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Wang Fang - - 2013
Three representative BINOL derivatives were examined for their chiral recognitions with D- and L-t-Boc-amino acid anions: an open system 1, which bears two urea groups and two pyrene groups; a closed ring system 2, which bears two urea groups with a closed ring system; and a dimeric system 3, which ...
Murai Toshiaki - - 2013
Phosphorodiselenoic acid esters with a binaphthyl group were reacted with alkenes in the presence of Bu3SnH and AIBN to give phosphonoselenoic acid esters in moderate to good yields. The addition of a phosphoroselenoyl group to alkenes proceeded in an anti-Markovnikov fashion. The diastereoselectivity was improved by the introduction of substituents ...
Karimata Toru - - 2013
Reconstructed myocardial tissue still does not have enough pulsatile contraction. It is well known that fetal and mature neonatal cardiomyocytes utilize glucose and lipid, respectively, as their energy substrates, and that cultured ones mainly use glucose in spite of their age comparable to neonate ones, probably due to insufficient supply ...
Zhang Xiaobin - - 2013
A novel approach towards the synthesis of α-ketoamides using tertiary amines as nitrogen group sources via C-N bond cleavage has been developed. In the presence of Ag2CO3 and K2S2O8, α-keto acids reacted with tertiary amines to afford the corresponding α-ketoamides in good yields.
Olaifa Folashade - - 2012
The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of 4-h load carrying (packing) on donkeys administered with ascorbic acid (AA) during the harmattan season. Six donkeys administered orally with ascorbic acid (200 mg/kg) and subjected to packing served as experimental animals, while six others given only distilled water served ...
Dubey Ritesh - - 2012
Experimental crystal structures of mono and polyfluorinated benzoic acids correspond to high energy computed crystal structures of benzoic acid itself, thereby permitting access to its structural landscape.
Janecek Jiri - - 2012
A new thermodynamic approach based on the Sear and Jackson association theory for doubly bonded dimers [Mol. Phys. 1994, 82, 1033] is proposed to describe the thermodynamic properties of carboxylic acids. The new model is able to simultaneously represent the vapour pressures, saturated densities, and vaporisation enthalpies of the shortest ...
Ho Peggy P PP Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, - - 2012
Lipids constitute 70% of the myelin sheath, and autoantibodies against lipids may contribute to the demyelination that characterizes multiple sclerosis (MS). We used lipid antigen microarrays and lipid mass spectrometry to identify bona fide lipid targets of the autoimmune response in MS brain, and an animal model of MS to ...
Fernández Virginia - - 2012
Liver preconditioning (PC), defined as an enhanced tolerance to injuring stimuli induced by previous specific maneuvers triggering beneficial functional and molecular changes, is of crucial importance in human liver transplantation and major hepatic resection. For these reasons, numerous PC strategies have been evaluated in experimental models of ischemia-reperfusion liver injury, ...
Castriciano Maria Angela - - 2012
The kinetics of growth for chiral J-aggregates of H(4)TPPS(4) porphyrin have been investigated under different experimental conditions in the presence of tartaric acid. The observed rate constants and the anisotropy factor g show a defined dependence on the enantiomer used as a chiral templating agent.
Beuers Ulrich - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critically review most recent experimental evidence for the protective action of biliary HCO3 secretion against bile acid-induced bile duct damage and development of fibrosing cholangiopathy in humans and experimental animals. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in human cholangiocytes in vitro indicate that a biliary HCO3 umbrella protects against ...
Neo Ana G - - 2012
We report a novel Lewis acid catalysed tandem reaction of isocyanides, chromone 3-carboxylic acid and nucleophiles. An experimentally very simple procedure, involving the use of microwave irradiation in the presence of a Lewis acid catalyst, affords a representative collection of chromone-2-carboxamides and chromone-2-carboxamido-3-esters in high yields, in just a few ...
Akyol Sumeyya - - 2012
Protection of the patients against the side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens has attracted increasing interest of clinicians and practitioners. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), which is extracted from the propolis of honeybee hives as an active component, specifically inhibits nuclear factor κB at micromolar concentrations and show ability ...
Uddin Kabir M - - 2012
This study provides comprehensive benchmark calculations for the thermochemical properties of the common α-amino acids. Calculated properties include the proton affinity, gas-phase basicity, protonation entropy, ΔH°(acid), ΔG°(acid), and enthalpies of formation for the protonated and deprotonated α-amino acids. In order to determine the performance at various levels of theory, including ...
Liu Bo - - 2012
The Baeyer-Villiger (B-V) reactions of 3,4-dimethoxy acetophenone (DMOAP), 4-methyl acetophenone (MAP) and acetophenone (AP) with performic acid (PFA) in formic acid (FA) solvent have been studied by density functional theory (DFT) method. The non-catalyzed and the formic acid-catalyzed reaction paths have been calculated at the MPWB1K/6-311++G(d,p)-IEF-PCM// MPWB1K/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. ...
Marushkevich Kseniya - - 2012
We report on the first experimental observation of formic acid dimers composed of two molecules of the higher-energy cis conformer. The cis-cis formic acid dimers are prepared in an argon matrix by selective vibrational excitation of the ground state trans conformer (deuterated form HCOOD) combined with thermal annealing of the ...
Stover Michele L - - 2012
The gas-phase acidities of the 20 L-amino acids have been predicted at the composite G3(MP2) level. A broad range of structures of the neutral and anion were studied to determine the lowest energy conformer. Excellent agreement is found with the available experimental gas-phase deprotonation enthalpies, and the calculated values are ...
Jalal Diana I - - 2012
Some experimental evidence suggests that uric acid impairs endothelial function. It is controversial if high uric acid levels and impaired endothelial function are related in healthy adults. In addition, the effect of uric acid on endothelial cells (ECs) of humans is unexplored. Data of 107 healthy adult volunteers were analyzed. ...
Kayashima Tomoko - - 2012
Carnosic acid, a diterpene in rosemary, is considered to be beneficial in the prevention of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, it has been found that drugs with antiangiogenic activity lower the risk of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus it is of interest whether carnosic acid has antiangiogenic activity. In this study, carnosic acid ...
Rix Thomas Andersen - - 2012
Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may have beneficial effects in relation to atrial fibrillation (AF) with promising data from experimental animal studies, however, results from studies in humans have been inconsistent. This review evaluates the mechanisms of action of marine n-3 PUFA in relation to AF based on experimental ...
Cho Young Sik - - 2011
Saturated fatty acids have been considered major contributing factors in type 2 diabetes, whereas unsaturated fatty acids have beneficial effects for preventing the development of diabetes. However, the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in pancreatic β cells have not been reported. Here, we examined the effects of arachidonic acid (AA) ...
Aggarwal Nitin T - - 2012
Endothelial 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), 11,12,15-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (THETA) and 15-hydroxy-11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (HEETA) and nitric oxide (NO) mediate relaxations to acetylcholine (ACH). However, interactions between NO and the 15-LO-1 pathway have not been explored. Therefore, the effect of physiological and pharmacological concentrations of NO on 15-LO activity and ...
Politis Ioannis - - 2011
The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that fatty acids are the circulating mediators acting in a pro-inflammatory manner towards activated circulating ovine monocyte/macrophages and neutrophils. Furthermore, whether soya protein hydrolysates (SPH) inhibit the fatty acid-induced increase in the production of pro-inflammatory responses by ovine phagocytes ...
Fleming Ingrid - - 2011
Long thought to be biologically important only as xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, it is now clear that extrahepatic cytochrome P450 epoxygenases can utilize endogenous substrates such as arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid to generate bioactive lipid mediators. The epoxides thus generated can acutely affect vascular tone, and ...
Viskupicova Jana - - 2011
We investigated the ability of polyphenol fatty acid esters to inhibit the activity of serine proteases trypsin, thrombin, elastase and urokinase. Potent protease inhibition in micromolar range was displayed by rutin and rutin derivatives esterified with medium and long chain, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (1e-m), followed by phloridzin and ...
Arisz Steven A - - 2011
The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas has frequently been used as a eukaryotic model system to study intracellular phospholipid signaling pathways in response to environmental stresses. Earlier, we found that hypersalinity induced a rapid increase in the putative lipid second messenger, phosphatidic acid (PA), which was suggested to be generated via ...
Lee Sunghee - - 2012
Epidemiological studies suggested that n-6 fatty acids, especially linoleic acid (LA), have beneficial effects on CHD, whereas some in vitro studies have suggested that n-6 fatty acids, specifically arachidonic acid (AA), may have harmful effects. We examined the association of serum n-6 fatty acids with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). A ...
Newens Katie J - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Experimental elevation of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) impairs endothelial function, but the effect of NEFA composition is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to test the effect of acute elevation of NEFAs enriched with either saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or SFAs with long-chain (LC) n-3 (omega-3) PUFAs on vascular function ...
Steffen B T - - 2011
Background and objective:Systemic inflammation is a well-known risk factor for diseases such as atherosclerosis and is augmented by the presence of obesity. In addition, it has been shown that inflammation may be negatively influenced by certain macronutrients, specifically the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. The primary aim of this study ...
Wu Yuanyuan - - 2011
Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid), a natural inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase from Amphipterygium adstringens, has been implicated in anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidative and antimicrobial functions. However, whether this salicylic acid could block angiogenesis has not been elucidated to date. Here, we postulate that anacardic acid affects multiple steps of tumor angiogenesis to ...
Chen Fang-Fang - - 2011
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) had been prepared by precipitation polymerization method using acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, acetonitrile as the porogen solvent and protocatechuic acid (PA), one of phenolic acids, as the template molecule. The MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier ...
Pat Kunert Mary - - 2011
20-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (20-HETE) is a metabolite of arachidonic acid formed by the enzymatic activity of cytochrome P450 omega hydroxylases of the 4A and 4F isoform families (CYP 450 4A and 4F). The role of the metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) formed by cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases in mediating cardiovascular function have ...
Caviglia Jorge Matias - - 2011
Although short-term incubation of hepatocytes with oleic acid (OA) stimulates secretion of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100), exposure to higher doses of OA for longer periods inhibits secretion in association with induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Palmitic acid (PA) induces ER stress, but its effects on apoB100 secretion are unclear. Docosahexaenoic ...
Hoch Anne Z - - 2011
To determine if folic acid supplementation improves vascular function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMD]) in professional dancers with known endothelial dysfunction. Prospective cross-sectional study. Academic institution in the Midwestern United States. Twenty-two professional ballet dancers volunteered for this study. Subjects completed a 3-day food record to determine caloric and micronutrient ...
Luxwolda Martine F - - 2011
INTRODUCTION: The relation between docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) vs. arachidonic acid (AA) seems characterized by both synergism and antagonism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Investigate the relation between EPA+DHA and AA in populations with a wide range of EPA+DHA status and across the life cycle. EPA+DHA and AA were determined in ...
Fakas Stylianos - - 2011
The PAH1-encoded phosphatidate (PA) phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a pivotal enzyme that produces diacylglycerol for the synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) and simultaneously controls the level of PA used for phospholipid synthesis. Quantitative lipid analysis showed that the pah1Δ mutation caused a reduction in TAG mass and an elevation in ...
Xu Yuxia - - 2011
A polysaccharide, PGA4-3b, with an average molecular weight of 8.9kDa estimated by high-performance gel-permeation chromatography (HPGPC), was isolated from radix of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC. Using monosaccharide analysis, methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy, PGA4-3b was elucidated to be a linear poly-(1→4)-α-d-galactopyranosyluronic acid that contains no methyl ester groups. Partial ...
Damgaard Christian - - 2011
The effect of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the species richness of acid grasslands was investigated by combining data from a large Danish monitoring program with a large European data set, where a significant non-linear negative effect of nitrogen deposition had been demonstrated (Stevens et al., 2010). The nitrogen deposition range in ...
Yang Yang - - 2011
Triacylglycerol (TAG) is the major seed storage lipid and is important for biofuel and other renewable chemical uses. Acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (DGAT1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the TAG biosynthesis pathway, but the mechanism of its regulation is unknown. Here, we show that TAG accumulation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings ...
Watts Gerald F - - 2011
Although statins significantly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), residual CVD risk remains high. This may partly be due to uncorrected atherogenic dyslipidaemia. The driving force behind atherogenic dyslipidaemia is hypertriglyceridaemia, which results from hepatic oversecretion and/or hypocatabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and is typical of type 2 diabetes and ...
Lu Jinmiao - - 2011
The fermentation characteristics of Mortierella alpina were investigated in response to various nitrogen sources. Influences on nitrogen source and glucose uptake rate, mycelial morphology of M. alpina, and pH of medium in relation to different nitrogen sources were discussed. Effects of different nitrogen sources on cell growth, fatty acid composition, ...
Freese Stefan - - 2011
Scheffersomyces stipitis and the closely related yeast Candida shehatae assimilated the L-amino acids glutamate, aspartate and proline as both carbon and nitrogen sole sources. We also found this rarely investigated ability in ascomycetous species such as Candida glabrata, C. reukaufii, C. utilis, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces lactis, K. marxianus, Candida albicans, ...
Wang Hong H Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado, Denver Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, - - 2011
Free fatty acids (FFAs) suppress appetite when injected into the hypothalamus. To examine whether lipoprotein lipase (LPL), a serine hydrolase that releases FFAs from circulating triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins, might contribute to FFA-mediated signaling in the brain, we created neuron-specific LPL-deficient mice. Homozygous mutant (NEXLPL-/-) mice were hyperphagic and became obese ...
Noda Takahiro - - 2011
D-erythro-C₁₄-Sphingosine (C₁₄-Sph) accelerated the germination of Nomuraea rileyi in a solution containing peptone, but activity declined to a large degree in water. This suggests the presence of a co-factor in C₁₄-Sph-triggered germination. Since the main role of peptone is to supply nitrogen constituents, we examined the effects of various nitrogen ...
Iwata Naomi G - - 2011
Intake of trans fatty acids (TFA), which are consumed by eating foods made from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. This relation can be explained by many factors including TFA's negative effect on endothelial function and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. In this ...
Shin John J H - - 2011
The lipid phosphatidic acid (PA) has important roles in cell signaling and metabolic regulation in all organisms. New evidence indicates that PA also has an unprecedented role as a pH biosensor, coupling changes in pH to intracellular signaling pathways. pH sensing is a property of the phosphomonoester headgroup of PA. ...
Xi Pengbin - - 2011
Glutamine is the most abundant free alpha-amino acid in plasma and skeletal muscle. This nutrient plays an important role in regulating gene expression, protein turnover, anti-oxidative function, nutrient metabolism, immunity, and acid-base balance. Interestingly, intracellular and extracellular concentrations of glutamine exhibit marked reductions in response to infection, sepsis, severe burn, ...
Cazita P M - - 2010
We determined the influence of fasting (FAST) and feeding (FED) on cholesteryl ester (CE) flow between high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and plasma apoB-lipoprotein and triacylglycerol (TG)-rich emulsions (EM) prepared with TG-fatty acids (FAs). TG-FAs of varying chain lengths and degrees of unsaturation were tested in the presence of a plasma fraction ...
Bi Bo B Department of Chemistry, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, - - 2010
A "safety-catch" linker strategy has been used to site-selectively cleave and characterize molecules from a microelectrode array. The linkers are attached to the array by means of an ester and contain either a protected amine or protected alcohol nucleophile that can be released using acid generated at the microelectrodes.
Sutton Paul A - - 2010
Polycyclic C(80) tetracarboxylic (so-called 'ARN') acids are found as calcium salts in deposits which form in certain oilfield pipelines and equipment. Characterisation of these acids is important for improving the prediction and hence avoidance or minimisation of oilfield deposition problems. Although several of the acids have been isolated and characterised ...
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