Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1829
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Takahashi Masayasu - - 2002
This review focuses on the in vitro and in vivo neuropharmacology of YM872, a potential neuroprotective agent currently undergoing clinical trials in the United States (trial name: AMPA Receptor Antagonist Treatment in Ischemic Stroke - ARTIST). Its neuroprotective properties in rats and cats with induced focal cerebral ischemia are described. ...
Martin Paul T - - 2002
Synapses are the fundamental units of connectivity that link together the nervous system. Lectin studies from 30 years ago suggested that specific glycans are concentrated at neuromuscular synapses in the peripheral nervous system and at excitatory synapses in the brain. Subsequent studies have confirmed that particular glycan structures are localized ...
Lee W T - - 2002
Previous studies showed that 3-nitropropionic acid, an irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, produced neuronal death secondary to perturbed intracellular calcium homeostasis. However, the response of intramitochondrial calcium ([Ca(2+)](m)) to 3-nitropropionic acid remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the roles of and relationships among [Ca(2+)](m) overload, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, ...
Tasker R A R - - 2002
Historically, all commercially available kainic acid has been derived from a single biological source using a consistent method of extraction and purification. That source became unavailable in 1995. Recently, three new commercial suppliers of kainic acid have made the product available, but the source of the material and the purification ...
Blondeau N - - 2002
The findings reported in this work show that pretreatment with polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly linolenic acid, present in vegetable oils, can provide a potent tolerance against neurodegeneration in two models of neuronal death-generating treatments such as kainic acid injection and global ischemia. Rats were injected i.v. with 500 nmol/kg of ...
Yoshida S - - 2001
We measured the release of free fatty acids and structural changes of glycoprotein glycans induced by tetraethylammonium (TEA) salt in hippocampal slices of cynomolgus monkey brain. The release of free fatty acids in the hippocampal slices occurred after synaptic potentiation by TEA in a different manner from rat hippocampus. Arachidonic ...
Kobayashi H - - 2001
Glutamate, an excitatory amino acid, is known to induce neurotoxicity in central nervous system under abnormal conditions such as ischemia, hypoglycemia, epilepsy, Huntington's chorea, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. In our search for neuroprotective agents of microbial origin against excitatory neurotoxins, we have isolated two new bicyclohexapeptides, neuroprotectins A and ...
Heron P - - 2001
A number of studies have shown that 17beta-estradiol has neuroprotective properties. In this study the neuroprotective effect of 17beta-estradiol against quinolinic-acid-induced neuronal damage was investigated. Ovariectomized rats were separated into three groups of five animals each. Rats received daily subcutaneous injections of either olive oil or 17beta-estradiol in olive oil ...
Ikeda Y - - 2001
We found that intraperitoneal injection of organic acids, such as propionic and lactic acid, are able to develop writhing responses in mice similarly as that of acetic acid. These acid-induced writhing reactions were significantly attenuated by capsazepine, a VR1 receptor-specific antagonist, but the phenylbenzoquinone-induced one was not, suggesting that the ...
Chen Z - - 2001
PURPOSE: Varying the concentration of infused acetic acid produced bladder irritation and dose dependent increases in external urethral sphincter electromyography activity in cats. We further characterized acetic acid induced external urethral sphincter electromyography activity in intact and acute spinal cord injured animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bladder cystometrography and external urethral ...
Lara D R - - 2001
Intraperitoneal guanosine has been shown to prevent quinolinic acid-induced seizures in mice. In this study, we investigated the effect of orally administered guanosine on seizures induced by the glutamate agonists quinolinic acid and kainate, and the endogenous glutamate releaser alpha-dendrotoxin. Guanosine (7.5 mg/kg, per os), administered 75 min in advance, ...
Ogita K - - 2001
APG-2 belongs to the heat shock protein 110 family. Although kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures are known to elicit expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the brain, no investigation has been carried out on the APG-2 level after excitatory amino acid-induced seizures. By means of an immunoblot assay, ...
Kwon Y B - - 2001
The goal of the present study was to determine whether bee venom (BV) injection into the Zhongwan acupoint (CV12), compared to injection into a non-acupoint, produced antinociception in an acetic acid-induced visceral pain model. This was accomplished by injecting BV subcutaneously into the Zhongwan acupoint or into a non-acupoint 30 ...
Guillemin G J - - 2001
There is good evidence that the kynurenine pathway (KP) and one of its products, quinolinic acid (QUIN), play a role in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases, in particular AIDS dementia complex. Although QUIN has been shown to be produced in neurotoxic concentrations by macrophages and microglia, the role of astrocytes ...
Stone T.W. - - 2001
The kynurenine metabolic pathway from tryptophan accounts for a large proportion of the metabolism of this amino acid in the brain. Although a major route for the generation of the essential co-factor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), two components of the pathway have marked effects on neurons. Quinolinic acid is an ...
Terán Moldes M C - - 2001
Two novel non-proteinogenic amino acids, (+)- and (-)-3-oxetanylglycine were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to diplace [3H]-glycine from the glycine site of the NMDA receptor complex. The lack of activity of these compounds at concentrations up to 100 microM may help in understanding the topological requirements of the glycine ...
Abrahám H - - 2001
Microglial activation induced by hypoxia, kainic acid and elevated potassium concentration, all of which alter neuronal function, was studied in hippocampal slices. The activation of microglia was detected by immunostaining with a monoclonal antibody (OX-42) raised against a type 3 complement receptor (CD11b). During activation the phenotype of microglia changes ...
Llewellyn-Smith I J - - 2001
Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to plastic changes in organization that impact significantly on central nervous control of arterial pressure. SCI causes hypotension and autonomic dysreflexia, an episodic hypertension induced by spinal reflexes. Sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) respond to SCI by retracting and then regrowing their dendrites within 2 weeks ...
Benson C J - - 2001
Cardiac afferent neurons are activated in the setting of myocardial ischemia and mediate the sensation of angina. However, the precise stimuli and receptive molecules responsible are not completely understood. To further investigate the molecular components involved, cardiac afferents were isolated in dissociated culture and patch-clamp experiments were performed on these ...
Stone T W - - 2001
In just under 20 years the kynurenine family of compounds has developed from a group of obscure metabolites of the essential amino acid tryptophan into a source of intensive research, with postulated roles for quinolinic acid in neurodegenerative disorders, most especially the AIDS-dementia complex and Huntington's disease. One of the ...
Chiarugi A - - 2001
3OH-Kynurenine and quinolinic acid are tryptophan metabolites able to cause, at relatively elevated concentrations, neuronal death in vitro and in vivo. In primary cultures of mixed cortical cells, the minimal concentration of these compounds leading to a significant degree of neurotoxicity decreased from 100 to 1 microM, when the exposure ...
Chávez H - - 2001
Betahistine has been used to treat several vestibular disorders of both central and peripheral origin. The objective of this work was to study the betahistine action mechanism at the vestibular end organs. Experiments were carried out in wild larval axolotl (Ambystoma tigrinum). Multiunit extracellular recordings were obtained from the semicircular ...
Suh S W - - 2001
The condition of status epilepticus induced by systemic administration of kainic acid (KA) causes an apparent translocation of vesicular zinc from presynaptic boutons into postsynaptic neurons. The accumulation of zinc in the somata has been identified as a contributing cause of neuronal injury. We show here that another form of ...
Rodrigues M C - - 2001
A number of neurotoxins derived from arthropod venoms are known to show highly selective effects on nervous tissue. These neurotoxins have been proved to be extremely useful tools to investigate either convulsive or anticonvulsive mechanisms in the nervous system. In the present work, intracerebroventricular injection of the crude venom from ...
Weber M - - 2001
6-Hydroxykynurenic acid (6-HKA), a derivative of kynurenic acid (KYNA) extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaves, was tested for its putative glutamate receptor (GluR) antagonism in comparison to the scaffold substance. The patch-clamp method together with fast-application techniques were used to estimate inhibition by 6-HKA and KYNA of agonist binding at NMDA ...
Ikematsu K - - 2001
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter and the greater part of this amino acid is removed from the synaptic cleft by excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) located on perisynaptic astrocytes. Recently, it was reported that the EAAT2 protein content changed in rats following forebrain ischemia and administration of methamphetamine. ...
Sripada S - - 2001
Behavioral responses to stimulants can be progressively and persistently enhanced by their repeated administration. This phenomenon, called behavioral sensitization, may underlie substance abuse, psychosis, recurrence in bipolar disorder, or other psychiatric problems. A growing body of work has implicated excitatory amino acid systems in behavioral sensitization. Most of the evidence ...
Szárics E - - 2001
Comparison of the kinetics of the inward Ca(2+) ion flux to (S)-alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid [(S)-AMPA] in cerebrocortical homogenates and that of the previously reported transmembrane Na(+) ion influx mediated by an AMPA receptor in hippocampal homogenates established that the agonist-induced opening of the AMPA receptor channels occurs in two kinetically distinguishable ...
Stone T W - - 2001
The kynurenine pathway accounts for the metabolism of around 80% of non-protein tryptophan metabolism. It includes both an agonist (quinolinic acid) at NMDA receptors and an antagonist (kynurenic acid). Since their discovery, there has been a major development of kynurenic acid analogues as neuroprotectants for the treatment of stroke and ...
Cammer W - - 2001
Quinolinic acid, which is produced by macrophages and microglia, can kill neurons in vivo and in vitro. To test whether quinolinic acid is toxic to oligodendrocytes, glial cells cultured from the brains of 2-day-old rats were incubated with quinolinic acid at concentrations known to kill neurons. The cells were then ...
Zarnowski T - - 2001
Kynurenic acid (KYNA), an excitatory amino acid antagonist preferentially active at glycine binding site of the NMDA receptor, has been previously identified in the brain. This study was designed to examine its presence in the rabbit vitreous humor. Mean (+/- SD) level of KYNA in the vitreous was 22.3 +/- ...
Ogita K - - 2001
We have investigated the role of glutathione in mechanisms associated with excitatory amino acid signaling to the nuclear transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP1) in the brain using mice depleted of endogenous glutathione by prior treatment with 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX). In the hippocampus of animals treated with CHX 2 h before, a ...
Guerenstein P G - - 2001
Olfactory receptors in basiconic and grooved-peg sensilla on the antenna of fifth-instar Triatoma infestans nymphs respond to host odours. Gas chromatography analyses of host odour extracts coupled to electrophysiological recordings from basiconic sensillum receptors indicate that nonanal is a constituent of sheep wool and chicken feather odour that stimulates one ...
Williams R E - - 2001
L-2-Chloropropionic acid is selectively toxic to the cerebellum in rats; the granule cell necrosis observed within 48 h can be prevented by prior administration of MK-801. Short-term treatment (2 h) with L-2-chloropropionic acid has also been shown to activate the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in fasted adult rats. This study ...
Naudon L - - 2001
Fifteen days after a striatal kainic acid (KA) injection, we have examined presynaptic modifications of dopamine and serotonin terminals in the striatum through (i) autoradiographic labeling of dopamine, serotonin and vesicular monoamine transporters respectively with 3H-mazindol, 3H-citalopram and 3H-dihydrotetrabenazine, and (ii) determination of the contents in dopamine, serotonin and their ...
Chiarugi A - - 2001
Kynurenine 3-mono-oxygenase, one of the key enzymes of the "kynurenine pathway", catalyses the formation of 3-hydroxykynurenine and may direct the neo-synthesis of quinolinic and kynurenic acids. While 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinic acid have neurotoxic properties, kynurenic acid antagonizes excitotoxic neuronal death. Here we report that the expression and activity of kynurenine ...
Abraham K E - - 2001
Intraspinal injection of quisqualic acid, a mixed kainic acid/2-amino-3(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid and metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, produces an excitotoxic injury that leads to the onset of both spontaneous and evoked pain behavior as well as changes in spinal and cortical expression of opioid peptide mRNA, preprodynorphin and preproenkephalin. What characteristics of ...
Mayer A M - - 2001
The excitatory amino acid domoic acid, a glutamate and kainic acid analog, is the causative agent of amnesic shellfish poisoning in humans. No studies to our knowledge have investigated the potential contribution to short-term neurotoxicity of the brain microglia, a cell type that constitutes circa 10% of the total glial ...
Erhardt S - - 2001
Inhibitors of kynurenine 3-hydroxylase have previously been used to increase endogenous levels of kynurenic acid, an excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist. In the present electrophysiological study PNU 156561A was utilized to elevate endogenous concentrations of kynurenic acid and subsequent effects on the firing pattern of dopamine (DA) neurons of rat ...
Penkowa M - - 2001
The role of interleukin-6 in hippocampal tissue damage after injection with kainic acid, a rigid glutamate analogue inducing epileptic seizures, has been studied by means of interleukin-6 null mice. At 35mg/kg, kainic acid induced convulsions in both control (75%) and interleukin-6 null (100%) mice, and caused a significant mortality (62%) ...
Tao F - - 2001
The role of excitatory amino acid transporter 1 in neonatal rat neuronal damage was studied following hypoxia-ischemia. To induce hypoxia-ischemia injury, rats on postnatal day 7 were exposed to 8 % oxygen for 2 h following unilateral common carotid artery ligation. According to brain damage scoring based on Cresyl Violet ...
Chase L A - - 2001
A brief exposure of hippocampal slices to L-quisqualic acid sensitizes CA1 pyramidal neurons 30-250-fold to depolarization by two classes of excitatory amino acid analogues: (1) those whose depolarizing effects are rapidly terminated following washout, e.g. L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoic acid (L-AP4) and L-2-amino-6-phosphonohexanoic acid (L-AP6) and (2) those whose depolarizing effects persist following ...
Stone T W - - 2001
In most tissues, including brain, a major proportion of the tryptophan which is not used for protein synthesis is metabolised along the kynurenine pathway. Long regarded as the route by which many mammals generate adequate amounts of the essential co-factor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, two components of the pathway are now ...
Myrick H - - 2001
Neuroscientific underpinnings and pharmacotherapeutic treatments of substance use disorders are rapidly developing areas of study. In particular, there have been exciting new developments in our understanding of the involvement of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter systems and the opiate and serotonin systems in the pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal, alcohol dependence, and ...
Sutherland S P - - 2001
Cardiac afferents are sensory neurons that mediate angina, pain that occurs when the heart receives insufficient blood supply for its metabolic demand (ischemia). These neurons display enormous acid-evoked depolarizing currents, and they fire action potentials in response to extracellular acidification that accompanies myocardial ischemia. Here we show that acid-sensing ion ...
Pratt J - - 2000
The over-stimulation of excitatory amino acid receptors such as the glutamate AMPA receptor has been suggested to be associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Here we describe an original series of readily water soluble 4-oxo-imidazo[1,2-a] indeno[1,2-e]pyrazin-8- and -9-carboxylic (acetic) acid derivatives. One of these compounds, 4f, exhibited nanomolar binding affinity, potent competitive ...
Yang L - - 2000
The non-essential amino acids L-serine (Ser) and glycine (Gly) have recently been shown to exhibit specific actions in the nervous system. In the present study, L-Ser and Gly promoted the survival of cultured rat cerebrocortical neurons in a concentration-dependent manner as revealed by Alamar blue assay and microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2) ...
Gepdiremen A - - 2000
Glutamate (10(-7)m) and one of its non-NMDA receptor agonists, kainic acid (10(-4)m), were administered to rat cerebellar granular cell cultures, and the neuroprotective role of salicylic acid was examined. Glutamate induced 38.58 +/- 1.45% neuronal cell death while kainic acid induced only 21.4 +/- 2.01% despite being 1000 times more ...
Richards D A - - 2000
Dendrotoxins, important pharmacological tools for studying K(+) channels, are potently convulsant in the central nervous system and evidence suggests that different members of the dendrotoxin family may act at pre- or post-synaptic sites. Using a combination of intrahippocampal infusion, microdialysis and electroencephalograph (EEG) recording, we have compared the effects of ...
Czyrak A - - 2000
It is shown in the present study that metyrapone (100 mg/kg), an inhibitor of corticosterone synthesis, given twice, 30 min before and 6 h after kainic acid (10 mg/kg) administration, blocks the kainic acid-evoked induction of heat shock proteins 72 kDa (HSP 70). Specifically, it was observed that metyrapone completely ...
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