Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1841
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Nishijima Saori - - 2005
PURPOSE: We examined the mechanism involved in the inhibition of bladder activity in rats by stimulating the rostral pontine reticular formation (RPRF) using carbachol, flavoxate and propiverine, and by analysis of amino acid levels in the lumbosacral cord. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 82 female rats were anesthetized with ...
Lian Xiao-Yuan - - 2005
To test the proposed neuroprotective activity of whole ginseng extract and its components, we used 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, to produce neurodegeneration. Treatment with 3-nitropropionic acid (90 mg/kg) over a 5-day period resulted in severe impairment of movement and loss of neurons in the striatum. Pretreatment ...
Robotka Hermina - - 2005
The metabolism of tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway yields several neuroactive intermediates, including kynurenic acid, which is one of the few known endogenous N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor inhibitors; in parallel with this, it is an alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptor antagonist. On the basis of these properties, kynurenic acid might therefore come into ...
Hinoi Eiichi - - 2005
The L-glutamate (Glu) has been hypothesized as an excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system after successful cloning and identification of a number of genes encoding signaling machineries required for the neurocrine at synapses in the brain. These include excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) for signal termination ...
Montiel T - - 2005
The extracellular concentration of glutamate is highly regulated by transporter proteins, due to its neurotoxic properties. Dysfunction or reverse activation of these transporters is related to the extracellular accumulation of excitatory amino acids and neuronal damage associated with ischemia and hypoglycemia. We have investigated by microdialysis the effects of the ...
Zhu Yuan - - 2005
There is increasing evidence showing the involvement of unsaturated free fatty acids in cell death pathways, particularly in the context of apoptotic signalling. Our previous in vitro study has demonstrated that oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, reduces phosphorylation of proapoptotic Bad through activation of protein phosphatase type 2Cbeta. In ...
Kato Hiroyuki - - 2004
We examined the neuroprotective effects of a novel astrocyte-modulating agent, arundic acid (ONO-2506), in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Male C57BL/6 mice received four intraperitoneal injections of MPTP (20 mg/kg) at 2 h intervals. Dopamine content in the striatum was reduced to 21% of the normal control ...
Kekesi Gabriella - - 2004
Adenosine, agmatine and kynurenic acid are endogenous ligands acting on different (e.g. adenosine, NMDA, alpha(2)-adrenergic and imidazoline) receptors with a potential role in nociception at the spinal level. Their antinociceptive effects have already been investigated as monotherapy, but only a few studies have reported on their effects on the potency ...
Ahmad Shagufta - - 2004
The antiepileptic drug lamotrigine (LTG) is a relatively novel anticonvulsant frequently used in polytherapy and increasingly in monotherapy. LTG is believed to act by reducing excitatory glutamate (GLU) release due to an inhibition of Na(+) channels. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of acute and chronic (up ...
Reinhard John F JF - - 2004
The amino acid tryptophan is a precursor for the neurotransmitter serotonin as well as for kynurenic and quinolinic acids. These latter molecules are antagonists and agonists, respectively, of the excitatory amino acid glutamate and arise through the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism. Significant differences exist in the sites and physiological ...
Ilhan Atilla - - 2004
Since overexcitation of excitatory amino acid is an important mechanism in seizure genesis wherein free radicals have recently been suggested to play a critical role, we explored the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) administration in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure in mice. CAPE prevents the oxidative damage in brain tissue ...
Han Qian - - 2004
Kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) catalyzes the formation of kynurenic acid (KYNA), the natural antagonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors. This study tests potential substrates and assesses the effects of amino acids and keto acids on the activity of mosquito KAT. Various keto acids, when simultaneously present in the same reaction mixture, display ...
Wei Guo - - 2004
3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA), a suicide inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; complex II), has been used to provide useful experimental models of Huntington's disease (HD) and "chemical hypoxia" in rodents. The trace ion Zn2+ has been shown to cause neurodegeneration. Employing real-time Newport Green fluorescence imaging of extracellular Zn2+, we found ...
Gandhi Rohan - - 2004
Injection of acid into the gastrocnemius muscle results in a persistent, mechanical hyperalgesia of the hindpaw (Sluka et al., 2001). Here, the ability of neurotrophins to alter the development of this secondary hyperalgesia was assessed using transgenic mice and exogenous neurotrophin administration. Acid-induced hyperalgesia was measured in wild-type and transgenic ...
Ghelardini Carla - - 2004
Recently it has been proposed that the throbbing pain of migraine is mediated by sensitization of peripheral trigeminovascular neurons, and that cutaneous allodynia of migraine is mediated by sensitization of central trigeminovascular neurons, and, moreover, that the triptans are less effective in aborting a migraine attack if the central sensitization ...
Kocki Tomasz - - 2004
Disturbed formation of kynurenic acid, an endogenous antagonist of glutamate ionotropic receptors, might contribute to the pathogenesis of seizures. Here, the effect of anticonvulsant drug, carbamazepine on the production of kynurenic acid was studied. Carbamazepine (0.5-3 mM) enhanced kynurenic acid synthesis in rat cortical slices and also increased the activity ...
Yonamine C M - - 2004
The primary goal of this study was to determine whether Tx2-5, a sodium channel selective toxin obtained from the venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, produced penile erection by means of nitric oxide mechanism. Toxin identity was analyzed by MALDI-TOF, ES-MS and N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Pretreating mice with the ...
Baraban S C - - 2004
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36 amino-acid member of the pancreatic polypeptide family, has received considerable attention in recent years as an endogenous modulator of epileptic activity. Prominently expressed in brain regions involved in seizure generation and propagation, NPY can exert powerful effects on synaptic transmission. Here, we discuss the anti-epileptic ...
Gupta M - - 2004
Mice with targeted deletion of the GABA catabolic enzyme succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) manifest lethal tonic-clonic seizures, amenable to pharmacologic rescue, at 3-4 weeks of life. In the current report, we characterized amino acid profiles in SSADH(-/-) brain utilizing whole brain and regional extracts (frontal and parietal cortex, hippocampus, and ...
Brown Colin H - - 2004
Vasopressinergic hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells fire in phasic bursts. Burst initiation involves summation of postsynaptic potentials to generate action potentials. Action potentials are each followed by a nonsynaptic depolarizing after-potential that summates temporally to generate a plateau potential and so sustain activity throughout the burst. It is unknown whether this ...
Osakada Fumitaka - - 2004
We previously identified a novel endogenous substance, serofendic acid, from a lipophilic extract of fetal calf serum. Serofendic acid protects cultured cortical neurons against the cytotoxicity of glutamate and nitric oxide. Here, we reported the protective effect of serofendic acid on reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress using primary rat striatal ...
Shih Yang-Hsin - - 2004
Ursolic acid is the major component of extracts of the Chinese herb, Souyang. This study determines whether and how ursolic acid protects against kainate-induced excitotoxicity in rat hippocampus. Primary neuronal cultures of cells isolated from the hippocampi of 7-day-old rats were treated with 150 microM kainate. After 2 h of ...
Célérier Aurélie - - 2004
The goals of the present study were to determine if ibotenic acid lesions of the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) or of mammillary body (MB) of the hypothalamus would induce similar contextual conditioning deficit in a fear-conditioning paradigm, previously developed in mice [Eur. J. Neurosci. 12 (2000) 2575]. Results showed that ibotenic ...
Melis Maria Rosaria - - 2004
The concentrations of glutamic and aspartic acids were measured in the dialysate obtained with vertical microdialysis probes implanted into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of sexually potent male rats during sexual activity. Animals showed noncontact erections when put in the presence of, and copulated with, a receptive (ovarietomized oestrogen- ...
Jeffery B - - 2004
Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) is caused by consumption of shellfish that have accumulated domoic acid, a neurotoxin produced by some strains of phytoplankton. The neurotoxic properties of domoic acid result in neuronal degeneration and necrosis in specific regions of the hippocampus. A serious outbreak of ASP occurred in Canada in ...
Vestergaard Henrik T - - 2004
Quisqualic acid induces sensitisation of neurones to depolarisation by analogues of 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (AP4), phenylglycine, and homoibotenic acid (HIBO). Thus, after administration of quisqualate these analogues become active at concentrations at which they are otherwise inactive. The mechanisms behind quisqualate-induced sensitisation are poorly understood and have not previously been quantified ...
Li Zhi-Ping - - 2004
In the present communication, the dynamic release of amino acid (AA) transmitters induced by valproate (VPA) in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindled freely moving rats hippocampus has been determined. The results showed that glutamate and aspartate release were significantly increased during the seizure/interical periods, and markedly decreased after the application of 200mg/kg valproate. ...
Laberge Frédéric - - 2004
The present study attempts to highlight the principles by which peripheral olfactory information of across- and within-class odorant signals is transformed into bulbar neuron responses. For this purpose, we performed electro-olfactogram cross-adaptation and mixture experiments as well as single unit recording of olfactory bulb neurons using amino acid, bile acid ...
Rabinovitz Sharon - - 2004
The role of fatty acids (FA) and their impact on nervous system activity and immune function has attracted much attention. The interest extends beyond a basic understanding of the potential role exerted by FA on the neuronal membrane and its properties, to the implications and clinical significance for many neurological ...
Gobbo O L - - 2004
We have investigated the role of inflammation in the excitotoxicity induced by overstimulation of glutamate receptors using kainic acid, an important tool for studying functions related to excitatory amino acid transmission and for producing neuronal death, especially in areas CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus. We hypothesised that by inhibiting ...
Kölker Stefan - - 2004
Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is an inherited organic aciduria with predominantly neurological presentation. Biochemically, it is characterized by an accumulation and enhanced urinary excretion of two key organic acids, glutaric acid and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid. If untreated, acute striatal degeneration is often precipitated by febrile illnesses during a vulnerable period of brain ...
Varadkar S - - 2004
Glutaric aciduria type I is an inborn error of organic acid metabolism that demonstrates a particular temporal vulnerability (acute encephalopathic episodes in infancy) and a spatial vulnerability (acute striatal necrosis, focused on the putamen). Excitotoxic mechanisms involving 3-hydroxyglutaric acid as the major neurotoxin have been suggested. This paper proposes a ...
Füvesi Judit - - 2004
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is the only known endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor inhibitor and might therefore come into consideration as a therapeutic agent in certain neurobiological disorders. However, its use as a neuroprotective compound is practically excluded because KYNA does not readily cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We recently synthetized a ...
Willis C - - 2004
Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Injury to the brain can cause an ionic imbalance in cerebral tissue, creating an excitotoxic cascade involving glutamate and other excitatory amino acids, that leads to neuronal death in the tissue surrounding the original injury site. Research has centred around inhibiting ...
Cerstiaens Anja - - 2003
Kynurenines are endogenous metabolites of tryptophan, which are studied extensively in vertebrates with respect to their etiological role in the pathology of various neurodegenerative disorders. In insects, metabolites of the kynurenic pathway are present in peak concentrations in the hemolymph of holometabolic species during pupation and just before eclosion. Unlike ...
Picazo Ofir - - 2003
The ovarian hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2) is neuroprotective in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. Some studies suggest that the neuroprotective effects of 17beta-estradiol are a consequence of its antioxidant activity that depend on the hydroxyl group in the C3 position of the A ring. As in other tissues, 17beta-estradiol is metabolized ...
Maile Rebecca - - 2003
The 17 amino acid peptide nociceptin has been implicated in pain modulation in the central nervous system. The effects of bath applied nociceptin, and some analogues of nociceptin, upon spontaneous lumbar dorsal root activity have been investigated in an isolated preparation of rat spinal cord. Nociceptin was found to reversibly ...
Sundin L - - 2003
To investigate central respiratory control mechanisms in channel catfish, microinjections of kainic acid (causing chemical lesion of neurons) or kynurenic acid (an antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), kainate and alpha-amino-3-OH-5-methyl-4-isooxazole-propionic-acid (AMPA) receptors) were made into the general visceral nucleus (nGV) of the medulla in anaesthetised spontaneously breathing animals. Kainic acid abolished ...
Chung Ki-Myung - - 2003
Several studies have demonstrated that the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone produces a paradoxical antinociception in the formalin test. The opioid system is related to the serotonergic system for producing antinociception at the spinal level. Here we also asked whether systemic (i.p.) and intrathecal (i.t.) administrations of a nonselective serotonergic ...
Alfonso M - - 2003
The brain microdialysis technique has been used to examine the in vivo effects of the neurotoxin domoic acid (an ionotropic glutamate receptor agonist) on dopamine (DA) release in the striatum of conscious and freely moving rats. Local application of domoic acid (500 microM) through the microdialysis probe produced an increase ...
Taguchi Ryota - - 2003
We have previously reported that a novel neuroprotective substance named serofendic acid was purified and isolated from ether extract of fetal calf serum. In the present study, we investigated the effect of serofendic acid on acute neurotoxicity induced by L-glutamate (Glu) using primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. Exposure of ...
Osborne Michael G - - 2003
This study examined the nociceptive effects of the intrathecal administration of various doses of the following endogenous excitatory sulphur-containing amino acids (SAAs): L-cysteic acid (L-CA), L-cysteine sulfinic acid (L-CSA), L-homocysteic acid (L-HCA) and L-homocysteic sulfinic acid (L-HCSA). For a period of 10min, rats were observed for spontaneous nociceptive behaviours (SNBs), ...
Beretta Simone - - 2003
L-Glutamic acid acts as the major excitatory neurotransmitter and, at the same time, represents a potential neurotoxin for the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The termination of excitatory transmission and the maintenance of physiologic levels of extracellular glutamate, which is necessary to prevent excitotoxicity, are prominently mediated by a family ...
Chen Kuang-Kuo - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the excitatory amino acid receptor agonists can activate the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and induce penile erections in the rat. METHODS: Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used. A 26-gauge needle was inserted into the corpus cavernosum to monitor the intracavernous pressure (ICP) simultaneously with ...
Korhonen Laura - - 2003
Kainic acid induces excitotoxicity and nerve cell degeneration in vulnerable regions of rat brain, most markedly in hippocampus and amygdala. Part of the cell death following kainic acid is apoptotic as shown by caspase 3 activation and chromatin condensation. Here we have studied the regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins ...
Wieser Heinz-Gregor - - 2003
A recent study describing two epileptic patients with brain cysts has suggested that elevated concentrations of excitatory amino acids in cysts may play a role in induction and maintenance of epileptogenesis [Epilepsy Res. 28 (1997) 245]. Here, we report that only in 3 out of 22 patients with brain cysts ...
Furuta Akiko - - 2003
Glutamate excitotoxicity has been implicated in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Systemic injection of kainic acid (KA) in the rat produces an animal model of human temporal lobe epilepsy. We examined the temporal expression of the sodium-dependent neuronal glutamate transporter, excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1), in KA-induced rat epilepsy. As ...
Yamamoto Hiro-aki - - 2003
The effects of alpha-ketoglutarate and oxaloacetate on brain mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and seizures induced by kainic acid were examined both in vivo and in vitro. An intraperitoneal (ip) injection of kainic acid (45 mg/kg) produced broad-spectrum limbic and severe sustained seizures in all of the treated mice. The seizures ...
Stone Trevor W - - 2003
Tryptophan is metabolised primarily along the kynurenine pathway, of which two components are now known to have marked effects on neurons in the central nervous system. Quinolinic acid is an agonist at the population of glutamate receptors which are sensitive to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), and kynurenic acid is an antagonist at ...
Manzini Ivan - - 2003
Whether odorants are transduced by only one or more than one second messenger has been a long-standing question in olfactory research. In a previous study we started to address this question mainly by using calcium imaging in the olfactory bulb. Here, we present direct evidence for our earlier conclusions using ...
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