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Results 251 - 300 of 685
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Simmons Mark P - - 2002
The 567-terminal analysis of atpB, rbcL, and 18S rDNA was used as an empirical example to test the use of amino acid vs. nucleotide characters for protein-coding genes at deeper taxonomic levels. Nucleotides for atpB and rbcL had 6.5 times the amount of possible synapomorphy as amino acids. Based on ...
Imai Tadayoshi - - 2002
Besides isonicotinic acid analogs of pyridine nucleotides, 24 novel pyridine nucleotide cofactors that have an amino acid residue at the carbonyl carbon of the nicotinamide moiety have been prepared by means of transglycosidation reactions catalyzed by rabbit spleen and guinea pig spleen pyridine nucleotide transglycosidases. Their chemical properties were characterized ...
Stasolla Claudio - - 2002
Pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis was investigated in isolated germinating zygotic embryos and separated megagametophytes of white spruce by following the metabolic fate of 14C-labelled orotic acid, uridine, and uracil, as well as by measuring the activities of the major enzymes participating in nucleotide synthesis. The rate of nucleic acid synthesis in ...
Jeyaraj Duraiswamy A - - 2002
Nucleoproteins are naturally occurring biopolymers in which the hydroxy group of a serine, a threonine, or a tyrosine moiety is linked through a phosphodiester group to the 3'- or 5'-end of a nucleic acid. For the study of the biological phenomena in which nucleoproteins are involved, for example, viral replication, ...
Janout Vaclav - - 2002
Two molecular umbrella-nucleoside conjugates (1a and 1b) have been synthesized via thiolate-disulfide displacement by adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiomonophosphate) and adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) on an activated dimer derived from cholic acid, spermidine, and 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). Both conjugates readily enter the aqueous compartment of liposomes made from 1-palmitoyl-2-oleyol-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and release the free nucleoside upon ...
Sampath J - - 2002
Nucleotide efflux (especially cyclic nucleotides) from a variety of mammalian tissues, bacteria, and lower eukaryotes has been studied for several decades. However, the molecular identity of these nucleotide efflux transporters remained elusive, despite extensive knowledge of their kinetic properties and inhibitor profiles. Identification of the subfamily of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ...
Soong Chee-Leong - - 2002
Barbiturase, which catalyzes the reversible amidohydrolysis of barbituric acid to ureidomalonic acid in the second step of oxidative pyrimidine degradation, was purified to homogeneity from Rhodococcus erythropolis JCM 3132. The characteristics and gene organization of barbiturase suggested that it is a novel zinc-containing amidohydrolase that should be grouped into a ...
Ashe M P - - 2001
Fusel alcohols are natural products of amino acid catabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that cause morphological changes similar to those seen during pseudohyphal growth. We have discovered that certain of these alcohols, including butanol and isoamyl alcohol, bring about a rapid inhibition of translation at the initiation step. This ...
Nicholls D G - - 2001
Interest in the enormous thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) began in the 1960s and focused on BAT mitochondria (BATM), which when prepared by conventional techniques respired rapidly but displayed no respiratory control. Two apparently distinct treatments, fatty acid removal and purine nucleotide addition, induced respiratory control. In 1972, ...
Yamachika E - - 2001
We examined a patient with cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) and cleft lip and found a new stop codon mutation in CBFA1. This mutation was a heterozygous C-to-T transition in exon 3 of CBFA1. This nucleotide change converts a CAA codon to a TAA (stop) codon at amino acid position Gln195 in ...
Patel A - - 2001
Living organisms are not just random collections of organic molecules. There is continuous information processing going on in the apparent bouncing around of molecules of life. Optimization criteria in this information processing can be searched for using the laws of physics. Quantum dynamics can explain why living organisms have 4 ...
Harris T M - - 2001
Syntheses of N2-substituted nucleosides have been studied for many years, primarily with ribonucleosides. However, the primary route to these compounds requires acidic conditions that are too vigorous for the acid-labile deoxyribonucleosides. The current strategy takes advantage of methods for low-temperature, nonaqueous diazotization of ribosides in organic solvents using t-butyl nitrate ...
Stasolla C - - 2001
It has previously been shown that exogenous applications of ascorbic acid (AA) increase the conversion frequency of somatic embryos of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss). To determine whether ascorbic acid alters purine metabolism during the early phases of embryo germination, the relative rates of purine salvage and degradation were ...
Cummins W J - - 2001
The synthesis of a fluorescein conjugate on the non-natural base P is described. The ability of the newly synthesised fluorescein--dPTP and of a fluorescein-11-dUTP to compete with the natural nucleotide TTP was also studied. Overall the efficiency of labelling a nucleic acid with a fluorescein moiety was found to be ...
Barone A D - - 2001
We have evaluated several novel nucleotide analogs suitable for enzymatic labeling of nucleic acid targets for a variety of array-based assays. Two new reagents in particular, a C4-labeled 1-(2',3'-dideoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyl) imidazole-4-carboxamide 5'-triphosphate 5 and an N1-labeled 5-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione 5'-triphosphate 3, were found to be excellent substrates for labeling with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase ...
Lee S E - - 2001
The incorporation of potentially catalytic groups in DNA is of interest for the in vitro selection of novel deoxyribozymes. A series of 10 C5-modified analogues of 2'-deoxyuridine triphosphate have been synthesised that possess side chains of differing flexibility and bearing a primary amino or imidazole functionality. For each series of ...
Dieckmann R - - 2001
In response to nutritional stress conditions, Bacillus brevis produces the cyclodecapeptide antibiotic tyrocidine via tyrocidine synthetase, a multifunctional non-ribosomal peptide synthetase. The apo-form of tyrocidine synthetase 1 forms adenosine (5')tetraphospho(5')adenosine, when incubated with MgATP(2-), amino acid and inorganic pyrophosphatase. The synthesis is an intrinsic property of the adenylation domain, is ...
Echtay K S - - 2001
Based on the discovery of coenzyme Q (CoQ) as an obligatory cofactor for H(+) transport by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) [Echtay, K. S., Winkler, E. & Klingenberg, M. (2000) Nature (London) 408, 609-613] we show here that UCP2 and UCP3 are also highly active H(+) transporters and require CoQ and ...
Little A M - - 2001
A novel polymorphism was identified in a B*07 allele. B*0722 possesses a unique nucleotide substitution at nucleotide 481. This polymorphism encodes an amino acid difference from aspartic acid in B*07021 to asparagine in B*0722. The functional significance of this polymorphism on peptide binding and/or T-cell recognition is unknown.
Chomiki N - - 2001
Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are composed of three repeated domains of approximately 100 amino acids each. We have used chimeras of UCP1 and UCP2, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), to investigate domain specific properties of these UCPs. Questions include: are the effects of nucleotide binding on proton transport solely mediated by ...
Verrelli B C - - 2000
PGM plays a central role in the glycolytic pathway at the branch point leading to glycogen metabolism and is highly polymorphic in allozyme studies of many species. We have characterized the nucleotide diversity across the Pgm gene in Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans to investigate the role that protein polymorphism ...
Jezek P - - 2000
Chemical modifications were used to identify some of the functionally important amino acid residues of the potato plant uncoupling protein (StUCP). The proton-dependent swelling of potato mitochondria in K(+)-acetate in the presence of linoleic acid and valinomycin was inhibited by mersalyl (K(i) = 5 microM) and other hydrophilic SH reagents ...
Wichman H A - - 2000
Genomes of the closely related bacteriophages phiX174 and S13 are 5386 bases long and differ at 114 nucleotides, affecting 28 amino acids. Both parental phages were adapted to laboratory culture conditions in replicate lineages and analysed for nucleotide changes that accumulated experimentally Of the 126 experimental substitutions, 90% encoded amino-acid ...
Mokhir A A - - 2000
Oligodeoxynucleotides bearing 5'-appendages consisting of a nucleobase and an amide linkage were prepared from 5'-amino-5'-deoxyoligonucleotides, amino acid building blocks and thymine or uracil derivatives. Small chemical libraries of 5'-modified oligonucleotides bearing the nucleobase moieties via five, three or two atom linkages were subjected to spectrometrically monitored nuclease selections to identify ...
Elsner H A - - 2000
The identification of the two novel alleles, HLA-B*0709 and B*0710, is described. B*0709 differs from B*07021 by a nucleotide exchange at position 419 (A>C) which is located in exon 3. At the protein level the nucleotide exchange results in an amino acid residue difference (Tyr116Ser). The other newly detected allele, ...
Hagen T - - 2000
Uncoupling protein (UCP) 1 and UCP3 are mitochondrial inner membrane proteins which both mediate proton leak and thus decrease the mitochondrial transmembrane proton gradient. However, UCP1 and UCP3 differ in their biochemical regulation. UCP1 is activated by free fatty acids and inhibited by purine nucleotides. Using heterologous expression studies in ...
Steighardt J - - 2000
The release of amino acids from their vacuolar store was studied in situ, i.e. in cells with selectively permeabilized plasma membrane and functionally intact vacuoles. As we previously described [Roos et al., J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 15849-15855], this transport process is regulated by extravacuolar adenylates at their physiological concentrations. ...
Fukada K - - 2000
The nucleotide sequence of 10 isolates of human parvovirus B19 (B19) were determined and compared throughout 96.3% of the open reading frames (4145 nucleotides from nt. 509-4653). In the 4145 nucleotides, 122 mutation sites were found, of which 24 were accompanied by amino acid displacement. Furthermore, the polymorphism of the ...
Roussel D - - 2000
Intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal mitochondria were isolated from duckling gastrocnemius muscle. The adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) content of subsarcolemmal mitochondria was found to be half of that present in intermyofibrillar mitochondria. In addition, cold acclimation resulted in a 1.7-fold increase in subsarcolemmal mitochondrial ANT content, with intermyofibrillar mitochondrial ANT remaining constant. ...
Hagen T - - 2000
Using a heterologous yeast expression system, we have previously found a marked discordance between the effects of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1 and UCP3L on basal O(2) consumption in whole yeast versus isolated mitochondria. In whole yeast, UCP3L produces a greater stimulation of basal O(2) consumption, while in isolated mitochondria, UCP1 ...
Nelson K E - - 2000
Numerous problems exist with the current thinking of RNA as the first genetic material. No plausible prebiotic processes have yet been demonstrated to produce the nucleosides or nucleotides or for efficient two-way nonenzymatic replication. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a promising precursor to RNA, consisting of N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine (AEG) and the ...
Yamaguchi T - - 2000
Two attenuated infectious bursal disease virus strains used as commercial live vaccine were passaged five successive times in specific-pathogen-free chickens and chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells. Both attenuated strains increased in virulence during the passage in susceptible chickens as evidenced by the decrease in bursa/body weight ratios. A direct nucleotide ...
Dreanno C - - 2000
31P-NMR and (1)H-NMR were used to monitor changes of several compounds with high-energy bonds and metabolites prior to and after the initiation of motility of turbot spermatozoa (Psetta maxima). The obtained (31)P-NMR spectra revealed the presence of phosphomonoesters, phosphodiester, intracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphocreatine (PCr), and free nucleotide triphosphate. Following ...
Cheek D J - - 2000
In 1929, Drury and Szent-Gyorgyi described the effects of a simple extract of heart muscle and other tissues on the mammalian heart. This extract was identified as adenylic acid and found to have profound effects on the cardiovascular system. The discovery and identification of adenyl purines and their effects on ...
Henegariu O - - 2000
The variety of potentially useful dyes or haptenes available for fluorescent nucleic acid hybridization assays is far greater than what can be obtained from commercial sources. Since this diversity could be useful in many laboratory applications, we have developed a simple and inexpensive procedure for preparing nonpurified labeled nucleotides, for ...
Tanaka K - - 2000
We studied the biosynthetic route of thiamin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to see whether the route differed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Histidine and pyridoxine are the precursors of the pyrimidine moiety of thiamin under aerobic conditions. Formate is incorporated into the pyrimidine via histidine. The incorporation of [13C]formate and [5'-(2)H2]pyridoxine ...
Gripp KW - - 2000
The authors wish to correct a mistake in the amino acid change stemming from a 490C>T nucleotide change. In this article, the nucleotide change is stated to lead to a Q165X amino acid change. The 490C>T nucleotide change should actually cause a Q164X amino acid change.
Lozano F - - 2000
We report herein the identification of a new HLA-Cw*07 allele in two members of a German Caucasian family. This novel allele, designated as Cw*0714, differs from Cw*07011 and Cw*0706 by two nucleotide changes: one at codon 66 (AAC-->AAG) in the exon 2, leading to an amino acid change from Asn ...
Kozlov I A - - 1999
The template-directed oligomerization of nucleoside-5'-phosphoro-2-methyl imidazolides on standard oligonucleotide templates has been studied extensively. Here, we describe experiments with templates in which inosinic acid (I) is substituted for guanylic acid, or 2,6-diaminopurine nucleotide (D) for adenylic acid. We find that the substitution of I for G in a template is ...
Javaid Z Z - - 1999
Sixty-seven pyrimidine nucleobase analogues were evaluated as ligands of Toxoplasma gondii orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRTase, EC 2.4.2.10) by measuring their ability to inhibit this enzyme in vitro. Apparent Ki values were determined for compounds that inhibited T. gondii OPRTase by greater than 20% at a concentration of 400 microM. 1-Deazaorotic acid ...
Nicholls D G - - 1999
The lack of energy conservation in brown adipose tissue mitochondria when prepared by conventional methods was established in the 1960s and was correlated with the thermogenic function of the tissue. In order to observe energy conservation, two requirements had to be met: the removal of the endogenous fatty acids and ...
Boustany N N - - 1999
The objective of this study was to explore the potential of using ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy to analyze normal and neoplastic colon tissue. Ultraviolet light at 251 nm, generated from the third harmonic of a Titanium:Sapphire laser, was used to irradiate the surfaces of surgically resected human colon specimens ...
Chmielowiec U - - 1999
The kinetics of the hydrolysis of 2'-deoxyadenosine-5'-monophosphoric acid (dAMP), 2'-deoxycytidine-5'-monophosphoric acid (dCMP), 2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-monophosphoric acid (dGMP) and tymidine-5'-monophosphoric acid (dTMP) was studied in the presence of Xanthomonas maltophilia [1]. The reaction products are nucleosides: 2'-deoxyadenosine (dA), 2'-deoxycytidine (dC), 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) and tymidine (dT), respectively, or the respective free bases. Hydrolysis of ...
Tessis A C - - 1999
Minerals have been implicated in different catalytic processes during chemical evolution. It has been proposed that exergonic synthesis of pyrite (FeS2) could have served to promote the endergonic synthesis of biomonomers in early stages of life formation on Earth. The present study was aimed to investigate whether pyrite can adsorb ...
Wichman H A - - 1999
The molecular basis of adaptation is a major focus of evolutionary biology, yet the dynamic process of adaptation has been explored only piecemeal. Experimental evolution of two bacteriophage lines under strong selection led to over a dozen nucleotide changes genomewide in each replicate. At least 96 percent of the amino ...
Vapalahti O - - 1999
A novel hantavirus, first detected in Siberian lemmings (Lemmus sibiricus) collected near the Topografov River in the Taymyr Peninsula, Siberia (A. Plyusnin et al., Lancet 347:1835-1836, 1996), was isolated in Vero E6 cells and in laboratory-bred Norwegian lemmings (Lemmus lemmus). The virus, named Topografov virus (TOP), was most closely related ...
Miura K - - 1999
Intrarenal infusion of 4-pentenoic acid is known to lower renal cortical ATP content and cause a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The alteration in nucleotide metabolism might augment the production of adenosine, thereby eliciting the fall in GFR. This study was conducted to examine whether 4-pentenoic acid stimulates renal ...
Culic O - - 1999
Porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) are known to be metabolically robust. They are capable of surviving extended periods of complete lack of exogenous substrate, and purine release has been shown to be significantly up-regulated. The endogenous substrates used during substrate deprivation, as well as the sources responsible for the increased ...
Perrin D M - - 1999
Two nucleoside triphosphates, a pyrimidine modified with an ammonium functionality and a purine modified with an imidazolyl functionality are compatible with all conditions for a combinatorial selection of nucleic-acid catalysts. We believe that this work is the first to demonstrate the potential for using not one but two modified nucleotides ...
Novotny L - - 1999
The polarographic reduction and the index of potential carcinogenicity tg alpha determined polarographically in aprotic conditions and in the presence of alpha-lipoic acid of nine naturally occurring and synthetic pyrimidine and six synthetic 1,3,5-triazine (5-aza) nucleosides was compared to the reduction of eight synthetic 1,3,6-triazine (6-aza) nucleosides. Nucleosides are of ...
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