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Results 201 - 250 of 1889
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Sharma Kavita R - - 2008
Laboratory studies were carried out to observe the oviposition responses of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) to several C21 fatty acid esters. The oviposition activity of these dengue and chikungunya vectors to the long-chain fatty acid esters of C21 length have not been reported earlier. From the multiple ...
Serafinowski Pawel J - - 2008
Oligonucleotide microarray fabrication by chemical synthesis using photoacid generators in solid films could have advantages over existing methods, but has not matched the accuracy of conventional synthesis where detritylation is performed with acid solutions. To address this problem, we explored the kinetics and equilibria of nucleoside detritylation in solid films, ...
Mayr Stefan - - 2008
Microbial mats collected at cold methane seeps in the Black Sea carry out anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) to carbon dioxide using sulfate as the electron acceptor. These mats, which predominantly consist of sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea of the ANME-1 and ANME-2 type, contain large amounts of proteins very similar ...
Yuan Jian-Ping - - 2008
A gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the rapid determination of free ergosterol, ergosteryl esters, and ergocalciferol. The HPLC method was used to evaluate the distribution of ergosterol and ergosteryl esters in the different parts (stipe, pileus, and gills) of the agaric fungi, Agrocybe aegerita, Termitomyces ...
Park Eun-Jeon - - 2008
In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of four compounds from Galla Rhois [gallic acid methyl ester, gallic acid, an equilibrium mixture of 3-galloyl-gallic acid and 4-galloyl-gallic acid isomers, and 1,2,3,4,6-penta- O-galloyl- beta- D-glucose (PGG)] in primary rat hepatocytes undergoing necrosis or apoptosis. Treatment with gallic acid methyl ester ...
Easterling Emily R - - 2009
Rhodotorula glutinis is a yeast that produces copious quantities of lipids in the form of triacylglycerols (TAG) and can be used to make biodiesel via a transesterification process. The ester bonds in the TAG are broken leaving behind two products: fatty acid methyl esters and glycerol that could provide an ...
Wondraczek Holger - - 2008
Different types of photoactive dextran derivatives with high degree of substitution were prepared by an efficient and mild esterification of the biopolymer with 2-methoxycinnamic acid, [(4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)oxy]acetic acid, and azobenzene-4-carboxylic acid via in situ activation of the carboxylic acid groups with N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole. The structures of the novel dextran esters were evaluated ...
Vlahov Giovanna - - 2008
(13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was applied to determine the different components of apolar and polar fractions which were isolated by column chromatography from the crude chloroform-soluble waxes of olive fruits (Olea europaea) Dritta cultivar. (13)C NMR enabled the determination in the wax apolar fraction, of aliphatic aldehydes, and ...
Armagan A - - 2008
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on testicular toxicity of methotrexate in rats. Nineteen male rats were divided into three groups as follows: group I, control; group II, methotrexate-treated; group III, methotrexate + caffeic acid phenethyl ester-treated. In the ...
Burd Larry - - 2008
The objective of this study was a review of published studies utilizing measurement of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in meconium as biomarkers for prenatal alcohol exposure. We completed a literature search of PubMed using the terms meconium, fatty acid ethyl esters, biomarkers, and prenatal alcohol exposure. We included only ...
Romanowicz Lech - - 2008
Preeclampsia is accompanied by an extensive remodeling of the extracellular matrix of umbilical cord. It is associated with an increase in collagen content in the umbilical cord artery. Furthermore, preeclampsia distinctly reduces proteolytic and gelatinolytic activity, especially after activation with various agents.We decided to develop a method for separation and ...
Torgersen Trine - - 2008
Bivalve molluscs accumulate toxins of the okadaic acid (OA) and pectenotoxin (PTX) groups, which are frequently found in Dinophysis spp. Transformation of the OA-group toxins into fatty acid ester derivatives (often designated "DTX3") is common in many bivalve species but the degree to which these toxins are transformed vary between ...
Torgersen Trine - - 2008
In 2002, two outbreaks of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) occurred in Norway, which was later confirmed to be caused by the consumption of brown crab (Cancer pagurus) contaminated predominantly by esters of okadaic acid (OA) after feeding on toxic blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). In addition to OA-group toxins, pectenotoxins (PTXs) ...
Jenske Ramona - - 2008
2- and 3-hydroxy fatty acids (2- and 3-OH-FAs) are bioactive substances reported in sphingolipids and bacteria. Little is known of their occurrence in food. For this reason, a method suitable for the determination of OH-FAs at trace levels in bovine milk fat was developed. OH-FAs (and conventional fatty acids in ...
Kannathasan Krishnan - - 2008
The larvicidal activity of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) extracts of Vitex altissima, Vitex negundo and Vitex trifolia was studied against early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The fatty composition was analysed by gas chromatography. The highest percentage of lauric acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linolenic acid ...
Roslund Mattias U - - 2008
The migration of acetyl, pivaloyl, and benzoyl protective groups and their relative stabilities at variable pH for a series of beta- d-galactopyranoses were studied by NMR spectroscopy. The clockwise and counterclockwise migration rates for the different ester groups were accurately determined by use of a kinetic model. The results presented ...
Paine John B JB - - 2008
Mild conditions and reversible anhydride formation allow a relative differentiation to be made of the four equivalent carbonyl groups of pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA, benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylic dianhydride) in esterification, leading to regioselective methods to generate a wide range of partially or totally esterified products or products bearing differing esterifying groups at the ...
Cunningham Oliver D - - 2008
The potential for chemically-regulating the acylation of natural products in whole plants has been determined by treating petunia leaves with phenylpropanoid acyl donors supplied as the respective methyl esters. Treatment with derivatives of the naturally-occurring acylating species caffeic acid resulted in a general increase in flavonol derivatives, notably caffeoylated quercetin-3-O-diglucoside ...
Nukavarapu Syam P - - 2008
The nontoxic, neutral degradation products of amino acid ester polyphosphazenes make them ideal candidates for in vivo orthopedic applications. The quest for new osteocompatible materials for load bearing tissue engineering applications has led us to investigate mechanically competent amino acid ester substituted polyphosphazenes. In this study, we have synthesized three ...
Miyazawa Toshifumi - - 2008
The Carica papaya lipase-catalyzed acylation of benzylcarbinols with vinyl hexanoate proceeded smoothly and enantiospecifically (E > 200), affording the R-esters and leaving the S-alcohols intact. Thus, this plant lipase proved to be a promising biocatalyst for the resolution of alcohols as well as for that of carboxylic acids reported earlier.
Kattaya Seema A - - 2008
Gamma radiation is widely used to sterilize bone allografts but may impair their strength. While radioprotectant use may reduce radiation damage they may compromise sterility by protecting pathogens. We assessed the radioprotective potential of various agents (L-cysteine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, L-cysteine-ethyl-ester and L-cysteine-methyl-ester) to identify those which do not protect spores of ...
Vargas Franklin - - 2008
We have synthesized two naphthyl ester quinolone derivates and determined their ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as (1)O(2), ()OH, H(2)O(2) upon photolysis with UV-A light. The ability of cinoxacin (1) and nalidixic acid (2), and their naphthyl ester derivatives (3 and 4) to generate a dose-dependent amount ...
Wang San-Yong - - 2008
Four new aromatic allenic ethers, (7E)-3-(4-buta-2,3-dienyloxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-acrylic acid methyl ester (1), (7E)-3-[4-(4-buta-2,3-dienyloxy-benzyloxy)-phenyl]-acrylic acid methyl ester (2), 4-(4-buta-2,3-dienyloxy-benzyloxy)-benzoic acid methyl ester (3), (7E)-3-[4-(4-buta-2,3- dienyloxy-benzyloxy)-3-methoxy-phenyl]-acrylic acid methyl ester (4) were isolated from the fungus Xylaria sp. No. 2508. The structures of those compounds were determined by analysis of spectroscopic data, mainly 2D NMR ...
Tietze Lutz F - - 2008
The synthesis and biological evaluation of novel prodrugs based on the cytotoxic antibiotic duocarmycin SA (1) for a selective treatment of cancer using a prodrug monotherapy (PMT) are described. Transformation of the phenol 8 with the glucuronic acid benzyl ester trichloroacetimidate 9b followed by reaction with DMAI x HCl (10) ...
Irvine Nicholas M - - 2008
The structures of 4-hydroxy-3,5,6-trichloropyridine-2-carboxylic acid (1a) and 6-hydroxy-3,4,5-trichloro-2-carboxylic acid (1b) were verified by the NMR analysis of their corresponding methylated and decarboxylated derivatives 2,3,5-trichloro-4-methoxypyridine (5) and 3,4,5-trichloro-2-methoxypyridine (8), respectively. The 6-hydroxy isomer (1a) was found to be in equilibrium with its pyridinone tautomer as evidenced by the formation of significant ...
Amar Samija - - 2008
Improving oil and protein quality for food and feed purposes is an important goal in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) breeding programs. Rapeseed contains phytosterols, used to enrich food products, and sinapate esters, which are limiting the utilization of rapeseed proteins in the feed industry. Increasing the phytosterol content of oil ...
Plant Andrew - - 2008
Stereoselective syntheses of both the natural (C5'- S) and unnatural (C5'- R) diastereoisomers of uracil polyoxin C methyl ester have been developed. The key stereocontrolled step involves nucleophilic addition of trimethylsilyl cyanide to the appropriate chiral sulfinimine derived from 2',3'-protected 5'-formyluridine and (S)-(-)-tert-butanesulfinamide or (R)-(+)-tert-butanesulfinamide, respectively. A variety of substrate ...
Nakamura Yasushi - - 2008
The fully ripened fruit of Katsura-uri Japanese pickling melon ( Cucumis melo var. conomon) has rarely been used for food because the midripened fruit is utilized for making pickles, but the fully ripened fruit is no longer valuable for pickles due to the fruit body being too soft. We have ...
Kang Qiang - - 2008
Asymmetric synthesis of trans-alkenyl alpha-amino esters was realized by chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of beta,gamma-alkynyl alpha-imino esters. Utilizing Hantzsch esters as the hydrogen donor, both the alkyne and imine moieties of beta,gamma-alkynyl alpha-imino esters were reduced to afford trans-alkenyl alpha-amino esters with up to 96% ee.
Wojciechowski Filip - - 2008
A simple and practical synthesis of the benzyl, allyl, and 4-nitrobenzyl esters of N-[2-(Fmoc)aminoethyl]glycine is described starting from the known N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine. These esters are stored as stable hydrochloride salts and were used in the synthesis of peptide nucleic acid monomers possessing bis-N-Boc-protected nucleobase moieties on the exocyclic amino groups of ...
Nordblad Mathias - - 2008
Enzymatic acrylation is a process of potentially strong interest to the chemical industry. Direct esterification involving acrylic acid is unfortunately rather slow, with inhibition phenomena appearing at high acid concentrations. In the present study the acrylation of 1-octanol catalyzed by immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) was shown to ...
Torgersen Trine - - 2008
Marine algal toxins of the okadaic acid group can occur as fatty acid esters in blue mussels, and are commonly determined indirectly by transformation to their parent toxins by alkaline hydrolysis. Some data are available regarding the identity of the fatty acid esters, mainly of palmitic acid (16:0) derivatives of ...
Katragadda Suresh S Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, United - - 2008
To evaluate in vivo corneal absorption of the amino acid prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) using a topical well model and microdialysis in rabbits. Stability of L-alanine-ACV (AACV), L-serine-ACV (SACV), L-isoleucine-ACV (IACV), gamma-glutamate-ACV (EACV) and L-valine-ACV (VACV) prodrugs was evaluated in various ocular tissues. Dose-dependent toxicity of these prodrugs was also ...
Campo Eva - - 2008
Wines from Pedro Ximénez (PX), Fino, botrytized Sauternes, and Cava were screened by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and the most relevant aroma compounds were further quantified in six different wines of each group. The comparison of GC-O and quantitative data with similar data from white young wines has made it possible ...
Cui Pei H - - 2008
Methyl esters of C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including gamma-linolenic acid, alpha-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid, were epoxidised using m-chloroperbenzoic acid. Nine monoepoxides were obtained by normal-phase HPLC, identified using LC-MS and NMR, and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. This study is focused on structural characterization using LC-MS and ...
Skepper Colin K - - 2008
Three new omega-halogenated long-chain 2H-azirines were isolated from the sponge Dysidea fragilis. Their structures revealed heterogeneity in both the composition of the terminal 1,1-dihalo-vinyl group and enantiomeric ratios at C2 of the azirine-2-carboxylate ester terminus. Azirine-2-carboxylate esters were shown to racemize spontaneously. A hypothesis is proposed for the biosynthesis of ...
Toyota Shinji - - 2008
The authors prepared the dimethyl and diphenyl esters of 9,9'-bianthryl-2,2'-dicarboxylic acid in racemic and enantiopure (M) forms. The enantiopure dimethyl ester forms inclusion compounds with various organic compounds such as benzene, methanol, phenol, and aniline whereas the racemic form does this only with benzene. No guest molecules are included by ...
Zou Yunfan - - 2008
This method enables scientists to easily convert biologically active carboxylic acids into their methyl esters ("pro-drugs" generally having improved ability to penetrate cell membranes) using only equipment commonly found in a biology laboratory. An ion-exchange resin is used to convert the acid into its salt, which is thereby sequestered on ...
Shindo Kazutoshi - - 2008
Novel acyl glyco-carotenoic acids, diapolycopenedioic acid xylosyl esters A, B, and C, were isolated as red pigments by using chromatographic methods from a marine bacterium, Rubritalea squalenifaciens, belonging to subdivision 1 of Verrucomicrobia. The structures of these diapolycopenedioic acid xylosyl esters were determined to be 4-[2-O-acyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl] hydrogen 4,4'-diapo-Psi,Psi-carotene-4,4'-dioate by spectroscopic ...
Kovács János - - 2008
Hydrolysis of activated esters, e.g., picolinic acid and alpha-amino acid esters, in the presence of Cu(2+) salts is a stoichiometric process because products of this reaction bind the catalytic metal ion substantially stronger than starting materials do. Herein we report improved ester substrates, which are cleaved in the presence of ...
Nyfeler Erich - - 2008
An efficient radical-mediated decarboxylative azidation of aliphatic carboxylic acids has been developed. The success of this transformation hinges on the use of a new type of thiohydroxamate esters (MPDOC esters). These esters are more stable than the classical Barton esters and less prone to rearrange under radical conditions. In the ...
Grinberg S - - 2008
The present study describes the synthesis of a novel class of vesicle-forming bolaamphiphiles with choline ester head groups. These bolaamphiphiles were derived from vernonia oil, whose main constituent is vernolic acid, a fatty acid with a unique combination of epoxy, carboxy and unsaturated double bonds. A series of bolaamphiphiles containing ...
Besset Céline - - 2008
The reactivity of melezitose and raffinose under Mitsunobu conditions was studied within the scope of the use of trisaccharides for the synthesis of fatty acid esters. Melezitose led to esters with preferential substitution at primary positions following the order of reactivity 6''>6>6'. Raffinose proved to be very reluctant toward ester ...
Ammazzalorso Alessandra - - 2008
Candida rugosa lipase-catalysed hydrolysis of three different 2-substituted-aryloxyacetic esters was performed in aqueous buffer containing dimethyl sulphoxide and isopropanol from 0 to 80% v/v as additives, in order to obtain an enhancement of the enantioselectivity. For 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)acetic acid and 2-n-butyl-2-(p-chlorophenoxy)acetic acid ethyl esters, DMSO enhanced enzyme enantioselectivity more than IPA ...
Bhandari Krishna Hari - - 2008
The aim was to evaluate the skin permeation and accumulation profiles of a highly lipophilic fatty ester using the combination of various permeation enhancing techniques to study the potential of highly lipophilic fatty esters as local topical agents. Permeation and accumulation profiles of ketorolac stearate (C18:0) were studied using solubility ...
Lee J W - - 2008
Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) technology was evaluated as a monitoring tool for quantification of Gordonia amarae in activated sludge systems. The fatty acid, 19:1 alcohol, which was identified as a unique fatty acid in G. amarae was not only confirmed to be present in foaming plant samples, but the ...
Li Xin - - 2008
Flaxseed contains the largest amount of lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) oligomers and is the richest dietary source of SDG. SDG oligomers in the flaxseed extract are often hydrolyzed to break the ester linkages for the release of SDG and the glycosidic bonds for the release of secoisolariciresinol (SECO). The hydrolysates ...
Crugeiras Juan J Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Santiago, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, - - 2008
Equilibrium constants in D2O were determined by 1H NMR analyses for formation of imines/iminium ions from addition of glycine methyl ester to acetone and from addition of glycine to phenylglyoxylate. First-order rate constants, also determined by 1H NMR, are reported for deuterium exchange between solvent D2O and the alpha-amino carbon ...
Koo Yeon Jong - - 2008
We developed a quantitative method for the determination of methyl esterase activity, analyzing substrate specificity against three major signal molecules, jasmonic acid methyl ester (MeJA), salicylic acid methyl ester (MeSA), and indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester (MeIAA). We used a silylation reagent for chemical derivatization and used gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectroscopy ...
Hufnagel Jan Carlos - - 2008
Application of sequential solvent extraction, followed by HPLC combined with the taste dilution analysis, enabled the localization of the most intense velvety astringent, drying, and puckering astringent, as well as bitter-tasting, compounds in red wine, respectively. Isolation of the taste components involving gel adsorption chromatography, ultrafiltration, and synthesis revealed the ...
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