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Lim Christopher S CS 1Department of Emergency Medicine, Cook County Hospital (Stroger), Toxikon Consortium, Chicago, IL; and 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Cook County Hospital (Stroger), Chicago, - - 2014
Methanol poisonings can produce significant toxicity in humans, including acidosis, blindness, and death. The current mainstay of therapy is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) inhibition to prevent formation of formic acid and hemodialysis to correct acidosis and remove both parent compound and toxic metabolite. Folate has been recommended as an adjunctive therapy ...
Mansoori Nasim N 1Department of Laboratory Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, - - 2014
Low level of vitamin B12 and folic acid has been reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Serum folic acid and vitamin B12 were assayed in 80 AD and 50 VaD cases and in 120 healthy controls. The reduced folate ...
Marrakchi Hedia H Unité Mixte de Recherche 5089, Département Mécanismes Moléculaires des Infections Mycobactériennes, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale (IPBS), 205 Route de Narbonne, BP 64182, 31077 Toulouse, France; Université de Toulouse, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse III, IPBS, 205 Route de Narbonne, BP 64182, 31077 Toulouse, - - 2013
Mycolic acids are major and specific lipid components of the mycobacterial cell envelope and are essential for the survival of members of the genus Mycobacterium that contains the causative agents of both tuberculosis and leprosy. In the alarming context of the emergence of multidrug-resistant, extremely drug-resistant, and totally drug-resistant tuberculosis, ...
Hasegawa Tetsuya T Department of Veterinary Science, Graduated School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture - - 2013
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with seizures, but diagnostic approaches in veterinary clinics remain limited. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a body fluid used for diagnosis in veterinary medicine. In this study, we explored canine epilepsy diagnostic biomarkers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling of CSF and multivariate data ...
Amaral Julio J - - 2013
Despite considerable efforts over the last decades, our understanding of leprosy pathogenesis remains limited. The complex interplay between pathogens and hosts has profound effects on host metabolism. To explore the metabolic perturbations associated with leprosy, we analyzed the serum metabolome of leprosy patients. Samples collected from lepromatous and tuberculoid patients ...
Ogawa Takaya - - 2013
Proton conduction in zirconium sulphate (ZrSO4) composed of a Lewis acid-base pair was studied. ZrSO4 exhibits non-humidified proton conductivity, comparable to other proton conductors under similar conditions. Ab initio calculation shows that a proton transfers in ZrSO4 from a Lewis acid to a Lewis base without a proton carrier.
Quandt Gabriele - - 2013
γ-Amino butyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). A malfunction of the GABAergic neurotransmission is connected to several neuronal disorders like epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, neuropathic pain, and depression. One possibility to enhance GABA levels in the synaptic cleft is to inhibit mGAT1, ...
Kiencke Verena - - 2013
Most of the daily work of forensic toxicologists deals with fatal cases resulting from overdoses of licit and illicit drugs. However, another reason for fatalities in patients suffering from epilepsy can be undetectable or subtherapeutic levels of antiepileptic drugs. Some studies have shown a correlation between "sudden unexpected death in ...
Vogensen Stine Byskov - - 2013
A series of β-amino acids sharing a lipophilic diaromatic side chain was synthesized and characterized pharmacologically on mouse γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) transporter subtypes mGAT1-4. The parent amino acids were also characterized. Three compounds, 13a, 13b, and 17b displayed more than 6-fold selectivity for mGAT2 over mGAT1. Compound 17b displayed ...
van der Velden Lieke M - - 2013
Bile acids are pivotal for the absorption of dietary lipids and vitamins and function as important signaling molecules in metabolism. Here, we describe a genetically encoded fluorescent bile acid sensor (BAS) that allows for spatiotemporal monitoring of bile acid transport in single living cells. Changes in concentration of multiple physiological ...
Loef Martin - - 2013
It has been suggested that the intake of certain fatty acids may influence the risk of dementia. However, current reviews have focused only on the therapeutic effects of omega-3 fatty acids, mostly as supplements. To date, the evidence for the relevance of the omega-6/omega-3 ratio has been neglected. Therefore, we ...
Pandey Madan Mohan - - 2013
Nardostachys jatamansi DC. and Selinum vaginatum (Edgew) Cl. are two endemic high altitude Indian medicinal plants that have been traditionally known as "Jatamansi" and "Bhootkeshi," respectively. These are used in various traditional herbal formulations and nutraceuticals, as well as to treat neurological disorders like epilepsy, hysteria, syncope, convulsions, and mental ...
Nickerson David M - - 2012
The strategic incorporation of internal Lewis acids onto urea scaffolds gives rise to a family of tunable hydrogen bond donor catalysts. The nature of the Lewis acid and associated ligands affects the urea polarization, acidity, and activity in reactions of nitrocyclopropane carboxylates and nitrodiazoesters.
Chang Pishan - - 2012
The medium chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diet is used extensively for treating refractory childhood epilepsy. This diet increases the plasma levels of medium straight chain fatty acids. A role for these and related fatty acids in seizure control has not been established. We compared the potency of an established epilepsy ...
Vermeiren Yannick - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are a heterogeneous group of behavioral and psychiatric disturbances occurring in dementia patients of any etiology. Research suggests that altered activities of dopaminergic, serotonergic, (nor)adrenergic, as well as amino acid neurotransmitter systems play a role in the etiopathogenesis of BPSD. ...
Blée Elizabeth - - 2012
In plants, epoxygenated fatty acids (EFA) are constituents of oil seeds as well as defence molecules and components of biopolymers (cutin, suberin). While the pleiotropic biological activities of mammalian EFA have been well documented, there is a paucity of information on the physiological relevance of plant EFA and their biosynthesis. ...
Liu Xuesong - - 2012
C(sp3)-C(sp) bond formations are of immense interest in chemistry and material sciences. We report herein a convenient, radical-mediated and catalytic method for C(sp3)-C(sp) cross-coupling. Thus, with AgNO3 as the catalyst and K2S2O8 as the oxidant, various aliphatic carboxylic acids underwent decarboxylative alkynylation with commercially available ethynylbenziodoxolones in aqueous solution under ...
Lefevre Michael - - 2012
The varied functional requirements satisfied by trans fatty acid (TFA)--containing oils constrains the selection of alternative fats and oils for use as potential replacements in specific food applications. We aimed to model the effects of replacing TFA-containing partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) with application-appropriate alternatives on population fatty acid intakes, ...
Morris E Matthew - - 2012
Studies have shown that decreased mitochondrial content and function are associated with hepatic steatosis. We examined whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) overexpression and a subsequent increase in mitochondrial content and function in rat primary hepatocytes (in vitro) and Sprague-Dawley rats (in vivo) would comprehensively alter mitochondrial lipid metabolism, including ...
Malmström Anders A Department of Experimental Medical Science, Biomedical Center D12, Lund University, Lund, - - 2012
The ability of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) to convey biological information is enriched by the presence of iduronic acid. DS-epimerases 1 and 2 (DS-epi1 and 2), in conjunction with DS-4-O-sulfotransferase 1, are the enzymes responsible for iduronic acid biosynthesis and will be the major focus of this review. CS/DS proteoglycans (CS/DS-PGs) ...
Nara Takayuki - - 2012
The porcine perianal skin shows prominent apocrine glands with large saccular dilatations, whereby the functional significance of the glandular secretions is rather unexplained. Our study focuses on the demonstration of sialoglycoconjugates and antimicrobial substances in these glands, using glycoconjugate histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. The result obtained emphasized the general presence ...
Lee C Christine - - 2012
Albuminuria (this includes microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria) and reduced glomerular filtration rate are present not only in high-risk populations, but also in the general population. These manifestations of renal disease are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and may reflect subclinical vascular disease. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have ...
Zhu Gangbing - - 2012
We report a simple and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin non-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes bridged by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid (β-CD-PTCA-SWCNTs). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the as-prepared functionalized SWCNTs. Furthermore, the β-CD-PTCA-SWCNTs were applied ...
Li Leon - - 2012
In the stomach, a layer of gastric mucus protects the epithelial cells of the stomach wall against damage by the acidic digestive juices in the gastric lumen. Despite considerable research, the biophysical mechanisms for this acid barrier are not understood. We present an in vitro microfluidic tool to characterize the ...
Virta Pasi - - 2012
Esterified precursors of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA; 18) and 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-trisacetic acid (NOTA; 17,19) ligands bearing a dimethoxytritylated hydroxyl side arm were prepared and immobilized via an ester linkage to long chain alkyl amine derivatized controlled pore glass (LCAA-CPG). Oligonucleotide chains were then assembled on the hydroxyl function and conjugates were released ...
Rémond Emmanuelle - - 2012
The stereoselective synthesis of a new amino acid phosphonium salt was described by quaternization of melting triphenylphosphine with the γ-iodo NHBoc-amino ester, derived from L-aspartic acid. The deprotection of the carboxylic acid function to afford the phosphonium salt with a free carboxylic acid group, was achieved by a palladium catalyzed ...
Lin Pao-Yen - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), arachidonic acid (AA), total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and total n-6 PUFAs were changed in patients with dementia or predementia syndrome. DATA SOURCES: PubMed was searched for studies from first date available to July 2011 using ...
Sacchi Silvia - - 2012
Since D: -amino acids were identified in mammals, D: -serine has been one of the most extensively studied "unnatural amino acids". This brain-enriched transmitter-like molecule plays a pivotal role in the human central nervous system by modulating the activity of NMDA receptors. Physiological levels of D: -serine are required for ...
Hanami Takeshi - - 2012
The incorporation of deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) catalyzed by polymerases is conventionally examined using gel electrophoresis autoradiography. Here, we studied an alternative method, pyrosequencing, to verify the incorporation of dNTPs containing unnatural nucleotides by polymerases. We found that the pyrosequencing method more rapidly and easily confirmed the incorporation of dNTPs than ...
Nguyen Su Duy - - 2012
HDL particles may enter atherosclerotic lesions having an acidic intimal fluid. Therefore, we investigated whether acidic pH would affect their structural and functional properties. For this purpose, HDL(2) and HDL(3) subfractions were incubated for various periods of time at different pH values ranging from 5.5 to 7.5, after which their ...
Thompson Abby K - - 2012
Our objective was to determine whether the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) Glu298Asp polymorphism influences vascular response to raised NEFA enriched with saturated fatty acids (SFA) or long-chain (LC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Subjects were prospectively recruited for genotype (Glu298, n = 30 and Asp298, n = 29; balanced ...
Hashimoto Tatsuo - - 2012
Malnutrition affects up to one billion people in the world and is a major cause of mortality. In many cases, malnutrition is associated with diarrhoea and intestinal inflammation, further contributing to morbidity and death. The mechanisms by which unbalanced dietary nutrients affect intestinal homeostasis are largely unknown. Here we report ...
Cutignano Adele - - 2012
Opisthobranchs belong to a subclass of highly evolved and specialised marine gastropods that rely on the use of secondary metabolites for their survival. Here we report the full elucidation of the biosynthesis of aromatic metabolites, lignarenones, in one of these gastropods, the cephalaspidean Scaphander lignarius. Feeding experiments with (2) H- ...
Olson Aaron K AK Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle Children's Hospital, 4800 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105, USA. - - 2013
The protooncogene C-Myc (Myc) regulates cardiac hypertrophy. Myc promotes compensated cardiac function, suggesting that the operative mechanisms differ from those leading to heart failure. Myc regulation of substrate metabolism is a reasonable target, as Myc alters metabolism in other tissues. We hypothesize that Myc induced shifts in substrate utilization signal ...
Reuter Stephanie E - - 2012
L-Carnitine (levocarnitine) is a naturally occurring compound found in all mammalian species. The most important biological function of L-carnitine is in the transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria for subsequent β-oxidation, a process which results in the esterification of L-carnitine to form acylcarnitine derivatives. As such, the endogenous carnitine ...
Oderinde Martins S - - 2012
Facile hydrostannylation of alkynes in air: The ability to prepare vinylstannanes of high regio- and sterochemical fidelity in a safe manner employing a simple operational set up, especially on a large scale, has remained elusive. This study has shown that all of the autoxidation products of Et(3) B and boronic ...
Serpen Arda - - 2012
Seven grades of black tea [high-quality black tea (grades 1-3) and low-quality black tea (grades 4-7)], processed by ÇAYKUR Tea Processing Plant (Rize, Turkey), were examined for their proximate composition, dietary fiber, minerals, and water-soluble vitamins as well as total phenolic content, various antioxidant assays, phenolics (flavanols, alkoloids, condensed phenolics, ...
Heller Stephen T - - 2012
Unique reactivity: In the presence of more reactive amine and alcohol functional groups and of carboxylic acids, the chemoselective N-acylation of indoles and oxazolidinones is achieved by taking advantage of the unique reactivity of carbonylazole acylating agents with catalytic amounts of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU).
Walvoort Marthe T C - - 2012
Well-defined fragments of hyaluronic acid (HA) have been obtained through a fully automated solid-phase oligosaccharide synthesis. Disaccharide building blocks, featuring a disarmed glucuronic acid donor moiety and a di-tert-butylsilylidene-protected glucosamine part, were used in the rapid and efficient assembly of HA fragments up to the pentadecamer level, equipped with a ...
Düselder André - - 2012
Processive motility of individual molecules is essential for the function of many kinesin motors. Processivity for kinesins relies on communication between the two heads of a dimeric molecule, such that binding strictly alternates. The main communicating elements are believed to be the two neck linkers connecting the motors' stalks and ...
Nassif Ali - - 2012
To determine if genetic polymorphisms of liver-specific human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and OATP1B3 influence cellular uptake of gadoxetic acid in vitro and if functionally relevant polymorphisms are confounders for liver enhancement by gadoxetic acid in healthy subjects. This study received ethics approval, and all subjects provided written ...
Mittal Aditya - - 2012
Proteins manifest themselves as phenotypic traits, retained or lost in living systems via evolutionary pressures. Simply put, survival is essentially the ability of a living system to synthesize a functional protein that allows for a response to environmental perturbations (adaptation). Loss of functional proteins leads to extinction. Currently there are ...
Fiume Monice M - - 2012
The CIR Expert Panel assessed the safety of dicarboxylic acids and their salts and esters as used in cosmetics. Most dicarboxylic acids function in cosmetics as pH adjusters or fragrance ingredients, but the functions of most of the salts in cosmetics are not reported. Some of the esters function as ...
Truong Phong - - 2012
The intramolecular acid catalyzed aldol cyclization of 2,3,7-triketoesters formed from ζ-keto-α-diazo-β-ketoesters provides highly functionalized cyclopentanones with good diastereoselectivity in high overall yields via kinetically controlled and stereodivergent catalytic processes. Lewis acid catalysis gives high selectivity for the 1,2-anti tetrasubstituted cyclopentanones, whereas Brønsted acid catalysis produces the corresponding 1,2-syn diastereomer.
Wu Jie - - 2012
Homoallylic carbamates bearing an α,β-unsaturated ester or an allylic carbonate were generated respectively utilizing novel chiral silanes through Lewis acid promoted asymmetric aminocrotylation. Those bifunctional building blocks could further undergo Michael addition or cyclization to selectively form functionalized lactams, azetidines, and tetrahydropyrimidinones.
Hoare Todd - - 2012
Nanogels based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) are attractive vehicles for prolonged duration local anesthesia because of their tunable size, number of functional groups, thermoresponsiveness and anionic charge. Nerve block durations of up to 9h were achieved using acrylic acid-loaded nanogels loaded with bupivacaine. Increasing the anionic charge density of the nanogels or ...
Fan Yi Chiao - - 2012
In this study we used sequential catalysis-PPh(3)--catalyzed nucleophilic addition followed by Pd(0)-catalyzed Heck cyclization--to construct complex functionalized alkylidene phthalans rapidly, in high yields, and with good stereoselectivities (E/Z ratios of up to 1:22). The scope of this Michael-Heck reaction includes substrates bearing various substituents around the alkylidene phthalan backbone. Applying ...
Nara T - - 2012
Circumanal glands are prominent features of the canine perianal skin, which are often located near to the sebaceous glands and apocrine glands. As the functional relevance of circumanal glands is yet unknown, we studied the localisation of sialic acids and anti-microbial substances (lysozyme, immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, β-defensin) in these glandular ...
Anantharaj S - - 2012
A new dual ester-urethane melt condensation methodology for biological monomers-amino acids was developed to synthesize new classes of thermoplastic polymers under eco-friendly and solvent free polymerization approach. Naturally abundant L-amino acids were converted into dual functional ester-urethane monomers by tailor made synthetic approach. Direct polycondensation of these amino acid monomers ...
Eissa Ahmed M - - 2012
This article describes a versatile method for the modification of 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) involving azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction to impart neutral (ester) and ionic (carboxylic acid and 1(ry) amine) functionalities. The synthetic approach involved, first the introduction of the azide functionality to HEC and then followed by its cycloaddition reaction with ...
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