was migrated as a single band on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. K(m) and V(max) values were 0.017 M and 1430.45 ...
Butini Stefania - - 2012
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH, EC 3.5.1.99) is the main enzyme catabolizing endocannabinoid fatty acid amides. FAAH inactivation promotes beneficial effects upon pain and anxiety without the side effects accompanying agonists of type-1 cannabinoid receptors. Aiming at discovering new selective FAAH inhibitors, we developed a series of compounds (5a-u) characterized ...
Herczeg Mihály - - 2012
Two pentasaccharide sulfonic acids that were related to the antithrombin-binding domain of heparin were prepared, in which two or three primary sulfate esters were replaced by sodium-sulfonatomethyl moieties. The sulfonic-acid groups were formed on a monosaccharide level and the obtained carbohydrate sulfonic-acid esters were found to be excellent donors and ...
Urbanek Aleksandra - - 2012
The hygroscopic secretion produced by the secretory setae of terrestrial larvae of the biting midge Forcipomyia nigra (Winnertz) was analysed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The viscous secretion is stored at the top of each seta and absorbs water from moist air. GC-MS analyses (4 independent tests) ...
Xie Yongjing - - 2012
Human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) and its analogues are partially unfolded protein-oleic acid complexes that exhibit selective tumoricidal activity normally absent in the native protein itself. In order to understand the nature of the interaction between protein and oleic acid moieties, charge-specific chemical modifications of lysine side ...
Dundar A - - 2012
Our objectives were to investigate the chemical composition, nutritive value and antioxidant activity potentials of Terfezia boudieri Chatin collected from different areas from Southeast of Turkey. The amounts of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, crude fibre, moisture and ash were 34.00-65.00 (kcal/100 g), 1.40-2.73, 0.86-1.71, 4.84-11.60, 80.86-90.33 (g/100 g, f.w.) and ...
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