Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1843
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Ribeiro César A J - - 2006
In the present study we investigated the effect of intrastriatal administration of 150 nmol quinolinic acid to young rats on critical enzyme activities of energy production and transfer, as well as on 14CO2 production from [1-14C]acetate at distinct periods after quinolinic acid injection. We observed that quinolinic acid injection significantly ...
Bishnoi Mahendra - - 2007
Cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) are responsible for the metabolism of arachidonic acid into inflammatory metabolites, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, respectively. The upregulation of these enzymes in the central nervous system has been demonstrated to be responsible for the increased neuronal vulnerability to degeneration. Kainic acid, a glutamate receptor agonist and ...
Doi Yukiko - - 2006
Serofendic acid is a novel neuroprotective factor isolated from fetal calf serum. To elucidate the mechanisms how serofendic acid exerts neuroprotection, we examined its effects on glutamate-induced excito-toxicity in mouse cortical neurons. The effects of serofendic acid on inflammatory cytokine and neurotrophin production by glial cells were also examined to ...
Ledeboer Annemarie - - 2006
Spinal glial activation and consequent interleukin-1 (IL-1) release are implicated in pain facilitation induced by inflammation/damage to skin and peripheral nerves. It is unclear whether pain facilitation induced at deep tissue sites also depends on these. We investigated whether spinal IL-1 and/or glial activation mediates bilateral allodynia induced by repeated ...
Calaza K C - - 2006
In general, the release of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system is accomplished by a calcium-dependent process which constitutes a common feature of exocytosis, a conserved mechanism for transmitter release in all species. However, neurotransmitters can also be released by the reversal of their transporters. In the retina, a large ...
Talalaenko A N - - 2006
In conditions in which rats had a free choice between dark and light chambers, microinjections of glutamic acid, serotonin, and campiron into the globus pallidus showed that these agents have antiaversive properties in a threatening situation test but not in an illuminated area test. Dopamine, apomorphine, GABA, chlordiazepoxide, phenibut, and ...
Patil Sachin - - 2006
High-fat diet is a significant risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, the AD brain is characterized by elevated levels of fatty acids as compared to that of healthy controls. Despite this, it is unclear how elevated levels of fatty acids are related to the pathogenesis ...
Wemmie John A - - 2006
Extracellular acid can have important effects on neuron function. In central and peripheral neurons, acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) have emerged as key receptors for extracellular protons, and recent studies suggest diverse roles for these channels in the pathophysiology of pain, ischemic stroke and psychiatric disease. ASICs have also been implicated ...
Krol Elzbieta - - 2007
Intracellular microelectrode measurements revealed that a resting potential (RP), an action potential (AP) and a calcium component of AP (named voltage transient, VT) can be influenced by glutamic acid (Glu) and aminoacetic acid (glycine, Gly) in the liverwort Conocephalum conicum. In the continuous presence of 5mM Glu or 5mM Gly, ...
Ciriza Iratxe - - 2006
The ovarian hormone progesterone is neuroprotective in different experimental models of neurodegeneration. In the nervous system, progesterone is metabolized to 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone (DHP) by the enzyme 5alpha-reductase. DHP is subsequently reduced to 3alpha,5alpha-tetrahydroprogesterone (THP) by a reversible reaction catalyzed by the enzyme 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. In this study we have analyzed whether ...
Kocki Tomasz - - 2006
In this study, we describe the effect of antiepileptic drugs on the production of kynurenic acid in rat cortical slices, and on the activity of kynurenic acid biosynthetic enzymes, kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs I and II) in the brain tissue. Phenobarbital, felbamate, phenytoin and lamotrigine (all at 0.5-3.0 mM) enhanced kynurenic ...
Tixier Emmanuelle - - 2006
Enteric neurons responding to chemical challenge of the mucosa have been characterized in animal models mainly in the myenteric plexus. However, in humans, the existence of enteric neurons responding to chemical stimulation of the mucosa remains currently unknown. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify and characterize human ...
Wang Jinghong - - 2006
Local catabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan is considered an important mechanism in regulating immunological and neurological responses. The kynurenine pathway is the main route for the non-protein metabolism of tryptophan. The intermediates of the kynurenine pathway are present at micromolar concentrations in blood and are regulated by inflammatory ...
Zheng Min - - 2006
AIM: To study the effect of ZD7288 on synaptic transmission in the pathway from perforant pathway (PP) fibers to CA3 region in rat hippocampus. METHODS: The extracellular recording technique in vivo was used to record the CA3 region field potentials. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection was applied to ...
Yoon SeungYong - - 2006
Calpain activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Okadaic acid, a protein phosphatase-2A inhibitor, has been used in Alzheimer's disease research models to increase tau phosphorylation and induce neuronal death. We previously reported that okadaic acid induced predominant activation of caspase-3 in immature neurons, but less activation ...
Longoni M - - 2006
The pathogenesis of migraine is still unclear, but much evidence suggests a role of inflammation in pain generation. Calcitonin gene related peptide, nitric oxide and cytokines are all molecules shown to be involved both in animal and human studies. The glutamatergic system is also described as a possible mechanism leading ...
Lin Yi-Ruu - - 2006
The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of honokiol and magnolol, two major bioactive constituents of the bark of Magnolia officinalis, against neuron toxicity induced by glucose deprivation, excitatory amino acids and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells. Cell membrane damage was ...
Chen Xuanmao - - 2006
Acid-sensing ion channels are excitatory receptors for extracellular H+. Since the extracellular H+ concentration can significantly increase during an inflammation, one of the proposed functions for ASICs is peripheral perception of pain. The ASIC1b and ASIC3 subunits are specifically expressed in sensory ganglia neurons and are candidate sensors of peripheral ...
Canu Marie-Hélène MH Unité de Neurosciences et Physiologie Adaptative, Groupe Plasticité Neuromusculaire, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655, Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. - - 2006
Hindlimb unloading is considered as a model of functional deafferentation, since in this situation the tactile information from the paw and the proprioceptive input from the limb are dramatically reduced. Unloading induces a shrinkage of the cortical representation of the affected body part associated to a reorganization of topographic maps ...
Succu Salvatora - - 2006
The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR 141716A (0.1, 0.5 and 1 microg) induces penile erection when injected into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of male rats. The pro-erectile effect of SR 141716A occurs concomitantly with an increase in the concentration of glutamic acid in the paraventricular dialysate obtained by ...
Nicolai Joost - - 2006
This report presents a male who developed clonic seizures on the day he was born. The next day, the diagnosis of pyridoxine-dependent seizures was made. However, contradictory to this diagnosis, seizures reappeared despite treatment with pyridoxine. Seizures ceased after folinic acid was initiated. The clinical and biochemical characteristics of folinic ...
Wang Ze-Jian - - 2006
Stearic acid is a long-chain saturated fatty acid consisting of 18 carbon atoms without double bonds. In the present study, we reported the neuroprotective effects and mechanism of stearic acid on cortical or hippocampal slices insulted by oxygen-glucose deprivation, NMDA or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in vitro. Different types of models ...
Jin Y H - - 2006
Behavioral evidence supports a role for peripheral glutamate receptors in normal nociceptive transmission. In this study, we examined the release of the excitatory amino acids, glutamate and aspartate, in the s.c. perfusate of the rat hind instep by in vivo microdialysis. Antidromic stimulation of the sciatic nerve and noxious stimuli ...
Titz Stefan - - 2006
The Cl(-)-extruding neuron-specific K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter KCC2, which establishes hyperpolarizing inhibition, can transport NH(4) (+) instead of K(+). It is, however, not clear whether KCC2 provides the only pathway for neuronal NH(4) (+) uptake. We therefore investigated NH(4) (+) uptake in cultured rat brain neurons. In neurons cultured for > 4 ...
Németh H - - 2006
The kynurenine pathway is the main pathway of tryptophan metabolism. L-kynurenine is a central compound of this pathway since it can change to the neuroprotective agent kynurenic acid or to the neurotoxic agent quinolinic acid. The break-up of these endogenous compounds' balance can be observable in many disorders. It can ...
Jandová K - - 2006
Using histochemical analysis the effect of intraperitoneal administration of kainic acid on hippocampal neurons was studied. 18-day-old male rats of the Wistar strain received kainic acid (10mg/kg) in one dose. Two days later, the 20-day-old animals were transcardially perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde under deep thiopental anaesthesia. Cryostat sections were stained ...
Rami Guillaume - - 2006
Dendritic spines are morphing structures believed to provide a cellular substrate for synaptic plasticity. It has been suggested that the actin cytoskeleton is the target of molecular mechanisms regulating spine morphology. Here we hypothesized that acidic calponin, an actin-binding protein, is one of the key regulators of actin filaments during ...
Kodama T - - 2006
Nitric oxide released from the cholinergic neurons in the pons may play important roles in sleep-wake regulation. However, there are few reports demonstrating the mechanisms of nitric oxide release in the cholinergic neurons in the pons. The present study investigated the effects of drug delivery of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid on nitric ...
Rae Caroline - - 2006
A range of behaviours are elucidated via ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluR). In this work, we examined the acute activation of iGluRs by a range of receptor ligands and effectors to see whether distinguishable metabolic sequelae were elucidated by the activity. We used a guinea-pig brain cortical tissue slice model using ...
Rigoni Michela - - 2005
Snake presynaptic phospholipase A2 neurotoxins (SPANs) paralyze the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Upon intoxication, the NMJ enlarges and has a reduced content of synaptic vesicles, and primary neuronal cultures show synaptic swelling with surface exposure of the lumenal domain of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin I. Concomitantly, these neurotoxins induce exocytosis ...
Nagy Gy?rgy M - - 2005
This article provides an overview of the increasing number of observations indicating that excitatory amino acids are involved in the control of prolactin secretion. The information available suggests that these amino acids exert a stimulatory action on hypophysial prolactin. Administration of a glutamate receptor agonist induces significant increase in prolactin ...
Skyba D A - - 2005
Chronic muscle pain is common and often difficult to treat. In this study, we further characterize a model of chronic muscle pain induced by repeated intramuscular injection of acidic saline. Two injections of acid into muscle separated by 5 days result in secondary mechanical hyperalgesia that lasts for up to ...
Sinniger Valérie - - 2005
Nor-trimebutine is the main metabolite of trimebutine that is used in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Nor-trimebutine has a blocking activity on sodium channels and a potent local anesthetic effect. These properties were used to investigate the effect of nor-trimebutine on spinal neuronal activation induced by models ...
Sokka Anna-Leena - - 2005
Prolonged or excess stimulation of excitatory amino acid receptors leads to seizures and the induction of excitotoxic nerve cell injury. Kainic acid acting on glutamate receptors produces degeneration of vulnerable neurons in parts of the hippocampus and amygdala, but the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. We have here investigated ...
de Pablos Rocío M - - 2005
We have tested the effect of deprenyl on the neurotoxicity induced by the injection of quinolinic acid within the striatum. Deprenyl was unable to prevent these quinolinic acid-induced damages, but enhanced the loss of several gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) positive subpopulations, the loss of the astroglial population and the activation of ...
Michalodimitrakis Konstantinos M - - 2005
Taz is a chimeric receptor consisting of the periplasmic, transmembrane and most of the HAMP linker domains of the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor (Tar(Ec)) and the cytoplasmic signalling domain of the E. coli osmosensor EnvZ. Aspartate is one of several attractant ligands normally sensed by Tar and it interacts with ...
Yoon Myung Ha - - 2005
Adenosine and excitatory amino acids have been known to be involved in modulating nociceptive transmission at the spinal level. The authors assessed the characteristics of the interaction of the adenosine-excitatory amino acid antagonist combinations in the spinal cord of rats on the formalin-induced nociception. Intrathecal NMDA antagonist ((5R, 10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-(5)H-dibenzo[a[,]d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen ...
Zhang Zhiren - - 2005
Effects of repeated intraperitoneal injections of polyinosine-polycytidylic acid on spinal cord cells were analysed. After each injection, the number of ED-1 microglia significantly increased in rat spinal cords. Expression of endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II, however, was not observed. The morphology of microglia indicated an incomplete activation state even after three ...
Pantaleo T - - 2005
The role of the Bötzinger complex (BötC) and the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) in the genesis of the breathing pattern was investigated in anesthetized, vagotomized, paralysed and artificially ventilated rabbits making use of bilateral microinjections of kainic acid (KA) and excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor antagonists. KA microinjections into either the ...
Pantović R - - 2005
Determination of functional and biochemical parameters as well as the effect of specific therapies on these parameters, in the experimental model of neurotrauma in rabbits. To assess the effect of indomethacin (0.1-3.0 mg/kg for 9 days), a potent inhibitor of endogenous prostaglandin synthesis, on the motor activity and on the ...
Inden Masatoshi - - 2005
Serofendic acid was recently identified as a neuroprotective factor from fetal calf serum. This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of an intranigral microinjection of serofendic acid based on behavioral, neurochemical and histochemical studies in hemi-parkinsonian rats using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Rats were injected with 6-OHDA in the presence ...
Patil Sachin - - 2005
Epidemiological studies suggest that high fat diets significantly increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, the AD brain is characterized by high fatty acid content compared to that of healthy subjects. Nevertheless, the basic mechanism relating elevated fatty acids and the pathogenesis of AD remains unclear. The present ...
Hartai Z - - 2005
Objective--Excitatory amino acid receptors are involved in the normal physiology of the brain, and may play a role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders such as Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, etc. It has been demonstrated that the blockade of one of these receptors ameliorates the symptoms of ...
Levin Edward D - - 2005
To investigate the behavioral effects of prenatal exposure to the marine toxin domoic acid, pregnant female rats were injected subcutaneously with 0, 0.3, 0.6, or 1.2 mg/kg of domoic acid on gestational day 13. The offspring were then run through a behavioral testing battery to determine the developmental effects of ...
Stazka Janusz - - 2005
Increased serum level of homocysteine is an independent risk factor for vascular disease. The effect of DL-homocysteine on the endothelial production of kynurenic acid, an antagonist of alpha7-nicotinic and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors, has been evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In rat aortic rings, DL-homocysteine at 40-100 microM enhanced, ...
Sok D-E - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen radicals have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many neurologic disorders and brain dysfunctions. Kainic acid has been used as a model agent for the study of neurotoxicity of various excitatory amino acids, since it induces neuronal damage through excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Petasites japonicus ...
Fuchs Sabine A - - 2005
Recent evidence has shown that d-amino acids are present in animals and humans in high concentrations and fulfill specific biological functions. In the central nervous system, two d-amino acids, d-serine and d-aspartate, occur in considerable concentrations. d-Serine is synthesized and metabolized endogenously and the same might account for d-aspartate. d-Serine ...
Okada Junichi - - 2005
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known as environmental pollutants that may cause adverse health problems. However, little is known about the effects of PCBs on acid-sensitive neurons of the medulla oblongata, which regulate respiration. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine whether PCB alters acid-sensitivity of cultured neurons derived from ...
Boldyrev A A - - 2005
Short-term incubation of lymphocytes with homocysteine or its oxidation product homocysteinic acid increased the formation of reactive oxygen species and cell necrosis (in case of homocysteinic acid). Effective concentration of homocysteine and homocysteinic acid (500 microM) significantly surpassed the level observed during hyperhomocysteinemia. The addition of homocysteinic acid in a ...
Kimelberg Harold K - - 2005
In this viewpoint article, I summarize data showing that the astrocytic swelling that occurs early after the acute CNS pathologies ischemia and traumatic brain injury is damaging. We have proposed that one reason may be the release of excitatory amino acids (EAA) via volume-activated anion channels (VRACs) that are activated ...
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