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Results 401 - 450 of 1415
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Ban Seiji - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the etching behavior of titanium in concentrated sulfuric acid and discuss its application on surface modification of titanium for biological use. METHODS: Commercially pure titanium (cpTi) plate was etched in 48% H2SO4 at RT -90 degrees C for 0.25-8 h. The ...
Rees Jeremy - - 2005
Sports drinks are becoming increasingly popular as we are all being encouraged to adopt a healthier lifestyle with regular exercise. However, many of these products are based on acidic fruits and may contribute to erosion. The aim of this study was to screen a number of these products for their ...
Cirpanli Yasemin - - 2005
Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres containing all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) were prepared by emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. PLGA (50:50) with inherent viscosities of 0.17 and 0.39 dL g(-1) was used. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or PVA and sodium oleate (SO) combinations (4:1) were used to stabilize the emulsions. The effect of polymer ...
Zhang Yongchao - - 2005
We describe a simple, potentially low-cost, amperometric, enzyme-amplified, sandwich-type immunoassay, monitoring IgG at a concentration as low as approximately 7 pg/mL with a dynamic range of 10(4). The assay utilizes a screen-printed carbon electrode on which a redox hydrogel and avidin are co-electrodeposited. To neutralize nonspecifically binding positively charged microdomains ...
Lilley K J - - 2005
Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) can be mixed with phosphoric acid to form a brushite cement; a degradable inorganic bone filling material. nHA was precipitated from reactants of calcium to phosphate (Ca/P) ratio 0.8 to 2.0 and mixed with phosphoric acid, which resulted in the formation of a brushite cement. Cement was ...
Abe Hajime - - 2005
A basic host polymer exhibiting pH-regulatable saccharide recognition has been investigated. Poly(m-ethynylpyridine) bearing dialkylamino groups forms helical complexes with saccharides to show induced circular dichroism (ICD). When trifluoroacetic acid was titrated on these complexes, the ICD was gradually enhanced until the amount of the acid reached ca. 0.5 molar equivalence ...
Liu Hong - - 2005
We have developed a one-step, hydrofluoric acid-free hydrothermal etching method that not only produces bismuth nano/micrometer-sized spheres but also prepares porous silicon with vertical holes. By controlling the heating temperature and time, nanoscale vertical-channeled porous silicon can be received. Our result indicated that the Bi clusters were formed first on ...
Böstman O M - - 2005
Despite worldwide clinical use of bio-absorbable devices for internal fixation in orthopaedic surgery, the degradation behaviour and tissue replacement of these implants are not fully understood. In a long-term experimental study, we have determined the patterns of tissue restoration 36 and 54 months after implantation of polyglycolic acid and poly-laevo-lactic ...
Qiu Furong - - 2005
The morphology and miscibility of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPN) prepared with poly(styrene-co-methacrylic acid) [P(S-co-MAA)] of different carboxylic acid contents and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) have been studied by ESR spin-label method. The ESR spectra of spin-labeled PCL showed one motional component at any specific temperature. It indicated that the spin-labeled molecules were ...
Masson Jean-Francois - - 2005
The elimination or minimization of non-specific protein adsorption from serum is critical for the use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors for in vitro and in vivo analysis of complex biological solutions. The ultimate goals in this application are to minimize non-specific adsorption of protein and to maximize analyte signal. ...
Guo Wen-xun - - 2005
New unsaturated polyesters of poly(fumaric acid-glycol-dodecanedioic acid) P(FA-GLY-DDDA) copolymers, poly(fumaric acid-glycol-brassylic acid) P(FA-GLY-BA) copolymers, poly(fumaric acid-glycol-tetradecanedioic acid) P(FA-GLY-TA) copolymers and poly(fumaric acid-glycol-pentadecanedioic acid) P(FA-GLY-PA) copolymers were prepared by melt polycondensation of the corresponding mixed monomers: fumaric acid, glycol and one of C(12-15) dibasic acids. The copolymers were characterized by FT-IR, ...
Prentice Leon Hugh - - 2006
Oxalic acid and its metal oxalate salts have been used extensively in dentistry in a range of applications: as desensitisers, in cavity preparation, and as bonding agents. This study investigated the influence of oxalic acid upon the working time, initial setting time, 24-h hardness and compressive strength of a glass-ionomer ...
Nah Sanghee - - 2006
The ability to monitor etching solutions using a spectroscopy directly through existing Teflon lines in electronic industries is highly beneficial and offers many advantages. A monitoring method was developed using near-infrared (NIR) measurements with Teflon tubing as a sample container for the quantification of components in the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) etching ...
Kim Dong Jin - - 2005
Micropatterns of silica on a gold substrate were generated by a biomimetic approach, namely, the biosilicification of silicic acids. The procedure consists of three simple steps: pattern generation of a polymerization initiator, (BrC(CH(3))(2)COO(CH(2))(11)S)(2), by microcontact printing; surface-initiated, atom-transfer radical polymerization of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) from the patterned area; and polycondensation ...
Trinks Hauke - - 2005
Sea ice occurs abundantly at the polar caps of the Earth and, probably, of many other planets. Its static and dynamic properties that may be important for prebiotic and early biotic reactions are described. It concentrates substrates and has many features that are important for catalytical actions. We propose that ...
Kapoor D N - - 2005
Concept of creating mechanical retention for bonding through crystal growth has been successfully achieved in the present study. By using polyacrylic acid, sulphated with sulphuric acid as etchant, abundant crystal growth was demonstrated. Keeping in view the obvious benefits of crystal growth technique, the present SEM study was aimed to ...
Larraz E - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to synthesize a novel ampiphilic polyalkenoic acid copolymer based on acrylic acid and a methacrylic macromonomer of Triton X-100 and determine the efficacy of the novel copolymeric polyalkenoic acid in the formation of glass-ionomer cements. METHODS: Two water soluble copolymers of acrylic acid ...
Xie Zhigang - - 2005
Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(5-benzyloxy-trimethylene carbonate-lactic acid) copolymers (PEG-b-P(BTMC-LA)) were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of lactide and 5-benzyloxy trimethylene carbonate in the presence of mono-hydroxyl poly(ethylene glycol) with diethyl zinc as catalyst. They were further converted into deprotected copolymers with the pendant hydroxyl groups by hydrogenolysis in the presence of Pd(OH)2/C, and finally ...
Wang Chau-Hui - - 2005
Polymeric micelles based on poly(L-lactide)-b-poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-b-poly(L-lactide) (PLLA-PEOz-PLLA) ABA triblock copolymers were designed as intracellular drug carriers. The PLLA-PEOz-PLLA micelles adopt a "flower-like" arrangement with A-blocks at the core and a B-block on the shell under neutral condition. The deformation of the core-shell structure is then promoted by the aggregation of PEOzs ...
Delattre C - - 2005
The pseudobioaffinity chromatography with L-histidines immobilized onto poly(ethylene-vinyl alcohol) hollow-fiber membranes was studied for a selective purification of anionic oligosaccharides. Oligoglucuronans with different degrees of polymerization and acetylation, prepared by an enzymatic degradation of bacterial polyglucuronic acid, were used as models. The adsorption and elution parameters were studied to optimise ...
Dong Chang-Ming - - 2005
Blank and bovine serum albumin (BSA)-loaded microspheres based on poly(lactic-acid-alt-glycolic acid) (D,L-PLGA50) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-poly(lactic-acid-alt-glycolic acid) (PCL-b-D,L-PLGA50) were successfully fabricated using water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double-emulsion extraction/evaporation technique. In vitro degradation of the blank microspheres was characterized by techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) ...
Bernkop-Schnürch Andreas - - 2005
Thiolated polymers or designated thiomers are mucoadhesive basis polymers, which display thiol bearing side chains. Based on thiol/disulfide exchange reactions and/or a simple oxidation process disulfide bonds are formed between such polymers and cysteine-rich subdomains of mucus glycoproteins building up the mucus gel layer. Thiomers mimic therefore the natural mechanism ...
Wicht Michael J - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To assess the antimicrobial effect of acid etching or a triclosan-containing compomer on the cultivable microflora of incompletely excavated dentinal carious lesions. METHODS: Thirty detinal lesions were opened with a diamond burr. Subsequent to removal of the softened biomass a sample of dentin was taken from the cavity floor ...
Seow W K - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Dental erosion is highly prevalent today, and acidic drinks are thought to be an important cause. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the erosive potential of a range of common beverages on extracted human teeth. METHODS: The beverages were tested for their individual pHs using a ...
Fu Baiping - - 2005
Phosphoric acid esters (PAEs) have been used as a self-etching primer for composite-to-enamel bonding in adhesive dentistry. However, the chemical mechanism of their interactions with hydroxyapatite (HA) is not clear. In the present study, HA particles were mixed with Resulcin AquaPrime (Merz Co.) priming agent that contains a mixture of ...
Fu B - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to investigate the interfacial interaction of tartaric acid with hydroxyapatite and enamel. Hydroxyapatite particles were mixed with 15% (w/v) alcohol-aqueous (1:1) solution of tartaric acid for 72 h. After the mixture, the filtrate was separated from the solid. The filtrate, the solid, hydroxyapatite, and ...
Yan Xiaoliang - - 2005
To develop a platform for tumor chemotherapy, poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) microparticles have been synthesized. Carboxylate containing monomers were included to complex therapeutic agents, specifically cisplatin. Microparticles were prepared by free radical emulsion polymerization in aqueous media. Particle diameter, zeta-potential, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vivo acute toxicity were characterized for ...
Attin Thomas - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: This in vitro study assesses toothbrushing abrasion of a microfill (Heliomolar Radioopaque) and a hybrid composite (Herculite XRV) after application of two acidic fluoride agents. METHODS: Thirty-six specimens of each resin composite were fabricated, ground flat and polished. Subsequently the 36 samples of each material were evenly assigned to ...
Vicente Ascensión - - 2005
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of two self-etching primers for bonding brackets in comparison with the conventional acid-etch technique. METHODS: The brackets were bonded to extracted human premolars using the resin orthodontic adhesive system, Transbond XT. This procedure was carried out in accordance with one of the following three protocols ...
Xie Dong - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a novel amino acid modified zinc/calcium polycarboxylate cement system, formulate the cements, and evaluate their mechanical strengths. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acrylate and methacrylate derivatives of four amino acids were synthesized and characterized using FT-IR and 1HNMR spectroscopy. The derivatives were formulated ...
Shukla J - - 2005
Poly(lactic-co glycolic)acid (75:25) (PLGA) microspheres for the delivery of a radiation dose to tumors were synthesized after loading the 188Re(V) labeled DMSA. The 188ReO4- in place of 99mTcO4- was replaced to label DMSA, because of their structural and chemical similarities and to make the molecule site specific for radiotherapy. The ...
Prentice Leon H - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Both boric acid (H3BO3) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) are components of dental cements, commonly incorporated into glass (as ingredients in the melt) and occasionally added to the powder or liquid components. This study investigated the effect of boric acid addition to an experimental glass-ionomer powder and the effect of ...
Zhao Jie - - 2005
A series of novel biodegradable multi-block copolymers PLGA-(L-Asp-alt-diol)(x)-PLGA with pendant amino groups was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of D,L-lactide/glycolide(D,L-LA/GA) (75/25) using poly(N-Cbz-L-Asp-alt-diol)s as macroinitiator and stannous octoate as catalyst, in which the N-Cbz-L-Asp represents N-carbobenzyloxy-L-aspartic acid and diols are ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, PEG200, and PEG600, respectively. Their structures and ...
Godec Andrej - - 2005
The enthalpy changes accompanying the dilution and ionization of poly(L-glutamic acid) in water have been measured at 25 degrees C for two degrees of polymerization (DP = 115 and DP = 480) at various degrees of ionization, alpha, for a concentration range from about 0.2 to 0.002 monomol/L. The heat ...
Tsuji Hideto - - 2005
Poly(lactide)s [i.e. poly(lactic acid) (PLA)] and lactide copolymers are biodegradable, compostable, producible from renewable resources, and nontoxic to the human body and the environment. They have been used as biomedical materials for tissue regeneration, matrices for drug delivery systems, and alternatives for commercial polymeric materials to reduce the impact on ...
Lee Bae Hoon BH The Harrington Department of Bioengineering, Arizona State University, ECG 334, Tempe, AZ 85287-9709, - - 2005
Copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide, 2-hydroxyethyl methacryl lactate [(HEMA)-lactate] and acrylic acid (AAc) were prepared with varying mole ratios of monomers to develop copolymers with gelation properties above a certain concentration for a bioerodible, in-situ gelling material. The copolymers formed gels in situ under physiological condition. The gelation temperature of the copolymers ...
Weber N - - 2006
Linear copolymeric polythioesters [PTE; poly(alpha,omega-alkanedioic acid-co-alpha,omega-alkanedithiols)] were formed in good yield (approximately 69%) by thioesterification of 1,12-dodecanedioic acid with 1,6-hexanedithiol and 1,8-octanedithiol, respectively, catalyzed by immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme RM IM) in vacuo without a solvent. Similarly, transthioesterification (thiolysis) of diethyl 1,12-dodecanedioate with 1,6-hexanedithiol led to the formation ...
Scales Charles W - - 2005
Poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide) (PHPMA) is a nonimmunogenic, neutral-hydrophilic polymer currently employed in the delivery of anticancer drugs. Herein, we report conditions that facilitate the direct, controlled RAFT polymerization of HPMA in aqueous media. We demonstrate that the use of 4-cyanopentanoic acid dithiobenzoate and 4,4'-azobis(4-cyanopentanoic acid) as the chain transfer agent (CTA) and ...
Kato Makoto - - 2005
An aliphatic polythioester was enzymatically prepared by the direct polycondensation of mercaptoalkanoic acid using immobilized lipase of Candida antarctica (lipase CA) in bulk. The commercially available 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid was polymerized by lipase CA in bulk in the presence of molecular sieves 4A as a water absorbent at 110 degrees C ...
Kim Min-Jeong - - 2005
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of etching with phosphoric acid incorporated in an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel on the bonding of a bracket and the loss of sound enamel. In the control group, the enamel was etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 seconds. ...
Ashby Richard D - - 2005
Glycerol was used as a substrate in the bio-production of poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) in an effort to establish an alternative outlet for glycerol and produce value-added products. Pseudomonas oleovorans NRRL B-14682 and Pseudomonas corrugata 388 grew and synthesized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB) and medium-chain-length PHA (mcl-PHA) consisting primarily of 3-hydroxydecanoic acid (C(10:0); 44 ...
Cervantes-Uc Jose M - - 2005
Bone cements prepared with methacrylic acid (MAA) and diethyl amino ethyl methacrylate (DEAEM) were compared with formulations employing 4-methacryloyloxybenzoic acid (MBA) and 4-diethyaminobenzyl methacrylate (DEABM) as comonomer. The influence of these new aromatic monomers on various physicochemical, setting and mechanical properties was assessed. Surface characterization demonstrated that bone cements prepared ...
Yang Seung Rim - - 2005
N(omega)-2,2,4,6,7-Pentamethyldihydrobenzofuran-5-sulfonyl (N(omega)-Pbf)-protected oligoarginine was directly conjugated to poly(amino acid) derivatives modified with a long alkyl chain. The final concentration of conjugated peptides was easily controlled by the feed ratio of oligoarginine to polymer backbone and a final soluble polymeric system was obtained by the deprotection of N(omega)-Pbf groups. The polymeric ...
Van Landuyt K L - - 2006
The self-etch approach provides dentists with a generation of user-friendly and less technique-sensitive adhesives. Nevertheless, some concern has been raised regarding their bonding effectiveness to enamel, in particular when so-called 'mild' self-etch adhesives are employed. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the two-step self-etch ...
Murty Santos B - - 2005
Since acylated peptide impurities were isolated from octreotide microspheres following incubation in an in vivo environment, the present investigation was undertaken to determine the dosage form dynamics responsible for facilitating acylation. In particular, microsphere batches made with poly(L-lactide) (PLA) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) 85:15 were studied for in vitro drug release, ...
Malusà E - - 2005
The levels of phosphorous acid residues in apples after foliar fertilization with P fertilizers and after treatment with a phosphonate fungicide (Fosetyl-Al) were determined and compared. Two field trials and a glasshouse experiment, using different genotypes and plants of different age, were carried out and monitored over a three-year period. ...
Chen Hong - - 2005
Ultrafine cellulose fiber (diameter 200-400 nm) surfaces were grafted with polyacrylic acid (PAA) via either ceric ion initiated polymerization or methacrylation of cellulose with methacrylate chloride (MACl) and subsequent free-radical polymerization of acrylic acid. PAA grafts by ceric ion initiated polymerization increased with increasing reaction time (2-24 h), monomer (0.3-2.4 ...
Reddy Rajarathnam E - - 2005
An efficient method was developed for the preparation of polyanionic affinity agent (3), a key component in the measurement of glycated hemoglobin (GHb). Glycated hemoglobin is an important clinical marker for diagnosis of patients with diabetes and useful to monitor the management of disease. The affinity agent (3) was prepared ...
Caminear David S - - 2005
This study investigated the use of a bioabsorbable pin made of an oriented poly-L-lactic acid/polyglycolic acid (82:18 ratio) copolymer to fix distal chevron osteotomies in 15 patients (18 feet), with an average follow-up of 18 months. This material absorbs faster than poly-L-lactic acid and slower than poly-p-dioxanone, 2 bioabsorbable polymers ...
Nishiyama Norihiro - - 2005
It is well understood that the application of a self-etching primer enhances the bonding at the resin-teeth interface. In this study, we designed a self-etching primer consisting of N-methacryloyl glycine (NMGly) and N-methacryloyl-2-aminoethyl phosphonic acid (NMEP). The demineralization effects on the hydroxyapatite or dentin by the carboxylic acid in the ...
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