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Results 351 - 400 of 1907
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Luo Qiong - - 2004
The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Lycium barbarum fruit water decoction, crude polysaccharide extracts (crude LBP), and purified polysaccharide fractions (LBP-X) in alloxan-induced diabetic or hyperlipidemic rabbits were investigated through designed sequential trials and by measuring blood glucose and serum lipid parameters. Total antioxidant capacity was also assessed using trolox ...
Paƛciak Mariola - - 2004
Structural studies on the major glycolipid isolated from Rothia mucilaginosa were carried out utilising specific chemical degradation, NMR spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF-MS). The glycolipid was found to be a dimannosylacylmonoglyceride in which the carbohydrate part was the glycerol-linked dimannoside alpha-D-Manp-(1-->3)-alpha-D-Manp-(1-->3)-sn-Gro (Man A-Man B-Gro), ...
Leone Serena - - 2004
A minor oligosaccharide fraction was isolated after complete de-acylation of the lipooligosaccharide extracted from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1. The full structure of this oligosaccharide was obtained by chemical degradation, NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF MS spectrometry. These experiments showed the presence of two novel oligosaccharides (OS1 and OS2): [structure: see text] where ...
Masuoka James - - 2004
Cell surface hydrophobicity contributes to the pathogenesis of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Previous work demonstrated a correlation between hydrophobicity status and changes in the acid-labile, phosphodiester-linked beta-1,2-oligomannoside components of the N-linked glycans of cell wall mannoprotein. Glycan composition also defines the two major serotypes, A and B, of ...
Dourado Fernando - - 2004
The structure and bioactivity of a polysaccharide extracted and purified from a 4M KOH + H3BO3 solution from Prunus dulcis seed cell wall material was studied. Anion-exchange chromatography of the crude extract yielded two sugar-rich fractions: one neutral (A), the other acidic (E). These fractions contain a very similar monosaccharide ...
Brat Pierre - - 2004
The physicochemical characteristics (pH, total and soluble solids, and titratable acidity), sugars, organic acids, carotenoids, anthocyanins, volatile compounds, and cell wall polysaccharides of a new pineapple hybrid (FLHORAN41 cultivar) were measured throughout maturation and compared with the Smooth Cayenne cv. At full maturity, the FLHORAN41 cv. has a higher titratable ...
Laus Marc C - - 2004
Analysis of two exopolysaccharide-deficient mutants of Rhizobium leguminosarum, RBL5808 and RBL5812, revealed independent Tn5 transposon integrations in a single gene, designated exo5. As judged from structural and functional homology, this gene encodes a UDP-glucose dehydrogenase responsible for the oxidation of UDP-glucose to UDP-glucuronic acid. A mutation in exo5 affects all ...
Held Michael A - - 2004
Extensins are cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins that form covalent networks putatively involving tyrosyl and lysyl residues in cross-links catalyzed by one or more extensin peroxidases. The precise cross-links remain to be chemically identified both as network components in muro and as enzymic products generated in vitro with native extensin monomers ...
Yip Vivian L Y - - 2004
Recent work on the mechanistic elucidation of the polysaccharide lyases, the [small alpha]-1,4-glucan lyases, and the Family 4 glycosidases have demonstrated that nature has evolved to use elimination steps for the degradation of oligosaccharides. The polysaccharide lyases (E.C. 4.2.2.-) have been shown to cleave uronic acid-containing polysaccharides via a stepwise ...
Kondakova A N - - 2004
The structures of the O-polysaccharides of the lipopolysaccharides of Proteus mirabilis O7 and O49 were determined by chemical methods, mass spectrometry, including MS/MS, and NMR spectroscopy, including experiments run in an H2O/D2O mixture to reveal correlations for NH protons. The O-polysaccharides were found to contain N-carboxyacetyl (malonyl) and N-(3-carboxypropanoyl) (succinyl) ...
Simas Fernanda F - - 2004
The polysaccharide isolated from the gum exudate of palm Scheelea phalerata (SPN) was water-insoluble and composed of Fuc, Ara, Xyl, and uronic acid moieties in a 5:34:54:7 molar ratio: 12% of phenolics were also present. A soluble polysaccharide (SPNa) was obtained after alkaline treatment, which contained Fuc, Ara, Xyl and ...
Garna Haikel - - 2004
A new method for the determination of the main neutral sugars in pectin has been developed. The sample preparation involves a mild chemical attack followed by an enzymatic hydrolysis. The completeness and nondestructive character of the method are demonstrated by comparison of the results obtained with different acids such as ...
Bishop Maximilienne - - 2004
The reaction product of boric acid and the polysaccharide guaran (the major component of guar gum) has been investigated by 11B NMR spectroscopy. By comparison with the 11B NMR of boric acid and phenylboronic acid complexes of 1,2-diols (HOCMe2CMe2OH, cis-C6H10(OH)2, trans-C6H10(OH)2, o-C6H4(OH)2), 1,3-diols (neol-H2), monosaccharides (L-fucose, mannose and galactose) and ...
Rodríguez-Arcos Rocio C - - 2004
Post-harvest toughening of asparagus spears is associated with a large increase in monomeric and diferulic acids in the cell walls of stem tissues. The purpose of this study has been to investigate the distribution of these phenolic components among cell wall polymers and the role they play in the formation ...
Chai Wengang - - 2004
Heparin lyases are valuable tools for generating oligosaccharide fragments and in sequence determination of heparan sulfate (HS). Heparin lyase III is known to cleave the linkages between N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) or N-sulfated glucosamine (GlcNS) and glucuronic acid (GlcA) as the primary sites and the linkages between GlcNAc, GlcNAc(6S), or GlcNS and ...
Leone Serena - - 2004
Pseudomonas stutzeri OXI is a Gram-negative microorganism able to grow in media containing aromatic hydrocarbons. A novel lipo-oligosaccharide from P. stutzeri OX1 was isolated and characterized. For the first time, the presence of two moieties of 4,6-O-(1-carboxy)-ethylidene residues (pyruvic acid) was identified in a core region; these two residues were ...
Whale Gary A - - 2004
Lipidated macroamphiphiles such as the lipoteichoic acids and mycobacterial lipoarabinomannans are cell envelope components of Gram-positive bacteria that have been extensively associated with the pathogenesis of disease. In order to study such associations, purification of these macroamphiphiles is essential for resolving their structures and diverse biological effects. We describe herein ...
Capek Peter - - 2004
A water-soluble polysaccharide complex (A) composed of galactose (17.9%), 3-O-methyl-galactose (3.0%), glucose (15.5%), mannose (8.3%), arabinose (30.4%), xylose (7.6%), fucose (2.6%), rhamnose (6.7%), and uronic acids (8.0%) has been isolated from the aerial parts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) by cold water extraction. It showed a broad molecular-mass distribution pattern ...
Xu Xiaojuan - - 2004
Aeromonas (A) gum, an extracellular heteropolysaccharide produced by the bacterium Aeromonas nichidenii strain 5797, was studied by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy including 2D COSY, TOCSY, 1H, 13C HMQC, HMBC and ROESY experiments after O-deacetylation and Smith degradation. These investigations revealed the presence of an O-acetylated pentasaccharide repeating unit composed ...
Kilcoyne Michelle - - 2004
The O-specific polysaccharide was isolated by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of the marine bacterium Shewanella fidelis type strain KMM 3582T and studied by sugar analysis along with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy including one-dimensional NOE in difference mode and two-dimensional experiments. The polysaccharide was found to consist of ...
Mazumder Sutapa - - 2004
Pectic polysaccharides were obtained from chalkumra (Benincasa hispida) fruit by sequential extraction with ammonium oxalate (fraction BOX), dilute acid (fraction BHCl), and cold dilute alkali (fraction BOH). The highest yield of polysaccharides was obtained with oxalate and HCl. BOX was enriched in partly methyl-esterified galacturonic acid, whereas BHCl and BOH ...
Lee Ji-Hye - - 2004
A polysaccharide with high uronic acid content from the roots of Panax ginseng was found to inhibit the ability of Porphyromonas gingivalis to agglutinate erythrocytes. This polysaccharide showed a strong inhibitory activity (minimum inhibitory concentration 0.25 mg/mL), but treatment with pectinase resulted in non-inhibitory hydrolyzed products. In contrast, the inhibition ...
Shashkov A S - - 2004
Structurally identical teichoic acids were detected in cell walls of two soil isolates assigned to Brevibacterium linens based on phylogenetic data. Both cell walls contain unsubstituted 1,3-poly(glycerol phosphate) and poly(glycosylglycerol phosphate). Repeating units of the latter--alpha-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->4)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->1)-Gro--are bound by phosphodiester bonds including OH-3 of galactose and OH-3 of glycerol. Some of ...
Sadovskaya Irina - - 2004
The ability to adhere to artificial surfaces and form biofilms is considered as a virulence factor of Staphylococcus epidermidis, one of the major causes of nocosomial infections, especially those related to implanted medical devices. Cell-wall teichoic acid is known to play an important role in biofilm formation of staphylococci. The ...
Li Yi - - 2004
A fast and sensitive HPLC method using fluorescence detection is developed to quantitate 1-pyrenyldiazomethane (PDAM) derivatized fatty acids derived from the lipid components of both the capsular meningococcal polysaccharide and other impurities such as endotoxin in various meningococcal vaccine samples. The HPLC method is capable of well resolving 13 relevant ...
Senchenkova Sof'ya N - - 2004
A highly phosphorylated O-polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus mirabilis O41 followed by GPC. The initial and dephosphorylated polysaccharides and phosphorylated products from two sequential Smith degradations were studied by (1)H, (13)C and (31)P NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS. The O-polysaccharide was found to have ...
Hong Xuan - - 2004
The mycobacterial cell wall is extraordinarily thick and tight consisting mainly of (1). long chain fatty acids, the mycolic acids, and (2). a unique polysaccharide, arabinogalactan (AG). These two chemical constituents are covalently linked through ester bonds. Minnikin (The Biology of the Mycobacteria; Academic: London, 1982) proposed that the mycobacterial ...
Devulapalle Kumari S - - 2004
Mutans streptococci are oral bacteria with a key role in the initiation of dental caries, because their glucosyltransferases synthesize polysaccharides from sucrose that allow them to colonize the tooth surface. Among the strategies to prevent dental caries that are being investigated are (1) the inhibition of bacterial growth of mutans ...
Bhakta Sanjib - - 2004
Mycolic acids represent a major component of the unique cell wall of mycobacteria. Mycolic acid biosynthesis is inhibited by isoniazid, a key frontline antitubercular drug that is inactivated by mycobacterial and human arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT). We show that an in-frame deletion of Mycobacterium bovis BCG nat results in delayed entry ...
Takeda Hiroyuki - - 2004
Full-length cDNA sequences of two exo-beta-glucanases, LP-ExoI and LP-ExoII, secreted into cell walls of lily (Lilium longiflorum) pollen tube, were determined by RT-PCR. LP-ExoI exhibited over 80% similarity to LP-ExoII at both DNA and amino acid levels. RT-PCR showed that LP-ExoI transcripts were abundant in pollen grains and tubes, but ...
Brunold C - - 2004
Raw polysaccharides, previously described in detail, were isolated from the flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and fractionated by ion exchange chromatography into one neutral and three acidic subfractions. Raw polysaccharides and all acidic subfractions caused a strong induction of proliferation of human keratinocytes (HaCaT) of up to 40 %, while ...
Hokputsa Sanya - - 2004
Crude water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from Acanthus ebracteatus by hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation after pre-treatment with 80% ethanol. The crude polysaccharides were separated into neutral and acidic polysaccharides by anion-exchange chromatography. The neutral polysaccharide (A1001) was rich in galactose, 3-O-methylgalactose and arabinose, whereas the acidic polysaccharide (A1002) ...
Ovchinnikova Olga G - - 2004
Mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Citrobacter youngae O9, strain PCM 1538 released a homopolysaccharide of 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-D-mannose (D-Rha4NAc, N-acetyl-D-perosamine). Studies by methylation analysis and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, using two-dimensional (1)H,(1)H COSY, TOCSY, NOESY and H-detected (1)H,(13)C HSQC experiments showed the presence of two structurally different polysaccharides consisting ...
Dourado Fernando - - 2004
The anatomy of Prunus dulcis was analyzed by applying several differential staining techniques and light microscopy. Prunus dulcis seed has a thin and structurally complex seed coat, with lignified cellulosic tissue. The embryo has two voluminous cotyledons. Cotyledon cells have a high number of protein and lipid bodies, some of ...
Neureiter M - - 2004
Grass and silage presscakes from various types of raw materials were hydrolyzed with dilute acid at moderate conditions to recover hemicellulose-derived sugars. Extracting the material with cold water prior to hydrolysis significantly increased the yield. The poor performance without extraction was due to the high buffer capacity of the material. ...
Andrade Leonardo R - - 2004
We have studied the ultrastructure of acidic polysaccharides from the cell walls of brown algae using a variety of electron microscopy techniques. Polysaccharides from Padina gymnospora present self assembled structures, forming trabecular patterns. Purified fractions constituted by alginic acid and sulfated fucan also form well-organized ultrastructures, but the pattern of ...
Levigne Sébastien V - - 2004
Side chains of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pectins, which are mainly composed of arabinose (Ara) and galactose (Gal) residues, are esterified by ferulic acid units. Enzymatic hydrolysis of beet cell walls yielded several feruloylated oligosaccharides, which were separated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Two new oligomers were isolated in the fraction ...
Vinogradov Evgeny - - 2004
The structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the lipid A-core region of the LPS from Shewanella algae strain BrY was analysed. The LPS was N,O-deacylated to give three products, which were isolated and studied by chemical methods, NMR and mass spectrometry: [Carbohydrate structures: see text]. All monosaccharides except L-rhamnose had ...
Kilcoyne Michelle - - 2004
Mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of the bacterium Idiomarina zobellii, type strain KMM 231T, with aq 2% HOAc at 100 degrees C, yielded an oligosaccharide, which represents one repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide. A polysaccharide was obtained by mild base degradation of the lipopolysaccharide. The following structure of the ...
Kondakova Anna N - - 2004
Mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Proteus mirabilis O20 resulted in depolymerisation of the O-polysaccharide to give a repeating-unit pentasaccharide. A polysaccharide was obtained by O-deacylation of the LPS followed by nitrous acid deamination. The derived pentasaccharide and polysaccharide were studied by NMR spectroscopy, including 2D 1H,1H COSY, ...
Zähringer Ulrich - - 2004
The facultative intracellular pathogen Bartonella henselae is responsible for a broad range of clinical manifestations, including the formation of vascular tumors as a result of increased proliferation and survival of colonized endothelial cells. This remarkable interaction with endotoxin-sensitive endothelial cells and the apparent lack of septic shock are considered to ...
Prabahar Vadivel - - 2004
Strain DVS 5a1 was isolated from a moraine sample from the McMurdo Dry Valleys region of Antarctica. The strain is aerobic, Gram-positive, with white aerial mycelia and brown substrate mycelia, sporulating, has meso-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose and galactose in the cell wall, MK-8 (H4) as the major menaquinone and a mol% ...
Martin Paul - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the pathogenesis of mucoid otitis media (OM) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced OM. METHODS: OM was induced in chinchillas by injecting S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), LPS, and LPS + SNAP into the superior bullae. Auditory brainstem response thresholds ...
Mennink-Kersten Monique A S H - - 2004
A major difficulty with the detection of circulating galactomannan, a cell-wall polysaccharide released by Aspergillus sp during growth, in the serodiagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is the occurrence of false-positive ELISA results, especially in neonates and infants. On the basis of molecule similarity, we postulate that a lipoteichoic acid of Bifidobacterium ...
Kocharova Nina A - - 2004
The lipopolysaccharide of Citrobacter youngae O1, strain PCM 1492 was degraded with acid or alkali under mild conditions, and the resultant polysaccharide was isolated by GPC and studied by sugar and methylation analyses and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies, including 2D COSY, TOCSY, NOESY and 1H, 13C HSQC experiments. The ...
Faulds C B - - 2004
An enzyme preparation from the thermophilic fungus Humicola insolens, Ultraflo L, was able to solubilise more than half of the biomass of brewer's grain and wheat bran, two agro-industrial co-products. While almost all of the ferulic acid was released in the free form, the majority of diferulates were released still ...
Banoub Joseph - - 2004
The molecular structure of the mutant form of the lipopolysaccharide of Aeromonas salmonicida was determined to contain an O-4 phosphorylated and O-5 substituted Kdo reducing group, and is proposed as the following: [molecular structure: see text] It was established that during the cleavage of this LPS with 1% acetic acid, ...
Samac Deborah A - - 2004
The primary cell-wall matrix of most higher plants is composed of large amounts of uronic acids, primarily D-galacturonic acid residues in the backbone of pectic polysaccharides. Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose dehydrogenase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of uronic acids. We produced transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants expressing a soybean ...
Neuhaus Francis C - - 2003
Teichoic acids (TAs) are major wall and membrane components of most gram-positive bacteria. With few exceptions, they are polymers of glycerol-phosphate or ribitol-phosphate to which are attached glycosyl and D-alanyl ester residues. Wall TA is attached to peptidoglycan via a linkage unit, whereas lipoteichoic acid is attached to glycolipid intercalated ...
Nazarenko Evgeny L - - 2003
The chemical structures of polysaccharides and LPS core oligosaccharides, isolated from various Gram-negative marine bacteria from the genera Pseudoalteromonas and Shewanella belonging to the Alteromonadaceae family and gamma-subclass of Proteobacteria, are reviewed. The polysaccharides are distinguished by the acidic character (e.g., due to the presence of hexuronic and aldulosonic acids ...
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