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Wang Beilei - - 2009
Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamidophenylboronic acid) [PEG(114)-b-(PAA(63)-co-PAAPBA(107))] was synthesized by the modification of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(acrylic acid) (PEG(114)-b-PAA(170)) with 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA). Glucose-responsive PEG(114)-b-(PAA(63)-co-PAAPBA(107)) self-assembled into core-shell micelles with the hydrophobic core composed of PAAPBA and hydrophilic shell composed of PEG in aqueous solution. The swelling and disaggregating behaviors of micelles responding to ...
Bartlett David - - 2009
Acid erosion is the chemical effect of dietary or gastric acids on enamel and dentine. Unlike dental caries, which is a bacterially mediated condition, acid erosion normally is combined with physical forms of attrition and abrasion. The clinical appearance of acid erosion in the early stages is seen characteristically as ...
Inoue Go - - 2009
An acid-base resistant zone has been found to exist after acid-base challenge adjacent to the hybrid layer using SEM. The aim of this study was to examine the acid-base resistant zone using three different bonding systems. Dentin disks were applied with three different bonding systems, and then a resin composite ...
Alves K M - - 2009
AIM: This in vitro study evaluated the abrasiveness of acidic fluoride (F) dentifrices with different F concentrations on bovine enamel. METHODS: Enamel blocks (4.0 x 4.0 mm2, n=120) were selected according to their surface microhardness and divided into 12 groups. Slurries of dentifrices were used containing 0 (placebo), 275, 412, ...
Ishimoto Kiyoaki - - 2009
To broaden the application scope of lactic acid polymers, a new miniemulsion of poly(alkyl methacrylate-graft-lactic acid)s has been developed. The graft copolymer synthesis was based on a poly(lactic acid) macromonomer having a methacryloyl polymerizable group. The macromonomer and a comonomer of n-butyl methacrylate together with a suitable surfactant formed a ...
Kim Do Young do - - 2009
Burkholderia sp. IS-01 capable of biosynthesizing poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [poly(3HB-co-3HV)] copolyesters with a high molar fraction of 3HV was isolated from the gut of the adult longicorn beetle, Moechotypa diphysis. The strain IS-01 was relatively tolerant to high concentrations of levulinic acid and accumulated a poly(13.5 mol% 3HB-co-86.5 mol% 3HV) copolyester when ...
Lu Hua - - 2009
We report here the integration of ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and ring-opening polymerization of the amino acid N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) to allow facile synthesis of brush-like polymers containing polypeptide as the brush side chains. ROMP of N-trimethylsilyl norbornenes rendered the preparation of poly(norbornene)s bearing pendant N-TMS groups. With no need to ...
Torma Vikt?ria - - 2010
In order to obtain nontoxic functional polymer gels for biomedical applications, chemically crosslinked poly(aspartic acid) gels have been prepared using 1,4-diaminobutane as crosslinker. The presence of COOH and amino groups on the network chains renders these gels pH sensitive. Due to the specific hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance, these gels show a significant ...
Cross Sarah E - - 2009
Streptococcus mutans is considered a major causative of tooth decay due to its ability to rapidly metabolize carbohydrates such as sucrose. One prominent excreted end product of sucrose metabolism is lactic acid. Lactic acid causes a decrease in the pH of the oral environment with subsequent demineralization of the tooth ...
Pietrzak William S - - 2009
In general, most bioabsorbable polymers used for internal fixation are composed of copolymers of glycolic acid and lactic acid (L and/or DL). Within this family of polymers resides the latitude to design materials with specific degradation properties to meet a variety of clinical needs. One material with an extensive clinical ...
Qadri Ghalib Walid - - 2009
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different repairing techniques of a fractured sealant on microleakage in vitro. METHODS: A nono-filled flowable composite (Filtek Z350) was placed on the occlusal surfaces of 112 intact extracted molars following cleoning by prophylaxis and acid etching. Sealant failure ...
Cope Darcy J - - 2009
There is a gap in the literature concerning the chemical effects that household products may produce on human remains. The present study examines the effects of household chemical products on teeth. A total of eight chemicals were utilized for this experiment. The corrosive chemical categories include: hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, ...
Adams Monica L - - 2009
PEGylated poly(carboxylic acid)s, PEG-b-PCAs, were evaluated as additives for solubilized oral formulations of weakly acidic compounds. Micelles of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(acrylic acid), PEG-b-PAA, and poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(methacrylic acid), PEG-b-PMAA, were prepared. Fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering revealed that both polymers assemble into nanoscopic structures (< 200 nm) in acidic media and ...
Loyola-Rodriguez Juan Pablo - - 2010
The aim was to compare the enamel surface roughness (ESR) and absolute depth profile (ADP) (mean peak-to-valley height) by atomic force microscopy (AFM) before and after using four different phosphoric acids. A total of 160 enamel samples from 40 upper premolars were prepared. The inclusion criterion was that the teeth ...
Chousterman M - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of composite resin bonded to erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser-prepared dentine after different durations of acid etching. The occlusal third of 68 human third molars was removed in order to expose the dentine surface. The teeth were randomly divided into ...
Puppi Dario - - 2010
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) meshes loaded with retinoic acid (RA) were prepared by applying the electrospinning technique. The purpose of the present work was to combine the biological effects of RA and the advantages of electrospun meshes to enhancing the mass transfer features of controlled release systems and cell interaction with ...
Poon Yin Fun - - 2009
Poly(malic acid) is water-soluble, functionalizable, and biodegradable, making it attractive as a precursor of hydrogels for biomedical applications. However, homopoly(malic acid), with pK(1/2) of 4.3, is too acidic for biocompatibility. To overcome the acidity, we have synthesized beta-malic acid-containing poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGMAc) with pK(a) of 5.02. Solutions of methacrylated ...
Sungurtekin Elif - - 2010
The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser pretreatment alone, or associated with acid etching, on the quality of marginal integrity (microleakage and marginal gap) of a resin-based fissure sealant in primary teeth. Fifty sound primary molar teeth were randomly assigned ...
Kählig Hanspeter - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Chitosan-EDTA is an interesting matrix for dermal delivery; however, the adhesiveness is too small. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate chitosan-glycolic acid as possible dermal matrix for progesterone in comparison to chitosan-EDTA and carrageenan. METHOD: After preparation of the chitosan-glycolic acid salt and characterization by NMR ...
Butterwick Kimberly - - 2009
Currently a diverse range of injectable agents are used for noninvasive facial enhancement. Injectable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) is a biocompatible, biodegradable, synthetic polymer that is approved for correction of HIV-related facial lipoatrophy in Europe, Canada, and the United States. PLLA is also approved in several countries for cosmetic purposes, and ...
Wegehaupt Florian J - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride uptake and the erosion resistance of enamel, respectively. Additionally, the effect of enamel pre-treatment with ethanol before fluoridation was assessed. METHODS: Sixty bovine incisors (4 specimens/tooth) were randomly allocated to six groups (A-F). Samples 1 and 2 remained untreated, ...
Wagoner Stephanie N - - 2009
Exposure to acidic foods and beverages is thought to increase the risk of developing dental erosion. The authors hypothesized that the erosion potential of sour candies was greater than the erosion potential of original-flavor versions of the candies. The authors measured the pH and titratable acidity of candies dissolved in ...
Ku Se Jin - - 2009
A novel method of dual patterning and sequential functionalization of block copolymers is proposed using a photocrosslinkable random copolymer film, poly(styrene-r-(tert-butyl acrylate)-r-(cinnamoyloxyethyl acrylate)). The tert-butyl esters of the block copolymer, polystyrene-block-poly(tert-butyl acrylate), coated on the patterned random copolymer film were sequentially deprotected to give carboxylic acids using an acid catalyst ...
Nishikawa Masanobu - - 2009
The poly(amino acid)s gamma-poly(dl-glutamic acid) (gPGA) and epsilon-poly(l-lysine) (ePL) are known to be natural linear poly(amino acid)s secreted by Bacillus spp. and Streptomyces spp., respectively. In this study, a Streptomyces strain producing both ePL and gPGA was identified. Mass spectrometry and other analyses revealed that the gPGA is a mixture ...
Voronets J - - 2010
The aim of the study was to assess the thickness of softened enamel removed by toothbrushing. Human enamel specimens were indented with a Knoop diamond. Softening was performed with citric acid or orange juice. The specimens were brushed in a brushing machine with a manual soft toothbrush in toothpaste slurry ...
Liu Qiying - - 2009
Hollow Co structures with the size of 4-10 microm were fabricated by a simple solvothermal process using stearic acid as surfactant. Cobalt stearate formed at the initial stage and further self-assembled to micelles as a soft template. This precursor controlled the growth rate of Co crystal to form the primary ...
Giordanengo Rémi - - 2009
The dissociation of small poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) cations produced by electrospray was characterized by tandem mass spectrometry. Similarly to PMAA ions produced in the negative ion mode, the two electrosprayed cationic forms, namely [PMAA+Na](+) and [PMAA-H+2Na](+), were shown to fragment via a major pathway consisting of successive dehydration steps. Elimination ...
Cheng Lei - - 2009
The aim of this scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was to investigate the effect of chemical compounds of Galla chinensis (GCE, gallic acid) on the remineralization of enamel crystals in vitro. Bovine enamel blocks with an in vitro produced initial lesion were used. The lesions were subjected to a pH-cycling ...
Gao S S - - 2009
The purpose of this research was to investigate the wear behavior of early carious enamel remineralized with gallic acid. Forty natural human premolar specimens with early caries lesions were prepared. A remineralization pH-cycling treatment agent of 4000 ppm gallic acid was used for 12 days to treat the early lesions. ...
Gouider Mbarka - - 2009
Fluoride content and flow-rate of fertilizer plant wastewater from phosphoric acid and/or triple superphosphate (TSP) production lead to the discharge of several thousand tons of fluoride (F(-)) per year and even more for phosphate (PO4(3-)). Since sustainability is an important environmental concern, the removal methods should allow phosphorus and fluoride ...
Lavignac Nathalie - - 2009
Poly(amidoamine)s with amino pendant groups were prepared by hydrogen-transfer polyaddition of primary and secondary amines to bis-acrylamines. Dansyl cadaverine (DC) doxorubicin (Dox) were bound to the polymers via a cis-aconityl spacer to give conjugates containing 3 microg of DC per mg of polymer and 28 to 35 microg of Dox ...
Wendl B - - 2009
Self-etching primers have simplified the process of direct bonding of dental resins, by eliminating the rinsing step after etching in conventional bonding, for example. Although it is generally assumed that all of the applied self-etching primer is incorporated into the resin, the possibility that a substantial amount remains free and ...
Thaurer Michael H - - 2009
In this study the preparation and stabilization of poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine nanoparticles and incorporation of a fluorescence marked model-compound was investigated. Nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation of a poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine conjugate with calcium chloride. Poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine nanoparticles display high cohesive properties due to a cross-linking process via calcium bridges in ...
Lee Hyun Mee - - 2009
To prepare a gel-forming poly-L-guluronic acid (Poly-G) from no guluronate-rich Laminaria japonica, a new hydrolysis method was employed with a lower HCl concentration (0.025-0.15 M) and a shorter treatment time (5 min). The Poly-Gs were set to measure purity, presence of poly-L-guluronic block, molecular weight distribution, polymer yield, viscosity, and ...
Yang Chiming - - 2009
To develop and characterize the solid-state properties of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) (PHBV) microspheres for the localized and controlled release of fusidic acid (FA). The effects of FA loading and polymer composition on the mean diameter, encapsulation efficiency and FA released from the microspheres were determined. The ...
Zhang Haibin - - 2009
Core-template-free hybrid hydroxyapatite (HA) hollow microspheres based on a chitosan-poly acrylic acid (CS-PAA) complex were prepared. The amine groups on chitosan can interact with the carboxyl groups of poly(acrylic acid) to form hollow microspheres. The hollow HA microspheres of about 1.0 microm are obtained by heterogeneous nucleation of HA on ...
Luo Juntao - - 2009
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) arms are grafted onto a cholic acid core via anionic polymerization, yielding star-shaped polymers with a unique asymmetric structure with facial amphiphilicity. Well-defined cholic acid-PEG(4) stars (polydispersity index, ca. 1.05) with tunable molar masses (ca. 1000-13,000) were obtained and characterized by the use of size exclusion chromatography, ...
Luo Jin - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To compare the F release from glass ionomer glasses (GICs) into water changed periodically with release into an unchanged "sink" [Williams JA, Billington RW, Pearson GJ. The glass ionomer cement: the sources of soluble fluoride. Biomaterials 2002;23:2191-200]. To evaluate the effect of replacing Ca wholly or partially by Sr. ...
Yilgor Pinar - - 2009
The aim of this study was to develop a 3-D construct carrying an inherent sequential growth factor delivery system. Poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanocapsules loaded with bone morphogenetic protein BMP-2 and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) nanocapsules loaded with BMP-7 made the early release of BMP-2 and longer term release of BMP-7 possible. ...
Tripodo Giuseppe - - 2009
The development of new protein and peptide drugs needs new delivery systems able to entrap such drugs in safe conditions without affecting their structure and biological activity. In this context, the present work reports a new approach to load IgG, used as a model of therapeutic proteins such as anti-TNF-alpha ...
AuCoin David P - - 2009
Latex agglutination has been used to detect capsular polysaccharides from a variety of bacteria in body fluids. A latex agglutination assay was constructed for detection of the poly-gamma-D-glutamic acid (gammaDPGA) capsular polypeptide of Bacillus anthracis in serum from animal models of pulmonary anthrax. The assay was able to detect gammaDPGA ...
Gharibjanian Nareg A - - 2009
In an effort to augment scaffold performance, additives such as growth factors are under investigation for their ability to optimize the "osteopotential" of synthetic polymer scaffolds. In parallel research, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a growth factor that initiates bone formation, has been locally delivered to augment fracture healing and spinal ...
Hunter Lindsay - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the erosive potential of a range of commercially available baby drinks in the laboratory. METHODS: The erosive potential of each product was assessed by measuring its initial pH, neutralizable acidity, and ability to erode primary and permanent enamel. These parameters were ...
Carson Laura - - 2009
Acid functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes were covalently grafted to chitosan by first reacting the oxidized carbon nanotubes with thionyl chloride to form acyl-chlorinated carbon nanotubes which are subsequently dispersed in chitosan and covalently grated to form composite material, CNT-chitosan, 1, which was washed several times to remove un-reacted materials. ...
Takagaki Tomohiro - - 2009
The purposes of this study were twofold, namely to evaluate: (1) the effect of hybridization on microtensile bond strength (microTBS) to dentin, and (2) the ultrastructure of the dentin-adhesive interface with 4-META/MMA-TBB resin after acid-base challenge. Dentin surfaces, which received no treatment (NT), 65% phosphoric acid (PA), or 10% citric ...
Wang Tie wei - - 2009
The aim of this study was to generate a new type of nanoparticles made of quaternized chitosan (QCS) and poly (aspartic acid) and to evaluate their potential for the association and delivery of protein drugs. QCS and poly (aspartic acid) were processed to nanoparticles via the ionotropic gelation technique. The ...
Wang X Y - - 2009
This study evaluated the effects of environmental calcium and phosphate on wear resistance, strength, and surface morphology of highly viscous glass-ionomers (HVGICs) (Fuji IX Fast [FN] and KetacMolar [KM]) when exposed to acidic conditions. Fabricated specimens were randomly divided into five groups and kept in acidic solutions (pH 3) with ...
Ge Yuqing - - 2009
Iron oxide nanoparticles modified with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), were encapsulated with a natural polymer with abundant primary amino groups, chitosan (CS), to improve their biocompatibility. Characterization was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetirc analysis, transmission electron microscope analyses, vibrating sample magnetometer, zeta potential analyzer. It was found that highly ...
Javakhishvili Irakli - - 2009
Amphiphilic poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (HS-PCL-b-PAA) with a thiol functionality in the PCL terminal has been prepared in a novel synthetic cascade. Initially, living anionic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) employing the difunctional initiator, 2-hydroxyethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate, followed by esterification with 2,4-dinitrophenyl- or 4-monomethoxytrityl-protected mercaptoacetic acids (Prot-), provided well-defined PCL macroinitiators capped ...
Hjortsjö C - - 2009
Acidic fluoride solutions may reduce dental erosion. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different acidic fluoride solutions on enamel dissolution using an established in vivo model. When possible 4 anterior teeth (255 teeth in a total of 67 subjects) were isolated and exposed to 0.01 ...
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