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Wan Shulin - - 2014
A novel spiropyran that responds to both extreme acid and extreme alkali and has an "on-off-on" switch is reported. Benzoic acid at the indole N-position and carboxyl group at the indole 6-position contribute to the extreme acid response. The ionizations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups cause the extreme alkali ...
Mujahid Md - - 2014
Aromatic amines are widely distributed in the environment and are major environmental pollutants. Although degradation of aromatic amines is well studied in bacteria, physiological adaptations and stress response to these toxic compounds is not yet fully understood. In the present study, systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress ...
Yu Xinlei X Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, - - 2014
Induction of autophagy and the integrated stress response is important for amino acid homeostasis. It remains unknown whether the autophagy coregulates both mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and the integrated stress response. In mouse C2C12 myotubes, we found that amino acid limitation induced autophagy and that the ...
McCarthy Mary S MS Madigan Army Medical Center, 9040 Jackson Avenue, Tacoma, WA - - 2014
Nutrients have traditionally been viewed as a means to provide basic energy for cellular homeostasis and amino acids for protein synthesis in all humans. Young, healthy men and women in the military today are presumed to be well nourished and mentally and physically fit to perform their duties in austere ...
Wittek Finni F Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Department of Environmental Sciences, Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg, - - 2014
Folates are essential for one-carbon transfer reactions in all organisms and contribute for example to de novo DNA synthesis. Here, we detected the folate precursors 7,8-dihydropteroate (DHP) and 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) in extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana plants by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The accumulation of DHP but not ...
Choi Wonmin W Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro 1, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-747 (Republic of - - 2014
Fumaramic acid derivatives can be converted into their cis isomer maleamic acid derivatives under UV illumination, and these maleamic acid derivatives show pH-responsive degradability at acidic pH only after the preceding photoisomerization. The rate of the tandem photoisomerization-degradation of fumaramic acid derivatives can be finely controlled by changing the substituents ...
Lu Yue Y Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. zgu@email.unc.edu - - 2014
Self-folded redox/acid dual-responsive nanocarriers (RAD-NCs) are developed for physiologically triggered delivery of anticancer drugs. The evidenced redox/acid responsiveness, facile decoration of ligands, and active tumor-targeting capability of RAD-NCs suggest their potential as a promising formulation for tumor-targeted chemotherapy.
Yamashiro Lívia Harumi LH Laboratory of Immunobiology, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology; Pharmacology Graduate Program, Federal University of Santa - - 2014
Endosomal and cytosolic receptors engage recognition of mycobacterial-derived nucleic acids (MyNAs). In contrast, virulent mycobacteria may utilize nucleic acid recognition pathways to escape the host immune system. This short review will summarize the mechanisms by which MyNAs are sensed and how they influence host protective responses.
Xia Kai K a Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering , China Agricultural University , Beijing , - - 2014
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is known to be nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic in rodents when exposed orally. To understand the systematic responses to OTA exposure, GC-MS- and (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic techniques together with histopathological assessments were applied to analyse the urine and plasma of OTA-exposed rats. It was found that OTA exposure caused ...
Park Simon S SS Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis , One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, United - - 2014
Postglycosylation acetylation of sialic acid imparts unique roles to sialoglycoconjugates in mammalian immune response making structural and functional understanding of these analogues important. Five partially O-acetylated Neu5Ac analogues have been synthesized. Reaction of per-O-silylated Neu5Ac ester with AcOH and Ac2O in pyridine promotes regioselective silyl ether/acetate exchange in the following ...
Recht Lee L Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, - - 2014
The green alga Haematococcus pluvialis accumulates large amounts of the antioxidant astaxanthin under inductive stress conditions, such as nitrogen starvation. The response to nitrogen starvation and high-light leads to the accumulation of carbohydrates and fatty acids, as well as increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Although the behavior of ...
Mendki Murlidhar J MJ Vector Management Division, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior, - - 2014
Background & objectives: Bedbug Cimex hemipterus lives in cracks and crevices, and shows aggregation activity in the harbourage containing its fecal matter. Limited information is available on the chemicals influencing this aggregation behaviour in C. hemipterus. Possible components responsible for aggregation, if identified and evaluated can be helpful in designing ...
Raabe Richard C RC Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of - - 2014
Alcohol addiction is a widespread societal problem, for which there are few treatments. There are significant genetic and environmental influences on abuse liability, and understanding these factors will be important for the identification of susceptible individuals and the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, the level of response to alcohol ...
Hall Jodie Ce - - 2012
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) are omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) with distinct anti-inflammatory properties. Both have neuroprotective effects acutely following spinal cord injury (SCI). We examined the effect of intravenous DHA and EPA on early inflammatory events after SCI. Saline, DHA or EPA (both ...
Koh Phil-Ok - - 2012
Ferulic acid protects neuronal cells against focal cerebral ischemic injury through its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 (PEA-15) is known to modulate various cellular processes including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and survival. This study was investigated whether ferulic acid can regulate the levels of PEA-15 and its ...
Neilson Andrew P AP Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48197, - - 2012
The balance of putative pro- and antiinflammatory lipoxygenase (LOX)-derived S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (S-HETEs) in colon mucosa is a potential target for modulating colon cancer risk and progression. The biological effects of S-HETEs and R-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (produced by distinct pathways) may differ, but levels of these compounds in the colon are unknown. ...
Rubach Malte - - 2011
Scope: Chlorogenic acid (CA), caffeine (CAFF), pyrogallol (PYR), catechol (CAT), (β) N-alkanoyl-hydroxytryptamides (C5HT) and N-methylpyridinium (N-MP) were evaluated for their influence on mechanisms of gastric acid secretion as single compounds and in biomimetic mixtures. Methods and results: Compounds were tested in coffee representative concentrations. Human gastric cancer cells (HGT-1) were ...
Niv Yaron - - 2011
Acid, pepsin and other noxious material reach the esophageal mucosa and interact with the luminal aspect of the squamous epithelium. The first protective barrier to these potentially injurious substances is the mucus buffer layer that covers the mucosa. In healthy people, the esophagus has a protective surface adherent mucus gel ...
Edelstein Adam A Department of Surgery, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave., Chicago, IL 60637, - - 2011
Translocation of bacteria and other luminal factors from the intestine following surgical injury can be a major driver of critical illness. Bile acids have been shown to play a key role in the loss of intestinal epithelial barrier function during states of host stress. Experiments to study the ability of ...
Iijima Katsunori - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Low-dose aspirin is known to cause upper gastrointestinal complications. The mechanism by which the aspirin disrupts gastric mucosal integrity remains to be clarified. In this study we investigated the temporal association of gastric secretory parameters (acid and mucus) with aspirin-induced gastropathy. METHODS: In 42 long-term low-dose aspirin-takers and the ...
Tomaszewska Ewa - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: The potential effects of the prenatal administration of dexamethasone and the postnatal treatment with 2-oxoglutaric acid on postnatal development of the small intestine of farm animals have not been examined experimentally. The aim of this study was to establish the changes in morphologic parameters of the small intestine damaged ...
Wang Qian - - 2011
L-type amino acid transporters such as LAT1 and LAT3 mediate the uptake of essential amino acids. Here we report that prostate cancer cells coordinate the expression of LAT1 and LAT3 to maintain sufficient levels of leucine needed for mTORC1 signaling and cell growth. Inhibitiing LAT function was sufficient to decrease ...
Yamada Takahiro - - 2011
In patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal exposure to both acid and duodenogastroesophageal reflux are more common than to acid reflux alone, suggesting that acidic bile acid in duodenal juice may contribute to the pathophysiology and severity of GERD. However, the mechanism whereby esophageal mucosal epithelial cells react to ...
Ramsay Philip T - - 2011
The primary function of the stomach is to prepare food for digestion and absorption by the intestine. Acid production is the unique and central component of the stomach's contribution to the digestive process. Acid bathes the food bolus while stored in the stomach, facilitating digestion. An intact defense against mucosal ...
Lyons Peter J - - 2011
The first metallocarboxypeptidase (CP) was identified in pancreatic extracts more than 80 years ago and named carboxypeptidase A (CPA; now known as CPA1). Since that time, seven additional mammalian members of the CPA subfamily have been described, all of which are initially produced as proenzymes, are activated by endoproteases, and ...
Oshima Tadayuki - - 2011
Acid is a major cause of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. However, the influence of acid on the esophageal stratified epithelial barrier function and tight junction (TJ) proteins is not fully understood. Here, we explore the influence of acid on barrier function and TJ proteins using a newly developed model of the ...
Orlando Roy C RC Gastroenterology, Cell, and Molecular Physiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, - - 2011
The following on esophageal disease provides updated information the mucosal defense against acid and acid-pepsin injury; the roles of platelet activating factor, mast cells, proinflammatory cytokines, and chemokines in inflammation; differences and similarities in erosive and nonerosive esophagitis; acid and vanilloid receptors in esophageal mucosa; and bile acid receptors in ...
Morgenroth Agnieszka - - 2011
The development of prostate carcinoma is associated with alterations in fatty acid metabolism. α-Methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) is a peroxisomal and mitochondrial enzyme that catalyses interconversion between the (S)/(R)-isomers of a range of α-methylacyl-CoA thioesters. AMACR is involved in the β-oxidation of the dietary branched-chain fatty acids and bile acid intermediates. ...
Guo Jia - - 2011
Three new phenolic compounds, thamnoliadepsides A ( 1), B ( 2), and thamnolic acid A ( 3), and seven known compounds, everninic acid ( 4), baeomycesic acid ( 5), β-orcinol ( 6), β-resorcylic acid ( 7), ethyl orsellinate ( 8), squamatic acid ( 9), and vermicularin ( 10), were isolated ...
Heinze Verónica M - - 2011
The role of dietary fatty acids on cancer is still controversial. To examine the current literature on the protective role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and marine long-chain fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and the risk of breast and prostate cancer, data from 41 case-control and ...
Ren Aixia A Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 894 Union Avenue, 415 Nash Research Building, Memphis, TN 38163, USA. - - 2012
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a tannic acid-based medical food, Cesinex(®), in the treatment of diarrhea and to investigate the mechanisms underlying its antidiarrheal effect. Cesinex(®) was prescribed to six children and four adults with diarrhea. Patient records were retrospectively reviewed for ...
Rubio Carlos A - - 2011
Chewing of regurgitated food elicits in baboons life-long gastro-esophageal reflux (GER). The acid reflux transforms the multilayered squamous cell epithelium of the esophagus into columnar-lined mucosa with mucus-producing accessory glands. The function of this mucous gland metaplasia (MGM), which mimics Barrett's mucosa with MGM in humans, is to buffer the ...
Chen Xin - - 2011
Experimental models for esophageal epithelium in vitro either suffer from poor differentiation or complicated culture systems. An air-liquid interface (ALI) system with normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells can serve as a model of esophageal-like squamous epithelial cell layers. Here, we explore the influence of bile acids on barrier function ...
McQuaid K R - - 2011
Background  Factors other than acid may play a role in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its complications. Aim  To assessed the role of bile acids in the pathogenesis of GERD, Barrett's oesophagus and Barrett's-related neoplasia. Methods  We conducted a systematic review of computerised bibliographic databases for original articles involving humans ...
Buell Alexander K AK Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, 11 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FF, United - - 2011
The propensity of protein molecules to self-assemble into highly ordered, fibrillar aggregates lies at the heart of understanding many disorders ranging from Alzheimer's disease to systemic lysozyme amyloidosis. In this paper we use highly accurate kinetic measurements of amyloid fibril growth in combination with spectroscopic tools to quantify the effect ...
Kimura Ikuo - - 2011
The maintenance of energy homeostasis is essential for life, and its dysregulation leads to a variety of metabolic disorders. Under a fed condition, mammals use glucose as the main metabolic fuel, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the colonic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber also contribute a significant proportion ...
Sass Jörn Oliver - - 2011
Ketone bodies acetoacetate and 3-hydroxy-n-butyric acid are metabolites derived from fatty acids and ketogenic amino acids such as leucine. They are mainly produced in the liver via reactions catalyzed by the ketogenic enzymes mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-coenzyme A synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-coenzyme A lyase. After prolonged starvation, ketone bodies can provide up to ...
Innis Sheila M - - 2011
Understanding of the importance of dietary fatty acids has grown beyond a simple source of energy to complex roles in regulating gene expression and cell and intracellular communication. This is important because the metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus and infant plays a key role in guiding the set ...
Assary Rajeev S - - 2011
Efficient catalytic chemical transformation of fructose to hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF) is one of the key steps for attaining industrial level conversion of biomass to useful chemicals. We report an investigation of the reaction mechanisms for the decomposition of fructose to HMF in both neutral and acidic environments at the ...
Szőri Milán - - 2011
It has always been a question of considerable scientific interest why amino acids (and other biomolecule building blocks) formed and accumulated in the prebiotic ocean. In this study, we suggest an answer to this question for the simplest amino acid, glycine. We have shown for the first time that classical ...
Maclot Sylvain - - 2011
In general, radiation-induced fragmentation of small amino acids is governed by the cleavage of the CC(α) bond. We present results obtained with 300 keV Xe(20+) ions that allow molecules (glycine and valine) to be ionised at large distances without appreciable energy transfer. Also in the present case, the CC(α) bond turns ...
Capoferri Luigi - - 2011
Self-consistent charge density functional tight binding (SCC-DFTB) is a promising method for hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The acylation reaction of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), a promising drug target, was investigated by applying a SCC-DFTB/CHARMM27 scheme. Calculated potential energy barriers resulted in reasonable agreement with ...
Tatsugami Masana - - 2011
Gastric mucus protects the gastric mucosa. Plaunotol, a gastroprotective agent, has been shown to increase mucus production in animal models. However, it is unclear whether plaunotol benefits human gastric mucus secretion. Twenty-five patients with atrophic gastritis were studied. All patients underwent gastroendoscopy and gastric juice was collected before and after ...
Cunha Fernanda M - - 2011
Mild mitochondrial uncoupling, or the reduction of the efficiency of energy conversion without compromising intracellular high energy phosphate levels, is a protective therapeutic strategy under many laboratory conditions. Here we discuss these conditions, which include both cell and animal models of ischemia reperfusion and complications associated with the metabolic syndrome. ...
Fantino Marc - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The classical hypothesis that a decrease in glucose utilization, registered by specific sensors in the brain, leads to hunger was challenged as lipids and amino acids also provide energy for cell metabolism. This review presents recent progress in the knowledge on lipid signals associated with feeding initiation ...
Kumar Amit - - 2011
In the present study, two fresh water fishes namely, Channa punctatus and Clarias batrachus, were exposed to three sub-acute concentrations of synthetic pyrethroid, cypermethrin, for 96h to evaluate the role of amino acids in fulfilling the immediate energy needs of fishes under pyrethroid induced stress as well as to find ...
Ahuja Rajeev - - 2011
The energies of the solid reactants in the lead-acid battery are calculated ab initio using two different basis sets at nonrelativistic, scalar-relativistic, and fully relativistic levels, and using several exchange-correlation potentials. The average calculated standard voltage is 2.13 V, compared with the experimental value of 2.11 V. All calculations agree in that 1.7-1.8 V ...
Vigeolas Helene - - 2011
Nonsymbiotic hemoglobins are ubiquitously expressed in plants and divided into two different classes based on gene expression pattern and oxygen-binding properties. Most of the published research has been on the function of class 1 hemoglobins. To investigate the role of class 2 hemoglobins, transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants were generated ...
Keitel Verena - - 2011
Background/Aims: TGR5 is a plasma membrane-bound, G-protein-coupled receptor for bile acids. TGR5 mRNA has been detected in a variety of tissues, including liver. The aim of the present study was to determine the localization and function of the receptor in biliary epithelial cells. Methods: Liver and gallbladder tissue from humans ...
Friedrichs William W Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, - - 2011
Currently, progression of prostate cancer to androgen independence remains the primary obstacle to improved survival. In order to improve overall survival, novel treatment strategies that are based upon specific molecular mechanisms that prolong the androgen-dependent state and that are useful for androgen-independent disease need to be identified. Both epidemiological as ...
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