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Kohler Thomas - - 2009
Skin-colonizing gram-positive bacteria produce wall teichoic acids (WTAs) or related glycopolymers for unclear reasons. Using a WTA-deficient Staphylococcus aureus mutant, we demonstrated that WTA confers resistance to antimicrobial fatty acids from human sebaceous glands by preventing fatty acid binding. Thus, WTA is probably important for bacterial skin colonization.
D'Elia Michael A - - 2009
There have been considerable strides made in the characterization of the dispensability of teichoic acid biosynthesis genes in recent years. A notable omission thus far has been an early gene in teichoic acid synthesis encoding the N-acetylmannosamine transferase (tagA in Bacillus subtilis; tarA in Staphylococcus aureus), which adds N-acetylmannosamine to ...
Cao Xinyu - - 2009
The interaction of covalently coupled hyaluronic acid, alginic acid, and pectic acid with proteins, cells (hematopoietic KG1a and Jurkat cells), and marine organisms (algal zoospores and barnacle cypris larvae) is compared. In contrast to cells and proteins for which such polysaccharide coatings are known for their antiadhesive properties, marine algal ...
Pumera Martin - - 2009
We report a systematic evaluation of the influence of the use of nitric acid at elevated temperature (80 degrees C) as purification and functionalization treatment for four different types of multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and for carbon microparticles upon their physico-chemical properties. We used BET, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution ...
Senchenkova Sof'ya N - - 2009
A polysaccharide isolated after mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Vibrio vulnificus clinical isolate YJ016 was found to contain L-Fuc, D-GlcpNAc, 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-D-glucose (di-N-acetylbacillosamine, D-QuiNAc4NAc), and 2-acetimidoylamino-2-deoxy-L-galacturonic acid (L-GalNAmA). The last sugar derivative was confirmed by correlations for nitrogen-linked protons in 2D TOCSY and ROESY spectra measured in a H(2)O-D(2)O ...
Liang Xianqing - - 2009
X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been applied to identify the modification process of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) treated by nitric acid. The carboxyl groups created by the nitric acid treatment have been found to be formed on both the carbonaceous fragments and the side walls of SWCNTs. The ...
Tomita Satoru - - 2009
The cell wall of Lactobacillus plantarum contains large amounts of cell wall teichoic acid (WTA). WTA was isolated from the cell wall of L. plantarum NRIC 1068 (= ATCC 8014 and 17-5) by extraction with trichloroacetic acid, and two monomeric units (F1 and F2) were prepared from the alkaline hydrolysate ...
Schepetkin Igor A IA Department of Veterinary Molecular Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, - - 2009
Shilajit has been used traditionally in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of disorders, including syndromes involving excessive complement activation. Extracts of Shilajit contain significant amounts of fulvic acid (FA), and it has been suggested that FA is responsible for many therapeutic properties of Shilajit. However, little is ...
Du XiuJu - - 2009
A novel acidic heteropolysaccharide (TAPA1) was purified from hot water extracts of Tremella aurantialba fruiting bodies by DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow and Sephacryl S-500 High-Resolution Chromatography. The heteropolysaccharide had a molecular weight of ca. 1.35x10(6)Da, and a carbohydrate content estimated to be approximately 98.7% by the phenol-sulfuric acid method. It was ...
Polati Rita - - 2009
Mapping the proteome of microrganisms by 2D-electrophoresis is often a hard task, because many contaminants, e.g. polysaccharides of the cell wall and nucleic acid, can obstruct the pores of the IEF gel resulting in streaks and smears. A protocol based on the use of the cationic detergent cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) ...
Bhosle, N.B.
Amphora coffeaeformis cells were grown in batch cultures under continuous illumination at 18 degrees C for 10 d. Algal cells were removed by centrifugation, lyophilized and used for the extraction of exopolysaccharides using either 0.05 M EDTA, 1 M NaOH or 1.5 M NaCl treatment removed most exopolysaccharides. Glucose (81%) ...
Ovchinnikova Olga G - - 2009
Recently, ether-linked diastereomeric 2,4-dihydroxypentanoic acids have been reported as new components of bacterial glycans [Shashkov, A. S. et al.Nat. Prod. Commun.2008, 3, 1625-1630]. In this work, an ether of (2R,4R)-2,4-dihydroxypentanoic acid (Dhpa) with d-mannose was identified in the O-polysaccharide of Providencia alcalifaciens O31, and the polysaccharide structure was elucidated. Studies ...
Karaƛ Magdalena - - 2009
The location and nature of the linkage between peptidoglycan and oligoglucans in the cell wall of Mesorhizobium loti HAMBI 1148 have been defined by the analysis of nitrous acid deamination of peptidoglycan glucosaminyl residues. The MurNH(2)-Glc(n) fraction was obtained after converting deaminoacylated and N-deacetylated muramyl residues in the cell wall ...
Joët Thierry - - 2009
* The genomic era facilitates the understanding of how transcriptional networks are interconnected to program seed development and filling. However, to date, little information is available regarding dicot seeds with a transient perisperm and a persistent, copious endosperm. Coffea arabica is the subject of increasing genomic research and is a ...
Baur Stefanie - - 2009
Streptococcus pneumoniae has unusually complex cell wall teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid, both of which contain a ribitol phosphate moiety. The lic region of the pneumococcal genome contains genes for the uptake and activation of choline, the attachment of phosphorylcholine to teichoic acid precursors, and the transport of these precursors ...
Shi Yi - - 2009
A series of multiradiate calcium phosphate patterns have been observed by a gradating chitosan-polyaspartatic acid (PAsp) system, and their morphology evolution reveals the effect of chitosan and PAsp on the interfacial biomineralization.
Mastrangelo Lucia Ilenia - - 2009
The sub-cellular feruloylation and oxidative coupling sites of cell wall polysaccharides were investigated in planta by monitoring the kinetics of appearance of arabinosyl- and feruloyl-radiolabelled polysaccharides in the protoplasmic compartment and their secretion in the wall either in the presence or absence of brefeldin A (BFA). By using root apical ...
Hu Ke - - 2009
To discover drug candidates with anti-angiogenesis activity for cancer therapeutics, three galactooligosaccharides (OJ1-OJ3) were prepared by acid hydrolysis of the polysaccharides from Nerium indicum Mill. Their structures were characterized using sugar analysis, methylation analysis, and both 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, complemented by mass spectrometry. They were hexasaccharide (OJ1), a ...
Sengkhamparn Nipaporn - - 2009
Okra pods are commonly used in Asia as a vegetable, food ingredient, as well as a traditional medicine for many different purposes; for example, as diuretic agent, for treatment of dental diseases and to reduce/prevent gastric irritations. The healthy properties are suggested to originate from the high polysaccharide content of ...
Al-Halbouni Djamila - - 2009
The aim of this study was to characterize the polysaccharides and lipid fractions of membrane foulants in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal wastewater. Both of these polymeric compounds are major components of bacterial lipopolysaccharides and are impacting membrane fouling; however most of the data so far have been ...
Rahman Obaidur - - 2009
The cell envelopes of gram-positive bacteria contain structurally diverse membrane-anchored macroamphiphiles (lipoteichoic acids and lipoglycans) whose functions are poorly understood. Since regulation of membrane composition is an important feature of adaptation to life at higher temperatures, we have examined the nature of the macroamphiphiles present in the thermophilic actinomycetes Thermobifida ...
Kooy Floor K - - 2009
Hyaluronan (HA) is a polysaccharide with high-potential medical applications, depending on the chain length and the chain length distribution. Special interest goes to homogeneous HA oligosaccharides, which can be enzymatically produced using Pasteurella multocida hyaluronan synthase (PmHAS). We have developed a sensitive, simple, and fast method, based on fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate ...
Tsai B N - - 2008
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soluble microbial products (SMP), loosely bound (LBEPS) and tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances (TBEPS) were extracted from wastewater sludge, fractionated by size exclusion chromatography and characterized by ultraviolet absorbance at 230, 254 and 280 nm, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and excitation-emission-matrix (EEM) spectra. ...
Moesby Lise - - 2008
As opposed to endotoxins very little is known about the heat resistance of Gram positive pyrogens. The aim of this study is to examine the pyrogenic activity of the cell wall components lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan from Staphylococcus aureus after moist heat sterilisation. The pyrogenic activity is determined as the ...
Wang Liangbing L Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001, - - 2008
The proper functioning of the human intestine is dependent on its bacterial symbionts, the most predominant of which belong to the Phylum Bacteroidetes. These bacteria are known to use variable displays of multiple capsular polysaccharides (CPs) to aid in their survival and foraging within the intestine. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is a ...
Jackson Mary - - 2009
Mycobacteria produce two sets of unusual polymethylated polysaccharides, the 3-O-methylmannose polysaccharides and the 6-O-methylglucose lipopolysaccharides. Both polysaccharides localize to the cytoplasm, where they have been postulated to regulate fatty acid metabolism due to their ability to form stable 1:1 complexes with fatty acyl chains. Physiological evidence for this assumption is ...
Li Ken Yuon - - 2008
Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the hydrolysis conditions with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) to obtain the maximum amount of feruloylated oligosaccharides from rice bran. The TFA concentration and hydrolysis time effects on feruloylated oligosaccharides recovery are studied. The optimum hydrolysis conditions for maximizing feruloylated oligosaccharides recovery were 193 ...
Neilands, J
Posters- 4th Annual Biofilm Workshop, Malmö, Sweden, September 2008
Zhou Jing - - 2008
In order to investigate the antioxidant properties of the polysaccharides from the brown alga Sargassum fusiforme, the crude polysaccharides from S. fusiforme (SFPS) were extracted in hot water, and the lipid peroxidation inhibition assay exhibited that SFPS possessed a potential antioxidant activity. Hence, two purely polymeric fractions, SFPS-1 and SFPS-2 ...
Kang Yoon-Han - - 2008
Carrot cell walls have been shown to contain significant quantities of esterified p-hydroxybenzoic acid, which is presumed to be esterified to cell wall polymers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and related phenolics among carrot cell wall polysaccharides. Cell wall material was prepared ...
Toukach Filip V - - 2008
A glycerol teichoic acid-like O-polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Providencia alcalifaciens O8 and studied by chemical methods and NMR spectroscopy, including 2D ROESY, {(1)H,(13)C} HSQC, and HMQC-TOCSY experiments. It was found that the compound contains a new component of bacterial lipopolysaccharides: ether-linked (2S,4R)-2,4-dihydroxypentanoic acid ...
Papadimitriou Konstantinos - - 2008
We have previously reported that an acid tolerance response (ATR) can be induced in Streptococcus macedonicus cells at mid-log phase after autoacidification, transient exposure to acidic pH, or acid habituation, as well as at stationary phase. Here, we compared the transcriptional profiles of these epigenetic phenotypes, by RNA arbitrarily primed ...
Tamesue Shingo - - 2008
We previously found that polysaccharide "schizophyllan (SPG)" can entrap as-grown and cut single-walled carbon nanotubes (as-SWNTs and c-SWNTs, respectively): we here reported that the c-SWNT-s-SPG (single stranded SPG) composites thus obtained can be aligned regularly using the covalent bond formation between boric acid or boronic acid derivatives and the 4,6-dihydroxyl ...
Capek P - - 2008
Highly viscous extracellular proteoglycan (EPG) has been isolated from culture medium of the unicellular red alga Rhodella grisea (Rhodophyceae) by ethanol precipitation. EPG was composed of xylose (29.3%), 3-O-methyl-xylose (26.0%), uronic acids (17.1%), rhamnose (14.4%), galactose (7.5%), glucose (3.9%), arabinose (1.4%) and mannose (0.4%), and traces of fucose, 4-O-methyl-xylose and ...
Zhao Jianqiang - - 2008
By and large, monosaccharide composition and linkage analyses of bacterial cell-surface carbohydrates are achieved by hydrolysis into the corresponding monomeric constituents, and characterization of these, or their derivatives, by chromatographic and spectrometric methods. Normally, these hydrolyses are carried out conveniently with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) at high temperatures for long periods ...
Kawaharada Yasuyuki - - 2008
The periplasmic glucans of Mesorhizobium loti were isolated and separated into fractions according to their acidity. NMR spectroscopy confirmed their backbone structure to be a cyclic beta-(1-->2)-d-glucan as in the case of other rhizobia, and revealed no non-glycosidic substituents in the neutral fraction, and glycerophosphoryl and succinyl residues as major ...
Vagabov Vladimir M - - 2008
The cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulate inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) when reinoculated on a phosphate-containing medium after phosphorus starvation. Total polyP accumulation was similar at cultivation on both glucose and ethanol. Five separate fractions of polyP: acid-soluble fraction polyP1, salt-soluble fraction polyP2, weakly alkali-soluble fraction polyP3, alkali-soluble fraction polyP4, and polyP5, ...
Zdorovenko Evelina L - - 2008
Aiming at improving classification and taxonomy of Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria, we studied the structure of the lipopolysaccharide of Ralstonia solanacearum. Mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide of strain Toudk-2 followed by gel chromatography resulted in an O-polysaccharide and two oligosaccharide fractions. The smallest-size oligosaccharide fraction was studied by sugar analysis, ...
Ben Mansour Mohamed - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: The polysaccharide fraction from the skin of the ray Raja radula was extracted, characterized and assayed for anticoagulant activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A whole polysaccharidic fraction was extracted from the skin of the ray Raja radula by papain digestion followed by cetylpyridinium chloride and ethanol precipitation and was subjected ...
Vinogradov Evgeny - - 2008
The rough type lipopolysaccharide isolated from Shewanella spp. strain MR-4 was analyzed using NMR, mass spectroscopy, and chemical methods. Two structural variants have been found, both contained 8-amino-3,8-dideoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid and lacked L-glycero-D-manno-heptose. A minor variant of the LPS contained phosphoramide substituent.
Elboutachfaiti R - - 2008
The large production of acidic oligosaccharides was investigated by non-enzymatic depolymerization of polygalacturonic acid (PGA) using free hydroxyl radical hydrolysis process from H2O2/copper (II) system. A large amount of oligogalacturonides (OGAs) with degrees of polymerization up to 6 were fractionated, and characterized by ESI-Q/TOF-MASS spectrometry and 1H NMR spectroscopy. This ...
Mercaldi Michael P - - 2008
Emulsan has been reported as an emulsion stabilizing amphipathic lipoheteropolysaccharide secreted by the oil-degrading bacterium Acinetobacter venetianus RAG-1. Previously, emulsan was regarded as a single polymer. As a result of developing a new purification process, we have discovered that emulsan is a complex of approximately 80% (w/w) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ...
Einbu Aslak - - 2008
Proton NMR spectra of chitin dissolved in concentrated and deuterated hydrochloric acid (DCl) were found to be a simple and powerful method for identifying chitin from samples of biological origin. During the first hour after dissolving chitin in concentrated DCl (25 degrees C), insignificant de-N-acetylation occurred, meaning that the fraction ...
Bilan Maria I - - 2008
A fucoidan fraction composed of l-fucose, sulfate, and d-glucuronic acid in a molar proportion of about 1:1:0.25 and small amount of acetyl groups was isolated from the brown alga Chordaria flagelliformis. Several modified polysaccharides were prepared from the native fucoidan using solvolytic desulfation, carboxyl reduction, and partial acid hydrolysis. Polysaccharide ...
Giaouris Efstathios - - 2008
An increase of the degree of d-alanylation of teichoic acids in Lactococcus lactis resulted in a significant increase of bacterial resistance toward the cationic antimicrobials nisin and lysozyme, whereas the absence of D-alanylation led to a decreased resistance toward the same compounds. In contrast, the same variations of the D-alanylation ...
Shigihara Ado - - 2008
Virgin fir forests have been declining since the 1960s at Mt. Oyama, which is located at the eastern edge of the Tanzawa Mountains and adjacent to the Kanto plain in Japan. An acid fog frequently occurs in the mountains. We collected throughfall and stemflow under fir trees and rainfall every ...
Sarath Gautam - - 2008
The aims of this study were to understand the genotypic variability in cell-wall composition and cell-wall accessibility to enzymes in select switchgrass plants obtained from two different populations derived from a base population of octaploid cultivars. Population C+3 was developed by three breeding generations for high digestibility and population C-1 ...
Queiroz K C S - - 2008
Brown algae have two kinds of acid polysaccharides present in the extracellular matrix: sulfated fucan and alginic acid. We have previously isolated and characterized fucans from several species of brown seaweed. The characterized fucans from Dictyotaceae are heterofucans containing mainly fucose, galactose, glucose, xylose, and/or uronic acid. The fucan from ...
Mederos L - - 2008
AIMS: To determine the composition of polar glycopeptidolipids (pGPLs) of Mycobacterium simiae and, particularly, those of 'habana' strains, in a search for specific markers given the immunogenic potential of 'habana' TMC 5135 in experimental tuberculosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: pGPLs were determined in free lipid extracts using electrospray ionization-ion trap-mass spectrometry ...
Forsberg L Scott LS Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30605, - - 2008
Rhizobium are Gram-negative bacteria that survive intracellularly, within host membrane-derived plant cell compartments called symbiosomes. Within the symbiosomes the bacteria differentiate to bacteroids, the active form that carries out nitrogen fixation. The progression from free-living bacteria to bacteroid is characterized by physiological and morphological changes at the bacterial surface, a ...
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