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Rodríguez R - - 1999
The main polysaccharides involved in asparagus cell wall turnover have been identified. Homogalacturonans are lost from both the apical and basal sections of the spear. Galactans are mobilized from the cellulose residue of the apical section and recovered in the KOH-soluble fractions while they are lost from the cellulose residue ...
Dermlim W - - 1999
Sixteen strains of polymer-producing bacteria were isolated from the activated sludge samples taken from two seafood processing plants in Southern Thailand. Their culture broths possessed the ability to flocculate kaolin suspension in the presence of 1% CaCl2. Based on the flocculating activity, the strain S11 was selected and identified to ...
Schneider O - - 1999
Lipoteichoic and teichoic acids are components of the cell wall of Streptococcus pneumoniae. A recently developed enzyme immunoassay was used in patients with pneumococcal meningitis to investigate lipoteichoic and teichoic acid concentrations in CSF at the first lumbar puncture in relation to the clinical outcome determined by the Glasgow Outcome ...
Trinel P A - - 1999
In a series of studies, we have shown that Candida albicans synthesizes a glycolipid, phospholipomannan (PLM), which reacted with antibodies specific for beta-1,2-oligomannosides and was biosynthetically labeled by [(3)H]mannose, [(3)H]palmitic acid, and [(32)P]phosphorus. PLM has also been shown to be released from the C. albicans cell wall and to bind ...
Romanenko A S - - 1999
The properties of extracellular polysaccharides of the potato ring rot pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms) and the corresponding recognition sites isolated from cell walls of potato suspension cultures have been studied. Extracellular polysaccharides of Cms consist of 4-6 components, which differ greatly in molecular mass (from <1 kD to ...
Walker S G - - 1999
Isolation of a putative lipopolysaccharide from the surface of the oral treponeme, Treponema pectinovorum, revealed it to contain larger amounts of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid compared with other oral Treponema species. This molecule was isolated from the outer membrane of T. pectinovorum and had chemical characteristics of a putative lipopolysaccharide. The yield ...
Sedlaczek L - - 1999
beta-Sitosterol side chain degradation by Mycobacterium sp. NRRL MB 3683 results in the formation of androstene derivatives and is increased in the presence of glycine. As the sterol transformation is carried out inside the cell, higher product accumulation could indicate faster diffusion of highly hydrophobic substrate through the cell wall ...
Theocharis A D - - 1999
A new non-sulphated acidic polysaccharide with an average molecular mass of 55 kDa was isolated from squid pen case after papain digestion and beta-elimination. This polysaccharide contains mainly L-iduronic acid, D-glucuronic acid, D-galactosamine, D-glucosamine and significant amounts of neutral sugars as glucose, galactose and fucose. The polysaccharide was not degraded ...
Rodríguez R - - 1999
The postharvest changes of the white asparagus cell wall have been studied in relation to the toughening process along the length of a spear that was divided into three sections: apical, middle, and basal. Polysaccharides underwent significant turnover during storage. Uronic acid concentration decreased in all sections and in almost ...
Corsaro M M - - 1999
An exopolysaccharide obtained from an alkaliphilic bacterium closely related to Bacillus spp. was found to contain D-galactopyranuronic acid (GalpA), 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-D-glucopyranose (QuipNAc4NAc), 2-acetamido-2-deoxy D-mannopyranuronic acid (ManpNAcA) and one uncommon unit of D-galactopyranuronic acid with the carboxyl group amide-linked to glycine [GalpA(Gly)]. The polysaccharide was studied by one-dimensional and two-dimensional 1H-NMR and ...
McSweeney C S - - 1999
Microorganisms that hydrolyse the ester linkages between phenolic acids and polysaccharides in plant cell walls are potential sources of enzymes for the degradation of lignocellulosic waste. An anaerobic, mesophilic, spore-forming, xylanolytic bacterium with high hydroxy cinnamic acid esterase activity was isolated from the gut of the grass-eating termite Tumilitermes pastinator. ...
Severn W B - - 1999
The specific capsular polysaccharide produced by Rhodococcus equi serotype 4 was found to be a high-molecular-weight acidic polymer composed of D-glucose, D-mannose, pyruvic acid and a previously unidentified 5-amino-3,5-dideoxynonulosonic (rhodaminic) acid in the proportions 2:1:1:1. Structural analysis, employing a combination of microanalytical methods, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mass spectrometric ...
González LF - - 1999
Incubation of oat coleoptile segments with 40 µm indoleacetic acid (IAA) induced a decrease of 35-60% in peroxidase activity at the cell wall compartment. Treatment with IAA also produced a similar decrease in the oxidation of NADH and IAA at the cell wall. Isoelectric focusing of ionic, covalent, and intercellular ...
Kerwin J L - - 1999
Glucosamine (Gln), glucosamine polymers, and their catecholamine adducts were characterized using positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS) and tandem mass spectrometry (ESMS-MS). N-acetyldopamine (NADA), a catecholamine found in many insect cuticles, was oxidized using mushroom tyrosinase, and the resulting quinone derivatives were reacted with Gln, (Gln)3, and polymeric glucosamine (chitosan). ...
Schäffer C - - 1999
The diacetamidodideoxymannuronic-acid-containing glycan of Bacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a with the repeating unit structure [-->4)-beta-D-ManpA2,3(NAc)2-(1-->6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-beta-D-+ ++ManpA2,3 (NAc)2-(1-->3)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->], was examined to identify its linkage to the bacterial cell wall. In a previous paper it was suggested that this glycan is covalently linked to the surface layer (S-layer) glycoprotein of that organism. By ...
Delcour J - - 1999
The cell wall of lactic acid bacteria has the typical gram-positive structure made of a thick, multilayered peptidoglycan sacculus decorated with proteins, teichoic acids and polysaccharides, and surrounded in some species by an outer shell of proteins packed in a paracrystalline layer (S-layer). Specific biochemical or genetic data on the ...
Parolis L A - - 1999
The structure of a linear, acidic exopolysaccharide isolated from the Archaeon Haloferax denitrificans ATCC 35960 has been determined using NMR spectroscopy. The sugar residues in the repeating unit of the polysaccharide were identified as Gal and GlcA2,3NAc after the assignment of the 1H and 13C resonances using COSY, HOHAHA, HMQC ...
Rund S - - 1999
The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 was isolated from tissue culture-grown elementary bodies using a modified phenol/water procedure followed by extraction with phenol/chloroform/light petroleum. From a total of 5 x 10(4) cm2 of infected monolayers, 22.3 mg of LPS were obtained. Compositional analysis indicated the presence of 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid ...
Olsthoorn M M - - 1999
In an attempt to find the best approach for the mass spectrometric analysis of the whole range of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structures from Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae rough strain R20 (O1-:K20-), various methods of LPS preparation were applied and the products were analyzed using a range of mass spectrometric techniques. The ...
Scavetta R D - - 1999
The three-dimensional structure of a complex between the pectate lyase C (PelC) R218K mutant and a plant cell wall fragment has been determined by x-ray diffraction techniques to a resolution of 2.2 A and refined to a crystallographic R factor of 18.6%. The oligosaccharide substrate, alpha-D-GalpA-([1-->4]-alpha-D-GalpA)3-(1-->4)-D-GalpA , is composed of ...
Zatonsky G V - - 1999
A neutral polysaccharide containing D-galactose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-D-glucose (Qui3NAc) in the ratios 2:1:1 was obtained by mild acid degradation of lipopolysaccharide of the bacterium Providencia alcalifaciens O5 followed by gel chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography or treatment with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. On the basis of full acid hydrolysis, methylation, and 1H- ...
Kim J O - - 1999
Streptococcus pneumoniae undergoes spontaneous phase variation between a transparent and an opaque colony phenotype, the latter being more virulent in a murine model of sepsis. Opaque pneumococci have previously been shown to express lower amounts of C polysaccharide (cell wall teichoic acid) and in this study were shown to have ...
Kämpfer P - - 1999
The taxonomic status of an actinomycete (MA 140/96T) isolated from indoor building materials of a children's day care centre was studied using the polyphasic approach. The cell morphology was atypical for an actinomycete, electron microscopy revealed a hairy surface, highly unusual for Gram-positive bacteria. The organisms grew at 10-37 degrees ...
Roukas T - - 1999
The effect of the shear rate on pullulan production from beet molasses by Aureobasidium pullulans P56 in an airlift reactor was investigated. A maximum polysaccharide concentration (18.5 g/L), biomass dry weight (14.0 g/L), polysaccharide yield (38.5%), and sugar utilization (96%) was achieved at a shear rate of 42 s(-1). A. ...
Hashimoto M - - 1999
Previously, we showed that quantitatively minor several glycolipids totaling only less than 5% of the lipoteichoic acid (LTA) fraction from Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790 possessed cytokine-inducing activity, whereas the major component (over 90%) did not [Suda et al. (1995) FEMS Immun Med Microbiol 12:97-112]. The major inactive component was shown ...
Datta A K - - 1999
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from two enteropathogenic strains of E. coli O142 and O158 were isolated by hot phenol-water extraction procedure. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic pattern of the LPS showed the typical ladder like pattern of smooth type of LPS. The LPS of E. coli O158 was found to contain L-rhamnose, D-glucose and ...
Stark R M - - 1999
Helicobacter pylori NCTC 11637 produces a water-insoluble biofilm when grown under defined conditions with a high carbon:nitrogen ratio in continuous culture and in 10% strength Brucella broth supplemented with 3 g l-1 glucose. Biofilm accumulated at the air/liquid interface of the culture. Light microscopy of frozen sections of the biofilm ...
Soldo B - - 1999
Sequence analysis reveals that the Bacillus subtilis 168 tuaABCDEFGH operon encodes enzymes required for the polymerization of teichuronic acid as well as for the synthesis of one of its precursors, the UDP-glucuronate. Mutants deficient in any of the tua genes, grown in batch cultures under conditions of phosphate limitation, were ...
Benencia F - - 1999
A water-soluble polysaccharide extracted from leaves of the Meliaceae Cedrela tubiflora was separated into neutral and acidic polysaccharide fractions. The best anticomplementary activity was exhibited by the neutral product which was further purified by means of gelpermeation chromatography. The composition and methylation analysis of the purified product were determined.
Matsuyama H - - 1999
A bacterium Tomakomai B-1 that was isolated from the activated sludge of a treatment process for wastewater of the pulp industry was found to produce soluble and insoluble exopolysaccharides (EPSs) when grown aerobically in a medium containing sucrose as the sole carbon source. The sugar component of soluble EPSs consisted ...
Mangas J J - - 1999
A feasible spectrophotometric method for determining acidic and neutral polysaccharides in cider is described, and the advantages of this method are examined with respect to precision, accuracy, and detection and quantitation limits. The concentration of nonvolatile and volatile components in cider, together with chemometric techniques such as principal component analysis ...
Nagaoka M - - 1999
A structural study was carried out on a fucoidan isolated from the brown seaweed Cladosiphon okamuranus. The polysaccharide contained fucose, glucuronic acid and sulfate in a molar ratio of about 6.1 : 1.0 : 2.9. The results of Smith degradation showed that this polysaccharide has a linear backbone of 1-->3-linked ...
Kawahara K - - 1998
Three kinds of capsular polysaccharide (CP) were found to be produced by Burkholderia pseudomallei. When the bacterium was grown with the medium without glycerol, CP-1a and CP-1b were produced. CP-1a was mainly 1.4-linked glucan and CP-1b was identified as a polymer composed of galactose and 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid, whose chemical structure ...
Jacquinot P M - - 1998
The minimal epitope of an anti-Candida albicans mannan monoclonal antibody (MAb) EB-CA1, used to detect mannanemia in patient sera, was determined, MAb EB-CA1 exhibited reactivity with oligomannosides released from the mannan acid stable domain, converted into neoglycolipids (NGLs) and coated onto ELISA plates. Reactivity occurred with mannopentaose and higher oligomers, ...
Perrone P - - 1998
Three representatives of a novel class of amide (isopeptide) glycoconjugates have been synthesised: N alpha-D-galacturonoyl-L-lysine and N epsilon-D-galacturonoyl-L-lysine and N epsilon-D-polygalacturonoyl-L-lysine. Galacturonoyl-lysine amide bonds were labile in 2 M trifluoroacetic acid at 120 degrees and in alkali, but relatively stable in cold acid. The amide bonds were resistant to digestion ...
Díaz-Marrero A R - - 1998
The electrophoretic behavior in polyacrylamide gels of the acidic polysaccharides produced by the soil bacteria Bradyrhizobium (Chamaecytisus) strain BGA1 and Bradyrhizobiumjaponicum USDA1 10 has been studied. Both polysaccharides were polydisperse, producing a ladder-like pattern after fixation with Alcian Blue and silver staining of the gel. The polysaccharide molecules were separated ...
Toikka J - - 1998
Polysialic acid is a developmentally regulated component in the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM which also occurs as the capsular polysaccharide of bacteria causing meningitis. Polysialic acid has been considered as a repulsive element that regulates intermolecular and intercellular adhesion. Using atomic force microscopy we unexpectedly find that oligomers of ...
Vinogradov E V - - 1998
For the first time, the tetrasaccharide Kdoalpha2-->5Kdoalpha2-->5(Kdoalpha2-->4)Kdo (Kdo is 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid) has been identified in a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), i.e. in the core region of LPS from Acinetobacter baumannii NCTC 10303. The LPS was analyzed using compositional analysis, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy. The disaccharide D-GlcpNbeta1-->6D-GlcpN, phosphorylated at O-1 and ...
Classen B - - 1998
Leaves and flowers of Malva sylvestris and Alcea rosea (Malvaceae) were compared by determination of the swelling index as well as the content and viscosity of their mucilages. The investigations showed mucilage from flowers of Alcea to be superior to mucilages from leaves or flowers from Malva. High molecular weight ...
Komandrova N A - - 1998
A sulfated O-specific polysaccharide containing D-mannose, L-rhamnose, and the sulfate group was obtained by mild acid hydrolysis of lipopolysaccharide (S-form) of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas marinoglutinosa KMM 232. Based on analysis of methylation and 13C-NMR spectroscopy of native and desulfated polysaccharides, the following structure of disaccharide repeat unit in the ...
Mühlenhoff M - - 1998
Polysialic acid is a unique cell surface polysaccharide found in the capsule of neuroinvasive bacteria and as a highly regulated post-translational modification of the neural cell adhesion molecule. Recent progress has been achieved in research on both the physicochemical properties of polysialic acid and the biosynthetic pathways leading to polysialic ...
Edashige Y - - 1998
The pectic polysaccharides isolated from cell walls of xylem-differentiating zones of sugi (Cryptomeria japononica) were degraded with endo-alpha-(1-->4)-polygalacturonase and the polysaccharides, composed mainly of rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II), were obtained from the degradation products. These polysaccharides consisted of rhamnosyl, fucosyl, arabinosyl, xylosyl, galactosyl, glucosyl, galacturonic acid, glucuronic acid and the characteristic ...
Jenni R - - 1998
A series of mec transformants of Staphylococcus aureus strain NCTC8325 were analysed for alterations in wall teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid. Although the methicillin resistance determinant alters the autolytic behaviour of S. aureus, it had no effects on the cellular content, chain length, and alanine substitution of the lipoteichoic acid, ...
Shashkov A S - - 1998
The cell wall of Streptomyces sparsogenes VKM Ac-1744T contains a teichoic acid of 1,3-poly(glycerol phosphate) type. The polymer is composed of about 11 repeating units of the following structure: The structure was not identified in gram-positive bacteria previously. The data are in agreement with DNA-relatedness between Streptomyces sparsogenes and Streptomyces ...
Qi Y - - 1998
tagA, tagD, and tuaA operons are responsible for the synthesis of cell wall anionic polymer, teichoic acid, and teichuronic acid, respectively, in Bacillus subtilis. Under phosphate starvation conditions, teichuronic acid is synthesized while teichoic acid synthesis is inhibited. Expression of these genes is controlled by PhoP-PhoR, a two-component system. It ...
Gao Q - - 1998
A mannan (A) and a heteroglycan (D) were prepared by partial acidic hydrolysis of T3, a major polysaccharide fraction of the fungus Tremella fuciformis Berk. Methylation analysis of A and D showed that they contained a 1-->3 linked mannosyl main chain, to which were linked different side chains at position ...
Fox K F - - 1998
The polysaccharide microcapsule of Staphylococcus aureus has been reported to be differentially expressed depending on growth conditions, with phosphate concentration being the critical environmental component. This study evaluated the effect of growth of a serotype 8 strain of S. aureus in phosphate-replete and phosphate-limiting media on microcapsule production. The presence ...
Mitra A - - 1998
Interaction of Klebsiella K14 capsular polysaccharide with cationic dyes pinacyanol chloride, acridine orange and phenosafranin has been studied by spectrophotometric and spectrofluorometric techniques. The polymer containing both glucuronic acid and pyruvic acid in its repeating unit behaved as a unique polyelectrolyte. It induced blue shift of the absorption band of ...
Tuffal G - - 1998
The specific mycobacterial methyl polysaccharides 3- O -methyl mannose polysaccharide (MMP) and the 6- O -methyl glucose lipopolysaccharides (MGLPs) were shown to modulate the fatty acid biosynthesis by the mycobacterial fatty acid synthetase I (FAS I). This activity is attributed to their fatty acid complexing properties allowing the release of ...
Zou W - - 1998
Partial N-deacetylation fo the GlcNAc residues in S. pneumoniae type 14 capsular polysaccharide (Pn14-PS) backbone was achieved by treatment with base, and the product was subsequently enzymatically sialylated at the 3-O-positions of the terminal galactose residues. The resultant, partially N-deacetylated type III Group B streptococcus capsular polysaccharide (GBSIII-PS) was subjected ...
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