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Barcelona Stephanie - - 2012
Sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) are secondary active transporters belonging to the SLC5 gene family. SGLT1, a well-characterized member of this family, electrogenically transports glucose and galactose. Human SGLT3 (hSGLT3), despite sharing a high amino acid identity with human SGLT1 (hSGLT1), does not transport sugar, although functions as a sugar sensor. In ...
Brundiek Henrike - - 2012
The Ustilago maydis lipase UM03410 belongs to the mostly unexplored Candida antarctica lipase (CAL-A) subfamily. The two lipases with [corrected] the highest identity are a lipase from Sporisorium reilianum and the prototypic CAL-A. In contrast to the other CAL-A-type lipases, this hypothetical U. maydis lipase is annotated to possess a ...
Wu Li - - 2012
A new type of porphyrin-functionalized graphene was synthesized and used for highly selective and sensitive detection of dopamine (DA). The aromatic π-π stacking and electrostatic attraction between positively-charged dopamine and negatively-charged porphyrin-modified graphene can accelerate the electron transfer whereas weakening ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) oxidation on the ...
Belyaeva Olga V - - 2012
The enzymes responsible for the rate-limiting step in retinoic acid biosynthesis, the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde, during embryogenesis and in adulthood have not been fully defined. Here, we report that a novel member of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily, frog sdr16c5, acts as a highly active retinol dehydrogenase (rdhe2) ...
Yin Ping - - 2012
Esterification of oleic acid with ethanol catalyzed by organophosphonic acid-functionalized silica SG-T-P was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The interactive effect of catalyst to FFA weight ratio and molar ratio of alcohol to acid were more significant than that of reaction temperature. The optimum values for maximum conversion ratio ...
Yoshizawa Fumiaki - - 2012
The branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine are the most abundant of the essential amino acids. BCAAs have recently been recognized as having functions other than simple nutrition. The importance of BCAAs as nutrient regulators in protein synthesis was recognized over 20 years ago. Leucine is the ...
Schmeide K - - 2012
The role of sulfur-containing functional groups in humic acids for the Np(V) reduction in aqueous solution has been studied with the objective to specify individual processes contributing to the overall redox activity of humic substances. For this, humic acid model substances type M1-S containing different amounts of sulfur (1.9, 3.9, ...
Yee Lian-Ngit - - 2012
In this study, PHA biosynthesis operon of Comamonas sp. EB172, an acid-tolerant strain, consisting of three genes encoding acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (phaA(Co) gene, 1182bp), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phaB(Co) gene, 738bp) and PHA synthase, class I (phaC(Co) gene, 1694bp) were identified. Sequence analysis of the phaA(Co), phaB(Co) and phaC(Co) genes revealed that they ...
Liu Zhihua - - 2012
Multifunctionalized amino acids, especially amino acids with unsaturation, are important, demanding building blocks in peptide chemistry. Here we present a summary of our most recent study using the thio-Claisen rearrangement for the synthesis of anti-β-functionalized γ,δ-unsaturated amino acids. Investigations on scope, limitations, chemoselectivities and stereoselectivities regarding an FeBr(3)-catalyzed allylation strategy ...
Dammak Mariam - - 2012
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin shares structurally five conserved blocs with the other delta-endotoxins. In order to study the role of some amino acids belonging to these regions, two mutations, Y(229) P and F(603) S, have been introduced separately and respectively in blocs 2 and 5. The resulting mutant proteins Cry1Ac'1 ...
Pôrto Laura Cristina Jardim - - 2012
AIMS: As cardiac performance is closely related to its energy supply, our study investigated the effect of the orotic acid cardioprotective agent on the pathways of energy supply, in both conditions of normal flow and ischemia. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed during nine days with a balanced diet ...
Gerhardt Valeska - - 2012
Hydantoin-5-acetic acid [2-(2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl)acetic acid] and orotic acid (2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid) each contain one rigid acceptor-donor-acceptor hydrogen-bonding site and a flexible side chain, which can adopt different conformations. Since both compounds may be used as coformers for supramolecular complexes, they have been crystallized in order to examine their conformational preferences, giving solvent-free ...
McCarron Pearse - - 2012
Pinnatoxins are a group of fast acting cyclic imine toxins previously identified in shellfish from Asia, the Southern Pacific and Northern Europe. In this work pinnatoxins were detected in mussels from locations across the Eastern coast of Canada. Pinnatoxin G (6) was the major structural variant present, sometimes at levels ...
Xumei Zhang - - 2012
Increasing neurogenesis may restore cognitive functions that are impaired in ischemia stroke. Folic acid has been reported to play an important role in neuronal development and reduce the risk of ischemic stroke in primary prevention. Folic acid supplementation stimulates Notch signaling and cell proliferation in neural progenitor cells cultured from ...
Kam Richard Kin Ting - - 2012
Retinoic acid (RA) is a morphogen derived from retinol (vitamin A) that plays important roles in cell growth, differentiation, and organogenesis. The production of RA from retinol requires two consecutive enzymatic reactions catalyzed by different sets of dehydrogenases. The retinol is first oxidized into retinal, which is then oxidized into ...
Sossai P - - 2012
In this brief review, we present some data from the literature on butyric acid and some of its more interesting potential uses, especially in the field of gastroenterology. Due to its principal characteristics, butyric acid is primarily used for pathologies of the colon (functional, inflammatory). Although only preliminary data are ...
Papazafiropoulou Athanasia K - - 2012
Omega-3 fatty acids except for their effect on triglycerides levels have cardioprotective properties as well as antiarrhythmic properties.The pleiotropic effects of omega-3 fatty acids, also, include lowering of blood pressure and the favorable effect on endothelial function and high-density cholesterol levels. Furthermore, studies have showed their favorable action in subjects ...
Zhang Zhe - - 2012
A biodegradable, biocompatible poly(chitosan-g-lactic acid) (PCLA) scaffold was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The PCLA scaffold was obtained by grafting lactic acid (LA) onto the amino groups on chitosan (CS) without a catalyst. The PCLA scaffolds were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron ...
Mori Tomohisa - - 2012
The present study was designed to clarify whether the arachidonic acid cascade contributes to the decreased threshold for pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure under benzodiazepine withdrawal in mice. The seizure threshold for pentylenetetrazole was significantly decreased by the discontinuation of chronic treatment with diazepam. The decrease in the seizure threshold for pentylenetetrazole during ...
Cintra Dennys E - - 2012
In experimental models, hypothalamic inflammation is an early and determining factor in the installation and progression of obesity. Pharmacological and gene-based approaches have proven efficient in restraining inflammation and correcting the obese phenotypes. However, the role of nutrients in the modulation of hypothalamic inflammation is unknown. Here we show that, ...
Fukui K - - 2012
The distribution of sialic acids and antimicrobial products (lysozyme, IgA, lactoferrin, β-defensin 2) as well as Rab3D in the eccrine glands of porcine snout skin was studied by sialoglycoconjugate histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. The secretory epithelium consisted of two types of secretory cells: dark and clear cells. The dark cells exhibited ...
Kumar Rajesh - - 2012
Synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the endoplasmic reticulum of plants typically involves the fatty acid desaturases FAD2 and FAD3, which use cytochrome b(5) (Cb5) as an electron donor. Higher plants are reported to have multiple isoforms of Cb5, in contrast to a single Cb5 in mammals and yeast. ...
Fatima Tahira - - 2012
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a hardy, fruit-producing plant known historically for its medicinal and nutraceutical properties. The most recognized product of sea buckthorn is its fruit oil, composed of seed oil that is rich in essential fatty acids, linoleic (18:2 ω-6) and α-linolenic (18:3 ω-3) acids, and pulp ...
Motter Arianne L - - 2012
Fatty acids can act as important signaling molecules regulating diverse physiological processes. Our understanding, however, of fatty acid signaling mechanisms and receptor targets remains incomplete. Here we show that Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a cation channel expressed in sensory neurons and gut tissues, functions as a sensor of ...
Strand Elin - - 2012
Excess peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) stimulation has been associated with detrimental health effects including impaired myocardial function. Recently, supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been associated with improved left ventricular function and functional capacity in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. We investigated the long-term effects of the pan-PPAR agonist ...
Teaster Neal D - - 2012
N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are bioactive lipids derived from the hydrolysis of the membrane phospholipid N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE). In animal systems this reaction is part of the "endocannabinoid" signaling pathway, which regulates a variety of physiological processes. The signaling function of NAE is terminated by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which hydrolyzes NAE ...
Wipf Daniel - - 2012
Amino acids play fundamental roles in a multitude of functions including protein synthesis, hormone metabolism, nerve transmission, cell growth, production of metabolic energy, nucleobase synthesis, nitrogen metabolism, and urea biosynthesis. Selaginella as a member of the lycophytes is part of an ancient lineage of vascular plants that had arisen ∼400 ...
Khairallah Ramzi J - - 2012
Mitochondria can depolarize and trigger cell death through the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). We recently showed that an increase in the long chain n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) and depletion of the n6 PUFA arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n6) in mitochondrial membranes is ...
You Le L Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University, - - 2012
Microbes have complex metabolic pathways that can be investigated using biochemistry and functional genomics methods. One important technique to examine cell central metabolism and discover new enzymes is (13)C-assisted metabolism analysis 1. This technique is based on isotopic labeling, whereby microbes are fed with a (13)C labeled substrates. By tracing ...
Brandes Vanessa - - 2011
Abstract Toxin A (TcdA) and Toxin B (TcdB) are the major virulence factors of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). TcdA and TcdB mono-glucoslyate small GTPases of the Rho family, thereby causing actin re-organisation in colonocytes, resulting in the loss of colonic barrier function. The hydrophilic bile acid tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is ...
Halvorson Rebecca A - - 2011
Raman spectra of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), MC-RR, MC-LA, MC-LF, MC-LY, MC-LW, MC-YR, and nodularin collected by drop coating deposition Raman (DCDR) spectroscopy are sufficiently unique for variant identification. Amino acid spectra of L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, L-alanine, D-alanine, L-glutamic acid, L-arginine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid were collected in crystalline, DCDR, and aqueous ...
Iyer Lakshminarayan M - - 2011
The deaminase-like fold includes, in addition to nucleic acid/nucleotide deaminases, several catalytic domains such as the JAB domain, and others involved in nucleotide and ADP-ribose metabolism. Using sensitive sequence and structural comparison methods, we develop a comprehensive natural classification of the deaminase-like fold and show that its ancestral version was ...
Wang Yueqiu - - 2011
Residue 54 has been shown to be important for bioactivity in several toxins. However, its role in the antinociceptive activity of toxins has not been evaluated yet. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis and mouse acetic acid writhing test were used to investigate the role of Ser54 in the antinociceptive activity ...
Su Fei - - 2011
Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is an efficient producer of lactic acid. The genome of B. coagulans 2-6 has the smallest genome among the members of the genus Bacillus known to date. The frameshift mutation at the start of the d-lactate dehydrogenase sequence might be responsible for the production of high-optical-purity l-lactic ...
Yi Xuan - - 2011
Release of dipicolinic acid (DPA) and its fluorescence with terbium (Tb(3+)) allow rapid measurement of the germination and viability of spores of Bacillus and Clostridium species. However, germination of coat-deficient Bacillus spores was strongly inhibited by Tb(3+) and some other multivalent cations. Tb(3+) also inhibited germination of coat-deficient Clostridium perfringens ...
Xia Guoqing - - 2011
The molecular interactions between staphylococcal phages and host cell surfaces are poorly understood. Employing Staphylococcus aureus teichoic acid mutants, we demonstrate that wall teichoic acid (WTA), but not lipoteichoic acid, serves as a receptor for staphylococcal siphovirus and myovirus, while only the siphovirus requires glycosylated WTA.
Allaart Janneke G - - 2011
Clostridium perfringens, although a member of the normal gut flora, is also an important cause of intestinal disease in animals and, to a lesser extent, in humans. Disease is associated with the production of one or more toxins, and little is known about environmental influences on the production of these ...
Takanashi Kojiro - - 2011
The symbiosis between legume plants and rhizobia causes the development of new organs, nodules which function as an apparatus for nitrogen fixation. In this study, the roles of auxin in nodule development in Lotus japonicus have been demonstrated using molecular genetic tools and auxin inhibitors. The expression of an auxin-reporter ...
Lapa M - - 2011
The reproductive performance of dairy cows may be improved by feeding conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements during early lactation. The mechanism of action of t10,c12 CLA is not clearly known. Our objective was to investigate the effect of t10,c12 CLA on oocyte maturation and lipid composition of cumulus oocyte complexes ...
Junyent Fèlix - - 2011
Taurine is one of the most abundant free amino acids in the mammalian central nervous system, where it is crucial to proper development. Moreover, taurine acts as a neuroprotectant in various diseases; in epilepsy, for example, it has the capacity to reduce or abolish seizures. In the present study, taurine ...
Frye Cheryl A - - 2011
The nature of progesterone (P₄)'s neuroprotective effects is of interest. We investigated effects of P₄ when administered before, or after, kainic acid, which produces ictal activity and damage to the hippocampus, to mediate effects on spatial performance. The hypothesis was that P₄, compared with vehicle, would reduce decrements in Morris ...
Gademann Karl - - 2011
Dried cyanobacteria ('Spirulina') are sold as a nutraceutical for their high content of proteins, essential fatty acids and vitamins. Beyond spirulina, other genera of cyanobacteria produce interesting small molecules that could find use in nutraceutical or pharmaceutical applications. This account presents recent research efforts on antimalarial nostocarboline and the aerucyclamides, ...
Vieux-Rochas Maxence - - 2010
Jaws are formed by cephalic neural crest (CNCCs) and mesodermal cells migrating to the first pharyngeal arch (PA1). A complex signaling network involving different PA1 components then establishes the jaw morphogenetic program. To gather insight on this developmental process, in this study, we analyze the teratogenic effects of brief (1-15 min) ...
Naidoo Vinogran - - 2011
Endocannabinoids, including anandamide (AEA), have been implicated in neuroprotective on-demand responses. Related to such a response to injury, an excitotoxic kainic acid (KA) injection (i.p.) was found to increase AEA levels in the brain. To modulate the endocannabinoid response during events of excitotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, we utilized ...
Isaeva Elena - - 2010
Polysialic acids are widely distributed in neuronal tissue. Due to their position on glycoproteins and gangliosides on the outer cell membranes and anionic nature, polysialic acids are involved in multiple cell signaling events. The level of sialylation of the cellular surface is regulated by endogenous neuraminidase (NEU), which catalyses the ...
Sathyasaikumar Korrapati V - - 2011
The levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived metabolite of the branched kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan degradation and antagonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, are elevated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of individuals with schizophrenia (SZ). Because endogenous KYNA modulates extracellular glutamate and acetylcholine levels in the ...
Queiroz Edson Alexandre - - 2011
The present study investigated the role of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) on cardiovascular and behavioural responses of chemoreflex activation in conscious rats. The arterial chemoreflex was activated by potassium cyanide (KCN, 40 μg, i.v.) before and after bilateral microinjection of lidocaine (2%) or kynurenic acid (2.7 nmol) into the DMH. ...
Kalonia H - - 2010
The present study has been designed to explore the protective effect of montelukast (leukotriene receptor antagonist) against intrastriatal quinolinic acid (QA; 300 nmol) and malonic acid (MA; 6 μmol) induced Huntington's like symptoms in rats. Quinolinic acid has been reported to induce excitotoxicity by stimulating the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, causing calcium ...
Ohnuma Tohru - - 2011
Hypo-function of N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is strongly involved in the brain pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Several excitatory amino acids, such as endogenous glutamate, glycine, serine and alanine, which are involved in glutamate neurotransmission via NMDA receptors, were studied to further understand the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and to find a biological ...
Puri Puja K - - 2010
We aim to report that skin biopsy, a non-invasive test by neurological standards, may lead to a diagnosis. A 4-year-old male presented with a 2-year history of epilepsy and progressive developmental regression. The patient had a mildly elevated ammonia level; however, evaluation for the accumulation of excess serum amino acids ...
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