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Results 351 - 400 of 1886
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Labadie Pierre - - 2007
Vertebrate-type sex steroids have been detected in a number of mollusk species and may play a role in the reproductive physiology of the animal. Mollusks are also exposed to exogenous estrogenic steroids that are present in sewage effluents, and these may add to the estrogenic burden of exposed animals. We ...
Kim Jun-Tae - - 2007
To develop an enantioselective lipase/esterase hydrolyzing racemic ofloxacin ester to levofloxacin, samples were collected from a variety of marine environments such as cold sea, hydrothermal vent area, sediment, tidal flat area, arctic sea, marine organisms, and so on. Microorganisms were isolated by plating on an enrichment medium with simultaneous detection ...
Sumita Masato - - 2006
Potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the maleic acid anion radical (MA-*: cis isomer)/fumaric acid anion radical (FA-*: trans isomer) system as a model system of their esters have been studied in detail using CASSCF method. The results suggest the following: The photoisomerization is initiated with the H-C-C-H dihedral angle distortion ...
Masson Jean-Francois - - 2006
Reduction of the nonspecific serum protein adsorption on a gold surface to levels low enough to allow the detection of biomarkers in complex media has been achieved using the N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid. Carboxymethylated dextran (CM dextran), which is widely used, nonspecifically adsorbs enough proteins to mask the ...
Beuerle Till - - 2007
Arctiids which as larvae sequester pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from their food plants are known to synthesize insect-specific PAs by esterifying necine bases derived from plant PAs with necic acids of insect origin. There are two classes of insect PAs, the creatonotines and the callimorphines. The creatonotines contain as necic acids ...
Curini Massimo - - 2006
3-(4'-geranyloxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-trans propenoic acid is a secondary metabolite biosynthetically related to ferulic acid in which a geranyl chain is attached to the phenolic group, extracted from Acronychia baueri Schott (Fam. Rutaceae). In the last five years some of the pharmacological properties of 3-(4'-geranyloxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-trans propenoic acid and its semisynthetic derivatives began to ...
Liang Yun-Sa - - 2006
The metabolomic analysis of Brassica rapa leaves treated with methyl jasmonate was performed using 2-dimensional J-resolved NMR spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis. The principal component analysis of the J-resolved NMR spectra showed discrimination between control and methyl jasmonate treated plants by principal components 1 and 2. While the level ...
Fang Yu - - 2006
Effect of grape maturity on aroma-active compounds in Pinot noir wine was investigated using stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS). High correlation coefficient (> 0.95) and low standard deviation (< 10%) were obtained for all aroma-active compounds of interest. Two vintages of Pinot noir wines with three different grape ...
Specht Alexandre - - 2006
We report here the syntheses and the photolytic properties of 3-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrophenyl)-2-butyl (DMNPB) esters as new photoremovable groups for carboxylic acids, and their use for the caging of L-glutamate. A high-yielding synthesis of the DMNPB esters led to a 4:1 threo/erythro diastereomeric mixture, which could be separated by HPLC. While these ...
Kong Chang Yi - - 2006
The binary diffusion coefficients, D(12), and retention factors for myristoleic acid and its methyl ester at infinite dilution were measured by the chromatographic impulse response technique in supercritical carbon dioxide at temperatures of 313.2, 333.2 and 343.2 K and pressures from 9.2 to 30 MPa for the acid, and from ...
Zhang Yi - - 2007
A potential radiopharmaceutical and HSV1-TK substrate, 3-((1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yloxy)-methyl)-6-(4-(3-((2-mercaptoethyl)(2-(2-mercaptoethyl-amino)-ethyl)amino)propoxy)phenyl)-3H-imidazopurin-9(5H)-one-oxo-technetium(V), was synthesized via a converging approach and its chemical structure was comparatively characterized with a non-radioactive analog. The final radiochemical purity and yield were 97 and 73%, respectively.
Clarke Matthew L - - 2006
Highly regioselective hydroformylation of unsaturated esters can be achieved when a highly reactive, ligand-modified, rhodium catalyst is employed near ambient temperatures (15-50 degrees C) and pressures over 30 bar. The use of 1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-2,4,8-trioxa-6-phosphaadamantane shows distinct advantages over other commonly applied phosphanes in terms of reaction rate, and regio- and chemoselectivity. ...
Mao Sopheareth - - 2006
A new antagonistic Burkholderia strain, designated MP-1 and producing antifungal activities against various filamentous plant pathogenic fungi, was isolated from the rhizoshere in the Naju area. Cultural characteristic studies strongly suggested that this strain belongs to the genus Burkholderia. The nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene (1491 pb) of ...
Karaffa Jakob - - 2006
N-acyl oxazolidinones of simple carboxylic acids and amino acids were observed to undergo successful SmI2-promoted couplings with substituted acrylamides and acrylates, affording a variety of functionalized gamma-ketoamides and -esters with yields attaining 85%. As many of these reductive couplings were previously found to be ineffective employing the corresponding 4-pyridylthio esters, ...
Meyers Katherine J - - 2006
The tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) acorn was a staple food in the Native American diet and is still used in traditional dishes. Acorns from the genus Quercus have been shown to contain a large range of hydrolyzable tannins. However, neither hydrolyzable nor condensed tannins have been characterized in tanoak acorns. The ...
O'Brien Timothy M - - 2006
N-Alkyl perfluorooctane sulfonamides have been widely used as surfactants on fabrics and papers, fire retardants, and anticorrosion agents, among many other commercial applications. The broad use, global distribution, and environmental persistence of these compounds has generated considerable interest regarding potentially toxic effects. We have previously reported that perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate (FOSAA) and ...
Price Richard D - - 2006
The derivatives of hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan) have been extensively studied in the field of tissue engineering. Several forms of the material are available (benzyl esters of hyaluronic acid, HYAFF), with differing degradation profiles. This study compared 2 such products used for dermal regeneration (HYAFF p80 and HYAFF p100, the partial ...
Vegh Vladimir - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to describe the pharmacology, toxicology and chemistry of the new group of local anesthetics of phenylcarbamic acid type. RECENT FINDINGS: Basic esters of alkoxy-substituted phenylcarbamic acid have shown high local anesthetic potency, while maintaining a relatively safe toxicity profile. Their potency ...
Schmidt Thomas J - - 2007
Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is used successfully to treat psoriasis. In spite of its proven clinical efficacy, the mode of metabolism and the pharmacodynamics of DMF are still not completely understood. Some previous studies have indicated that orally applied DMF for a considerable part is quickly hydrolysed to methylhydrogen fumarate (MHF) ...
Girgis Adel S - - 2006
A variety of N-[(ethyl-4,6-diaryl-3-pyridinecarboxylate)-2-yl]amino acid esters 6a-h were synthesized through the reaction of 2-bromonicotinates 4 with a number of primary amino acid ester hydrochlorides 5 in refluxing tetrahydrofuran in the presence of triethylamine as dehydrohalogenating agent. Similarly, reaction of 4 with N-glycylglycine ethyl ester hydrochloride 7 'as a representative example ...
Thierry Anne - - 2006
Esters are important contributors to cheese flavor, but their mechanisms of synthesis in cheese are largely unknown. This study aimed to determine whether ethanol concentration limits the formation of ethyl esters in cheese. Mini Swiss cheeses were manufactured with (E) or without (C) the addition of ethanol to cheese milk. ...
Dinges Jennifer M - - 2006
Methyl nonactate is a valuable starting material for the production of natural product-like combinatorial libraries and ketide amino acids, a series of novel conformationally constrained amino acid analogues. Fermentation of Streptomyces griseus generates high titers of macrotetrolide antibiotics from which methyl nonactate can be generated by methanolysis. Unfortunately, this approach ...
Kalscheuer Rainer - - 2006
Biodiesel is an alternative energy source and a substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel. It is produced from renewable biomass by transesterification of triacylglycerols from plant oils, yielding monoalkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids with short-chain alcohols such as fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). Despite numerous ...
Katoh Takahiro - - 2006
Asymmetric synthesis of methyl ester (4) of (-)-13-oxo-15,16-dinorlabda-8(17),11E-dien-19-oic acid (1), which exhibited the most potent activity for the prevention of incipient carcinogenesis among the isolated diterpenes from Thuja standishii and its related plants, was achieved by using methyl (-)-1,4a-dimethyl-5-oxodecahydronaphthalene-1-carboxylate (5) as a strating material, which was easily prepared on gram ...
Mallavadhani Uppuluri V - - 2006
Based on the difference in steric bulk around C12-C13 double bond, the two isomeric dihydroxy pentacyclic triterpenic acids viz: corsolic acid and maslinic acid have been quantitatively separated via their methyl esters by reacting with the bulky m-chloroperbenzoic acid. Corsolic acid methyl ester was obtained in pure form, whereas maslinic ...
Xiang Debing - - 2006
Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an active component of propolis, has been implicated in the regulation of cell growth and apoptosis, although the exact mechanism of this activity has not been elucidated. In this study, we explored the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on growth, cell cycle, apoptosis and beta-catenin/T-cell ...
Müller Inga - - 2006
Secondary metabolism involves a broad diversity of biochemical reactions that result in a wide variety of biologically active compounds. Terminal amide formation during the biosynthesis of the myxobacterial electron-transport inhibitor, myxothiazol, was analyzed by heterologous expression of the unique nonribosomal-peptide synthetase, MtaG, and incubation with a synthesized substrate mimic. These ...
Müller I - - 2006
Melithiazol and myxothiazol are two myxobacterial metabolites that are highly efficient electron transport inhibitors of the respiratory chain. MelJ and MelK encoded in the melithiazol biosynthetic gene cluster were recently shown to be involved in the formation of the methyl ester from a hypothetical amide intermediate. In vivo studies suggest ...
Baba Akiko - - 2006
Using a straightforward chemo-enzymatic procedure, 1-beta-O-acyl glucuronides of three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diclofenac (DF) 5, mefenamic acid (MF) 6 and (S)-naproxen (NP) 7, were prepared. Caesium salts of these carboxylic acid drugs reacted with commercially available methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-1-bromo-1-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranuronate 4 to give exclusively the corresponding 1-beta-O-acyl glucuronides 8-10 in moderate yields. ...
Serri N Aziah - - 2006
Immobilized Candida rugosa lipase was used for the synthesis of citronellyl laurate from citronellol and lauric acid. Screening of different types of support (Amberlite MB-1 and Celite) for immobilization of lipase and solvent (n-hexane, n-heptane, and iso-octane) and optimization of reaction conditions, such as catalyst loading, effect of substrates molar ...
Adhikari Prakash - - 2006
Policosanols, long-chain alcohols, have many beneficial physiological activities. Contents and compositions in perilla seeds (Perilla frutescens) produced in Korea and China were determined. Waxy materials were extracted from perilla seeds using hot hexane. Yield of the waxy materials from perilla seeds was 72.1 mg/100 g of dry weight. Contents and ...
Wilkins Alistair L - - 2006
Pectenotoxins from marine dinoflagellates of the genus Dinophysis are rapidly hydrolyzed by many shellfish to give pectenotoxin-2 seco acid, which isomerizes to 7-epi-pectenotoxin-2 seco acid. Three series of fatty acid esters of pectenotoxin-2 seco acid (PTX-2 seco acid) and 7-epi-PTX-2 seco acid were detected by LC-MS analysis of extracts from ...
Vale Paulo - - 2006
In bivalve mollusks from the Portuguese coast contaminated by diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), most of the parent toxins, okadaic acid (OA) or dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2), are found esterified, and toxicity assessment is only performed after an alkaline hydrolysis step to recover the parent molecules in their free form. The presence of ...
Csóka G - - 2007
Transdermal therapeutic systems (TTSs) were studied applying different sucrose fatty acid esters (SEs) as drug delivery agents. Matrix and membrane controlled TTSs were prepared and compared. Membrane was made from a methacrylic polymer (Eudragit NE) of pH independent permeability which can achieve diffusion controlled drug liberation. Model drug was a ...
Acevedo Hortensia Rosas - - 2006
The bark of Amphipterygium adstringens is widely used in the traditional Mexican medicine for treating ailments such as gastric ulcers, gastritis and stomach cancer. The 6-nonadecyl salicylic acid (anacardic acid) was isolated from the bark of this species. In previous papers have been informed that the anacardic acids possess anti-tumour, ...
Ley J P - - 2006
Paracress (Spilanthes acmella) is commonly used as a spice, e.g., in Madagascar. To get more information about the taste active compounds, Jambu oleoresin produced from Spilanthes acmella and extracts prepared directly from the plant were fractionated and the fractions were analysed and evaluated by tasting. In addition to the long ...
Cardoso Valéria Macedo - - 2006
Several pharmacopoeias recommend the membrane filtration method for the sterility test of ophthalmic ointments. Isopropyl myristate, a fatty acid ester that exhibits high toxicity mainly against Gram-negative microorganisms, is indicated as a solvent for ointments. In this study, six fatty acid esters (diethyl adipate, diisopropyl adipate, ethyl laurate, ethyl myristate, ...
Hemeon Ivan - - 2006
The synthesis of 4-deoxy-4-nitrosialic acid (3,4,5-trideoxy-4-nitro-D-glycero-beta-D-galacto-non-2-ulopyranosonic acid, 5), was completed in seven steps starting from D-arabinose. Coupling of the 6-carbon fragment, 2-acetamido-1,2-dideoxy-1-nitro-D-mannitol (6) with ethyl alpha-(bromomethyl)acrylate afforded a 2 : 1 mixture of ethyl 5-acetamido-2,3,4,5-tetradeoxy-2-methylene-4-nitro-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononate (9a-S) and ethyl 5-acetamido-2,3,4,5-tetradeoxy-2-methylene-4-nitro-D-glycero-D-talo-nononate (9a-R). This mixture of enones was subjected to ozonolysis, and following ...
Stránský Karel - - 2006
Higher wax esters within the range of C24 to C44 (205 standards) were analyzed by means of gas chromatography and Kováts indexes (I) and reduced Kováts indexes (RKI) were calculated. The dependences of these retention data on number of carbon atoms and on number and position of double bonds in ...
Alhomsi Khaled - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), nonoxidative ethanol metabolites, are produced by the esterification of fatty acids and ethanol. Plasma and serum FAEE correlate linearly with blood ethanol levels and are present in organs most commonly damaged by ethanol abuse. Our previous studies have shown that there is significant synthesis ...
Díez C - - 2006
In this study, an orthogonal array design was applied to know the way different parameters affected the derivatization of some herbicides that are commonly applied in the soils. Herbicides formulated as esters have been reported to rapidly hydrolyse, in contact with soil, to their corresponding acids and phenols. What involves ...
Silva López Carlos - - 2006
A single transition structure was located on the potential energy surface of the cycloisomerization of protic and Lewis acid activated (2E,4Z)-heptatrienal and the corresponding methyl ester to provide the bicyclo[3.1.0]hexene derivatives, the central skeleton of the crispatene natural products. A two-dimensional scan of the C-C bond-forming reactions revealed a barrierless ...
Arima Jiro - - 2006
Dipeptide synthesis by aminopeptidase from Streptomyces septatus TH-2 (SSAP) was demonstrated using free amino acid as an acyl donor and aminoacyl methyl ester as an acyl acceptor in 98% methanol (MeOH). SSAP retained its activity after more than 100 h in 98% MeOH, and in the case of phenylalanyl-phenylalanine methyl ...
Lohith K - - 2006
About 12 glycosides prepared through amyloglucosidase catalysis and 23 amino acyl esters of carbohydrates prepared through lipase catalysis in organic solvents showed angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activity. Both amino acyl esters of carbohydrates and glycosides exhibited IC50 values for ACE inhibition in the 0.5 mM to 15.7 mM range. ...
Lebedeva Nataly - - 2006
The hydration of dodecyltrimethylammonium (DTAB) micelles is reinterpreted in light of the results of the companion paper (immediately preceding this paper) that showed that the location of the spin probe 16-doxylstearic acid methyl ester (16DSE) changes as a function of the aggregation number, N, of anionic micelles, i.e, that it ...
Samant Manoj P - - 2006
[reaction: see text] Norcysteine (Ncy) is an unnatural amino acid possessing an electronegative sulfur atom directly attached to the alpha-carbon atom. We describe the synthesis of Boc-D,L-Ncy(Mob)-OH, the resolution of its methyl ester, and the introduction of both D- and L-Ncy in GnRH analogues.
Dunphy Patrick J - - 2006
The upper epidermal layer of cells and the epicuticular wax surface of Lady Seton rose petals are sites of biosynthesis and accumulation, respectively, of a family of terpenyl fatty acyl esters. These esters are based mainly on the acyclic monoterpene alcohol geraniol coupled primarily to fatty acids of chain lengths ...
Miles Christopher O - - 2006
A cis-isomer of a C(8)-diol ester of okadaic acid (1) was isolated during large-scale purification of pectenotoxins (PTXs) from extracts of Dinophysis acuta collected from the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. The compound was identified by NMR spectroscopic and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) studies, and is the first ...
Anderson Thomas J - - 2006
Microwave reaction of RuCl3 with 2,2'-bipyridinyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid diethyl ester (debpy) in ethylene glycol generated Ru(bpy)3(2+) instead of the expected Ru(debpy)3(2+). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the headspace revealed CO2, and Ru(bpy)3(2+) was recovered from the filtrate. Further experiments suggest that RuCl3 decarboxylates debpy during microwave synthesis.
Thurnhofer Saskia - - 2006
Ethyl esters (FAEE) and trideuterium-labeled methyl esters (d3-FAME) of fatty acids were prepared and investigated regarding their suitability as internal standards (IS) for the determination of fatty acids as methyl esters (FAME). On CP-Sil 88, ethyl esters of odd-numbered fatty acids eluted approximately 0.5 min after the respective FAME, and ...
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