Search Results
Results 101 - 150 of 1920
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Maharjan Anu S - - 2011
Following tissue injury, monocytes can enter the tissue and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes, but little is known about what regulates this differentiation. Extracellular matrix contains high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HMWHA; ∼2×10(6) Da). During injury, HMWHA breaks down to low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (LMWHA; ∼0.8-8×10(5) Da). In ...
Seviour Thomas - - 2010
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques were used to elucidate the structure of an exopolysaccharide material previously revealed to be important in formation of aerobic granules. The 1D NMR spectral data acquired showed that this gel-forming polysaccharide was a major component of granular EPS, while 1D and 2D NMR spectra showed ...
Brown Stephanie - - 2010
Wall teichoic acids (WTAs) are anionic polymers that play key roles in bacterial cell shape, cell division, envelope integrity, biofilm formation, and pathogenesis. B. subtilis W23 and S. aureus both make polyribitol-phosphate (RboP) WTAs and contain similar sets of biosynthetic genes. We use in vitro reconstitution combined with genetics to show ...
Jin Yanqiao - - 2011
Enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL), isolated from the enzymatic hydrolysis residues of the biomass, was liquefied using the mixed solvents of polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and glycerol at the temperature of 130-170°C with sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The influences of liquefaction parameters, such as the molecular weight of PEG, mass ratio of ...
Atilano Magda L - - 2010
The cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus is characterized by an extremely high degree of cross-linking within its peptidoglycan (PGN). Penicillin-binding protein 4 (PBP4) is required for the synthesis of this highly cross-linked peptidoglycan. We found that wall teichoic acids, glycopolymers attached to the peptidoglycan and important for virulence in Gram-positive ...
Yang Fengli - - 2011
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was produced from monosaccharide (fructose and glucose), polysaccharide (inulin) and the Jerusalem artichoke juice by a simple one-pot reaction including hydrolysis and dehydration using solid acid under mild condition. Hydrated niobium pentoxide (Nb(2)O(5)·nH(2)O(2)) after pretreatment showed high catalytic activities for dehydration of mono- and polysaccharide to HMF at ...
Zhang Jun - - 2011
Lipovitellin (Lv), a glycolipoprotein, is a major component of the egg yolk, which is usually regarded as an energy reserve of nutrients essential for growth and development. We have purified Lv from ovulated eggs of the rosy barb Puntius conchonius by two-step chromatography and characterized it by staining with periodic ...
Sun Xiao-Feng - - 2010
Extraction and characterisation of hemicelluloses are very important for converting them into functional materials and chemicals. To develop a method for isolation of hemicelluloses from all cell walls. Sequential steps using 90% dioxane, 80% acidic dioxane, 100% dimethyl sulphoxide and 8% NaOH were used for extraction of the hemicellulosic preparations ...
Kratchanova Maria - - 2010
Leek (Allium porrum) is very commonly used vegetable in Bulgaria and is distinctive with high content of bioactive components1. Previously2 we obtained five crude pectic polysaccharides from leek through consecutive extraction. Some of them appeared to be good stimulators of the immune system. Schols and Voragen3 investigated the composition of ...
Dobberstein Diane - - 2010
Cross-links between plant cell wall polymers negatively impact forage digestibility. Hydroxycinnamates and their oligomers act as cross-links between polysaccharides and/or polysaccharides and lignin. Higher ferulate oligomers such as dehydrotrimers were identified in cereal grains but not in vegetative organs of grasses. The aim of this study was to characterize ester-linked ...
Garron Marie-Line - - 2010
Polysaccharide lyases (PLs) have been assigned to 21 families based on their sequences, with ~ 50 singletons awaiting further classification. For 19 of these families, the structure of at least one protein is known. In this review, we have analyzed the available structural information and show that presently known PL families ...
Xiao Zhongping - - 2011
Porcine intestinal mucosa heparin was partially depolymerized by recombinant heparinase 1 (heparin lyase 1, originating from Flavobacterium heparinum and expressed in Escherichia coli) and then fractionated, leading to the isolation of 22 homogeneous oligosaccharides with sizes ranging from disaccharide to hexadecasaccharide. The purity of these oligosaccharides was determined by gel ...
Fabón Gabriel - - 2010
We examined the responses of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds (UVAC) to enhanced UV-B radiation in the aquatic liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia for 31 days under laboratory conditions. Samples were exposed to three radiation regimes: P (only photosynthetic radiation), PA (photosynthetic + UV-A radiation) and PAB (photosynthetic + UV-A + UV-B radiation). ...
Sasayama Daisuke - - 2011
The cell walls in the elongating zone of submerged floating rice internodes show high susceptibility to expansins. When internode sections corresponding to such an elongation zone were incubated for 24h under osmotic stress conditions produced by treatment with 100mM polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG), the cell wall susceptibility to expansins remained ...
Diez Lorena - - 2010
Polysaccharides constitute one of the main groups of wine macromolecules, and the difficulty in separating and purifying them has resulted in them being less studied than other wine macromolecules. In this study, the biological activity of a number of polysaccharide fractions obtained from yeast lees, must, and wine has been ...
Chang S C - - 2010
Fruit of Zizyphus jujuba Mill, a traditional Chinese herb widely consumed in Asian countries, has been reported to possess several vital biological activities. This study intends to develop an appropriate analytical method for isolation of polysaccharides from Z. jujuba fruits and evaluate their antioxidant activity. Initially, powdered Z. jujuba fruits ...
Duan Jinyou - - 2010
Pectin is a group of carbohydrate polymers constructing the primary cell walls and the middle lamella of terrestrial plants. Herein, we demonstrated the structure and immunomodulatory activity of the major pectic polysaccharide DL-3B(2) isolated from the leaves of Diospyros kaki. Based on composition analysis, methylation analysis, two-step acid hydrolysis, lithium-mediated ...
Gu Xiaogang X Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, - - 2010
We have identified an operon and characterized the functions of two genes from the severe food-poisoning bacterium, Bacillus cereus subsp. cytotoxis NVH 391-98, that are involved in the synthesis of a unique UDP-sugar, UDP-2-acetamido-2-deoxyxylose (UDP-N-acetyl-xylosamine, UDP-XylNAc). UGlcNAcDH encodes a UDP-N-acetyl-glucosamine 6-dehydrogenase, converting UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) to UDP-N-acetyl-glucosaminuronic acid (UDP-GlcNAcA). The second ...
Lima Sérgio - - 2010
The one-pot acid-catalysed conversion of mono/di/polysaccharides (inulin, xylan, cellobiose, sucrose, glucose, fructose, xylose) into 2-furfuraldehyde (FUR) or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in the presence of aluminium-containing mesoporous TUD-1 (denoted as Al-TUD-1, Si/Al = 21), at 170 degrees C was investigated. Xylose gave 60% FUR yield after 6 h reaction; hexose-based mono/disaccharides gave ...
Komandrova N A - - 2010
An acidic O-specific polysaccharide containing L-rhamnose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose, 2,6-dideoxy-2-(N-acetyl-L-threonine)amino-D-galactose, and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-mannuronic acid was obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas agarivorans KMM 232 (R-form) followed by gel-permeation chromatography. The polysaccharide was subjected to Smith degradation to give a modified polysaccharide with trisaccharide repeating unit containing ...
Ker Yaw-Bee - - 2010
Many people prefer to eat peeled apples. The present study investigated the composition of soluble polysaccharides (SP) in peeled apples and its antioxidative and hypolipidemic activity. The yield of SP ranged 0.43-0.88%, having MW ranging 223-848 kDa. All belonged to peptidoglycans. Among the fourteen amino acids found, seven were essential ...
Heras Jorge Yánez - - 2010
Endotoxins, also referred to as pyrogens, are lipopolysaccharides (LPS) present in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and represent one of the most dangerous microbiological contaminants in water for hemodialysis and intravenous infusion. A method is presented for the simultaneous detection of endotoxins and other bacterial lysis contaminating species in ...
Pillon M - - 2010
Raoultella terrigena strain Ez-555-6, isolated from a root nodule of Medicago sativa harvested in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, produces a non-referenced high-molecular-mass exopolysaccharide (EPS). The structure of this EPS was determined using a combination approach including monosaccharide composition (GLC-FID, HPAEC-PAD), determination of glycosylation sites (GLC-EIMS) and 1D/2D NMR ((1)H, (13)C) ...
Yin Jun-Yi - - 2010
BACKGROUND: A water-soluble polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. (P. asiatica L. polysaccharide, PLP) was extracted with hot water and purified by gel filtration chromatography. The chemical characteristics of PLP were determined by high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In addition, the antioxidant ...
Liu Pengzhan - - 2010
Acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols in the fruits of 22 cultivars/origins of three species of hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Citric acid (2.0-8.4 g/100 g dry mass [DM]), quinic acid (0.5-5.6 g/100 g DM), malic acid (0.3-1.1 g/100 g DM), fructose (5.5-18.4 g/100 g ...
Gil Filipa - - 2010
LysB, a mycobacteriophage Ms6-encoded protein, was previously identified as a lipolytic enzyme able to hydrolyse the ester bond in lipase and esterase substrates. In the present work, we show that LysB can hydrolyse lipids containing mycolic acids from the outer membrane of the mycobacterial cell wall. LysB was shown to ...
Ieranò Teresa - - 2010
Bacteria are an inimitable source of new glyco-structures potentially useful in medicinal and environmental chemistry. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS; endotoxins) are the major components of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria; being exposed toward the external environment they can undergo structural changes and thus, they often possess peculiar chemical features that allow ...
Katayama Taiki - - 2010
Gram-reaction-positive, aerobic, non-spore-forming, irregular rod-shaped bacteria, designated AHU1821(T) and AHU1820, were isolated from an ice wedge in the Fox permafrost tunnel, Alaska. The strains were psychrophilic, growing at -5 to 27 °C. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences indicated that the ice-wedge isolates formed a clade distinct ...
Perepelov A V - - 2010
On mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli O108, the O-polysaccharide was isolated and studied by sugar analysis and one- and two-dimensional 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The polysaccharide was found to contain an unusual higher sugar, 5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-l-glycero-d-galacto-non-2-ulosonic acid (di-N-acetyl-8-epilegionaminic acid, 8eLeg5Ac7Ac). The following structure of the tetrasaccharide repeating ...
S?nchez Carballo Patricia M - - 2010
Teichoic acids are a major constituent of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Structural characterization of lipoteichoic and teichoic acids isolated from Lactobacillus brevis was undertaken using 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as chemical methodology. Compositional analysis indicated the presence of high amounts of glycerol, glucose, and alanine. ...
Wang Yuanfeng - - 2010
Neutral polysaccharides (NTPS) and acid polysaccharides (ATPS) from tea leaves were obtained on a D315 macroporous anion-exchange resin column chromatography. NTPS and ATPS were sulfated by the pyridine-sulfonic acid method to obtain NTPS-S and ATPS-S. It was found that NTPS was easier sulfated than ATPS. There are strong characteristic absorption ...
Fatema M Kaniz - - 2010
MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analyses of several oligosaccharides (aldoses) and oligosaccharide alditols derived from agaroses, kappa- and iota-carrageenans using different matrices (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, nor-harmane, ferulic acid, and the ionic liquid matrices 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid-n-butylamine and ferulic acid-n-butylamine) were conducted. These carbohydrates were selected as model compounds to study the MALDI prompt and ...
Kosmala Monika - - 2009
The polysaccharide composition of cell wall of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace was investigated. Furthermore, the alcohol insoluble solids composition of 'Kelleriis' and 'Dobreczyn Botermo' varieties were studied too. Yield of alcohol insoluble solids for fruits was lower than 10%, and for pomaces circa 50%. Uronic ...
Potekhina N V - - 2009
Cell walls of Bacillus subtilis VKM B-760 and VKM B-764 are characterized by heterogeneous composition of teichoic acids. Polymer I with structure -6)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->1)-sn-Gro-(3-P-, polymer II with structure -6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->1)-sn-Gro-(3-P-, and a small amount of unsubstituted 1,3-poly(glycerol phosphate) were detected in strain VKM B-760. Strain VKM B-764 contains an analogous set of ...
Hallack Leticia F - - 2010
Burkholderia kururiensis, strain M130, an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium isolated from rice roots, produces acetylated acidic exopolysaccharides which can be separated by anion exchange chromatography. These were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, methylation analysis and Smith degradation. The exopolysaccharides eluted with 0.5 M NaCl were produced when the bacterium was ...
Xia Guoqing - - 2010
Staphylococci and most other Gram-positive bacteria incorporate complex teichoic acid (TA) polymers into their cell envelopes. Several crucial roles in Staphylococcus aureus fitness and cell wall maintenance have been assigned to these polymers, which are either covalently linked to peptidoglycan (wall teichoic acid, WTA) or to the cytoplasmic membrane (lipoteichoic ...
Niimi Keiko - - 2009
To investigate the protective effect of subserosal injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) after endoscopic resection (ER) using ex vivo and in vivo studies. As the first examination, technical application of subserosal injection was tested 10 times using resected porcine stomachs. As the second examination, ER was applied to make six ...
Cao Shifeng - - 2009
Loquat fruit was treated with 2.32 nmol L(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 24 h at 20 degrees C, and then stored at 1 degrees C for 35 days to investigate the effect of 1-MCP treatment on chilling injury (CI) and fatty acid and cell wall polysaccharide composition. Loquat fruit developed CI, ...
Campos-Vega R - - 2009
The composition of bioactives including polysaccharide yield and resistant starch (RS) content of 4 raw and cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars was evaluated. Polysaccharide was fermented in vitro by incubation with human gut flora under anaerobic conditions and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production was compared at 6, 12, and ...
Shashkov Alexander S - - 2009
Each of the cell walls of four representatives of the genus Kribbella (order Actinomycetales; suborder Propionibacterineae; family Nocardioidaceae) contains a neutral polysaccharide and an acidic polysaccharide with unusual structures. Common to all four strains studied is a mannan with the following repeating unit: [structure: see text]. In the cell wall ...
Kocharova Nina A - - 2009
O-Polysaccharides were released by mild acid degradation of lipopolysaccharides of Providencia alcalifaciens O35 and Proteus vulgaris O76 and were studied by 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopies, including HMBC and NOESY (ROESY) experiments. Both polysaccharides were found to contain N-(1-carboxyethyl)alanine (alanopine) that is N-linked to 4-amino-4,6-dideoxyglucose. Analysis of ...
Snyder D Scott - - 2009
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the first defense against changing environmental factors for many bacteria. Here, we report the first structure of the LPS from cyanobacteria based on two strains of marine Synechococcus, WH8102 and CC9311. While enteric LPS contains some of the most complex carbohydrate residues in nature, the full-length versions ...
Du Liqin - - 2009
Barley contains hydroxycinnamic acids, mainly ferulic acid (FA; 3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) and p-coumaric acid (PCA; 4-hydroxycinnamic acid). Ferulic acid is produced via the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway and covalently cross-linked to polysaccharides by ester bonds and to components of lignin mainly by ether bonds. Various studies have consistently indicated that FA is ...
Redouan Elboutachfaiti - - 2009
A new source for the production of bioactive glucuronic acid oligosaccharides (GlcUAOs) from the depolymerization of green seaweed Ulva lactuca glucuronan (Algal glucuronan) has been investigated. Algal glucuronan purification was optimized by the acidic precipitation method which allowed us to separate the polysaccharide mixture extracted from the cell wall of ...
Li Ya-Ying - - 2009
Aluminum-induced secretion of organic acids from the root apex has been demonstrated to be one major Al resistance mechanism in plants. However, whether the organic acid concentration is high enough to detoxify Al in the growth medium is frequently questioned. The genotypes of Al-resistant wheat, Cassia tora L. and buckwheat ...
PalusiƄska-Szysz Marta - - 2009
Legionella are aerobic, gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacteria, which form a distinct taxonomic unit within the gamma - 2 subdivision of the Proteobacteria. The reservoirs of Legionella are natural or man-made water systems where the bacteria survive and disseminate as obligate intracellular parasites of free living protozoa. In the human lung, ...
D'Elia Michael A - - 2009
The bacterial cell wall has been a celebrated target for antibiotics and holds real promise for the discovery of new antibacterial chemical matter. In addition to peptidoglycan, the walls of Gram-positive bacteria contain large amounts of the polymer teichoic acid, covalently attached to peptidoglycan. Recently, wall teichoic acid was shown ...
Gimmestad Martin - - 2009
Alginates are polysaccharides composed of 1-4-linked beta-D-mannuronic acid and alpha-L-guluronic acid. The polymer can be degraded by alginate lyases, which cleave the polysaccharide using a beta-elimination reaction. Two such lyases have previously been identified in the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, as follows: the periplasmic AlgL and the secreted bifunctional mannuronan ...
Arnous Anis - - 2009
On the basis of monosaccharide analysis after acid hydrolysis of fruit skin samples of three wine grape cultivars, Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Shiraz, and of two types of apple, Malus domestica Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, an iterative calculation method is reported for the quantitative allocation of ...
Kohler Thomas - - 2009
Skin-colonizing gram-positive bacteria produce wall teichoic acids (WTAs) or related glycopolymers for unclear reasons. Using a WTA-deficient Staphylococcus aureus mutant, we demonstrated that WTA confers resistance to antimicrobial fatty acids from human sebaceous glands by preventing fatty acid binding. Thus, WTA is probably important for bacterial skin colonization.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >