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Barata André - - 2012
In this work, we studied the ecological interactions between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila sp. flies involved in sour rot disease during grape ripening. After veráison the total microbial counts of grape berries affected by sour rot increased from about 2 log CFU/g of berries to more than 7 log CFU/g. Berry damage provoked ...
Bzdek Bryan R - - 2012
The Nano Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (NAMS) was deployed to rural/coastal and urban sites to measure the composition of 20-25 nm diameter nanoparticles during new particle formation (NPF). NAMS provides a quantitative measure of the elemental composition of individual, size-selected nanoparticles. In both environments, particles analyzed during NPF were found to ...
Bischoff Nicole - - 2012
Our current understanding of the spectral sensitivities of the mysticete whale rod-based visual pigments is based on two species, the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) and the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) possessing absorbance maxima determined from difference spectra to be 492 and 497 nm, respectively. These absorbance maxima values are blueshifted ...
Zhang Qing-Feng - - 2012
Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae (RSG) and Rhizoma Smilacis Chinae (RSC) are two herbal materials that belong to the same genera and are both listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Chemical constituents in the two species were compared by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Many common constituents were found in both species, including shikimic acid, 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid, ...
Van Dyke James U - - 2012
Viviparity and placentation have evolved from oviparity over 100 times in squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). The independent origins of placentation have resulted in a variety of placental morphologies in different taxa, ranging from simple apposition of fetal and maternal tissues to endotheliochorial implantation that is homoplasious with mammalian placentation. ...
Mateos-Martín María Luisa - - 2012
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) bark is widely used as a spice and in traditional medicine. Its oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins are believed to be partly responsible for the beneficial properties of the plant. We describe here the metabolic fate of cinnamon proanthocyanidins in the urine and feces of rats fed ...
Fardin-Kia Ali Reza - - 2012
Taste disturbances following consumption of pine nuts, referred to as "pine mouth", have been reported by consumers in the United States and Europe. Nuts of Pinus armandii have been associated with pine mouth, and a diagnostic index (DI) measuring the content of Δ5-unsaturated fatty acids relative to that of their ...
Kubota Hiromi - - 2012
Many people in Japan often detect an unpleasant odor generated from laundry that is hung to dry indoors or when using their already-dried laundry. Such an odor is often described as a "wet-and-dirty-dustcloth-like malodor" or an "acidic or sweaty odor." In this study, we isolated the major microorganisms associated with ...
Bischoff Rainer - - 2012
The ultimate goal of proteomics is determination of the exact chemical composition of protein species, including their complete amino acid sequence and the identification of each modified side chain, in every protein in a biological sample and their quantification. We are still far from achieving this goal due to limitations ...
Khan Riyazuddeen - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The oil content and fatty acid composition of the mature seeds of Acacia species collected from natural habitat of the northwest zone of the Indian subcontinent (Rajasthan) were analyzed in order to determine their potential for human or animal consumption. RESULTS: Oil content varied between 40 and 102 g ...
Laurens Lieve M L - - 2012
In the context of algal biofuels, lipids, or better aliphatic chains of the fatty acids, are perhaps the most important constituents of algal biomass. Accurate quantification of lipids and their respective fuel yield is crucial for comparison of algal strains and growth conditions and for process monitoring. As an alternative ...
Yang Yanhua - - 2012
We surveyed the substitution patterns in the ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO) gene in 11 species of Oryzeae with an outgroup in the Ehrhartoidaea. The synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates showed a high positive correlation with each other, but were negatively correlated with codon usage bias and GC content at third ...
Bagdonaite Edita - - 2012
In Lithuania, two species of the genus Fragaria L. (Rosaceae), F. vesca L. and F. viridis Weston, occur naturally in the wild and two others, F. moschata Weston and F. × ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier are found escaped from cultivation. The main objective of this study was to establish the variation pattern ...
Talà Adelfia - - 2012
Strain SPC-1T was isolated from the phyllosphere of Cynara cardunculus L. var. sylvestris (Lamk) Fiori (wild cardoon), a Mediterranean native plant considered the wild ancestor of the globe artichoke and cultivated cardoon. This Gram-negative, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and non-motile strain secreted copious amounts of an exopolysaccharide and formed slimy, ...
Fan Gang - - 2012
Rhizoma Coptidis, a broadly used medicinal plant, originates from the dried rhizomes of three species in Chinese pharmacopoeia, namely, COPTIS CHINENSIS Franch, COPTIS DELTOIDEA C. Y. Cheng et Hsiao, and COPTIS TEETA Wall. In this study, a novel approach using (1)H NMR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis was introduced to differentiate ...
Taufik Epi - - 2012
The structures of milk oligosaccharides were characterized for four strepsirrhine primates to examine the extent to which they resemble milk oligosaccharides in other primates. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were isolated from milk of the greater galago (Galagidae: Otolemur crassicaudatus), aye-aye (Daubentoniidae: Daubentonia madagascariensis), Coquerel's sifaka (Indriidae: Propithecus coquereli) and mongoose ...
Bagdonaite Edita - - 2012
The objective of present study was to establish and compare the contents of secondary metabolites of two Hypericum species, H. perforatum and H. maculatum, native to Lithuania, and to evaluate factors predetermining their variation with some practical implications for utilization and conservation. The HPLC analysis of the ethanolic extracts of ...
Bandi Anil Kumar Reddy - - 2012
The genus Ochna L. (Gr, Ochne; wild pear), belonging to the Ochnaceae family, includes ca. 85 species of evergreen trees, shrubs, and shrublets, distributed in tropical Asia, Africa, and America. Several members of this genus have long been used in folk medicine for treatment of various ailments, such as asthma, ...
Kuhnt Katrin - - 2012
Various plant seeds have received little attention in fatty acid research. Seeds from 30 species mainly of Boraginaceae and Primulaceae were analysed in order to identify potential new sources of the n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid (ALA) and stearidonic acid (SDA) and of the n-6 PUFA γ-linolenic acid (GLA). The fatty ...
Kim Mi Young - - 2012
Pumpkins have considerable variation in nutrient contents depending on the cultivation environment, species, or part. In this study, the general chemical compositions and some bioactive components, such as tocopherols, carotenoids, and β-sitosterol, were analyzed in three major species of pumpkin (Cucurbitaceae pepo, C. moschata, and C. maxima) grown in Korea ...
Sakuma Satoru - - 2012
We previously reported that the all-cis isomer of arachidonic acid, the most naturally occurring isoform of this fatty acid, reduced cuprous copper ion-induced conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase into its reactive oxygen species generating form, xanthine oxidase. In the present study, the effects of all-trans isomer of arachidonic acid, in comparison ...
Ping Jianfeng - - 2012
A disposable and sensitive screen-printed electrode using an ink containing graphene was developed. This electrode combined the advantages of graphene and the disposable characteristic of electrode, which possessed wide potential window, low background current and fast electron transfer kinetics. Compared with the electrodes made from other inks, screen-printed graphene electrode ...
Cerruti Christopher D - - 2012
Mass spectrometry imaging is of growing interest for chemical mapping of lipids at the surface of tissue sections. Many efforts have been devoted to optimize matrix choice and deposition technique for positive ion mode analyses. The identification of lipid species desorbed from tissue sections in the negative mode can be ...
Tomsho John W - - 2012
In this work, the reaction between phenylboronic acid and the diol-containing, fluorescent dye Alizarin Red S (ARS) was probed. Fluorescence titrations, (11)B NMR measurements, and both pre- and steady-state kinetic experiments were used for the characterization of this reaction over a large pH range (4-10.5). It was shown that ARS ...
Barata André - - 2012
This study investigated the microbiota of sour rotten wine grapes and its impact on wine fermentations. Yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were enumerated and identified on sound and sour rot grapes during the ripening stage. The alteration of the ecological balance induced by sour rot ...
Campanella Alejandrina - - 2012
Microalgae and duckweed were grown and harvested over a three-month period in CO(2)-sparged helioreactors and open earthen ponds, respectively. The biomass feedstocks were thermolyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and fixed-bed reactor to produce a fuel precursor coined "bioleum". Analysis of the thermolysis kinetics revealed an increase in the activation ...
Barrero Alejandro F - - 2012
Communic acids are diterpenes with labdane skeletons found in many plant species, mainly conifers, predominating in the genus Juniperus (fam. Cupresaceae). In this review we briefly describe their distribution and different biological activities (anti- bacterial, antitumoral, hypolipidemic, relaxing smooth muscle, etc.). This paper also includes a detailed explanation of their ...
Sei Yoshihiro - - 2012
Although Malassezia yeasts are a part of the normal microflora, under certain conditions they can cause superficial skin infection Pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis. Lipophilic yeasts are being considered as major opportunistic pathogens for a very long time. Most of the yeasts show an absolute requirement for long fatty acid chains ...
Zhu Lei - - 2012
In order to analyze and compare the phenolic characteristics of red wine grapes with diverse genetic backgrounds, skin phenolics among 21 different cultivars belonging to Vitis vinifera L., East Asian and North American Vitis species and hybrids, as well as 2 varieties of muscadine grapes were estimated by HPLC-MS/MS. There ...
Krupodorova Tetiana A - - 2012
The content of proteins, lipids, and amino and fatty acids was investigated in mycelium and culture broth of medicinal mushrooms Cordyceps sinensis, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Schizophyllum commune. Seven essential amino acids were present in the proteins of all mushroom samples, with aspartic (6.34%-14.29%) and glutamic (15.12%-17.51%) acids predominating in culture ...
Lu Luyang - - 2012
Danshen is a commonly used traditional Chinese herb, but over twenty Salvia species are used as Danshen by local herbalists. In this study, twelve Salvia species from the plateau of Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces were collected, analyzed and compared with Danshen by HPLC. The results showed that most of the ...
Lv Guang-Ping - - 2012
Two species of Ganoderma, G. sinense and G. lucidum, are used as Lingzhi in China. Howerver, the content of triterpenoids and polysaccharides, main actives compounds, are significant different, though the extracts of both G. lucidum and G. sinense have antitumoral proliferation effect. It is suspected that other compounds contribute to ...
Ohno Akiko - - 2012
Most of the active components of polypeptides have a complex molecular structure, large molecular size. Such components may also be structurally heterogeneous. Therefore, development of a method that can confirm the consistency of polypeptides amino-acid sequences for product characterization is desirable. In general, it is extremely difficult to distinguish differences ...
Kim Gwang-Woo - - 2012
Detailed fatty acid compositions of five species of the brown algae Sargassum (S. fulvellum, S. horneri, S. boreale, S. thunbergii, and S. yezoense) were determined using silver ion solid phase extraction, gas chromatography (GC), and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. In addition to a high number of typical saturated and unsaturated ...
Jurikova Tunde - - 2012
Dry matter, organic acids, ascorbic acid, minerals (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium) and polyphenolic profile of a number of non-traditional fruit species and their genotypes, namely blue honeysuckle (<em>Lonicera</em> spp.), Saskatoon berry (<em>Amelanchier alnifolia</em>), black mulberry (<em>Morus nigra</em>), Tomentosa cherry (<em>Prunus tomentosa</em> Thunb.) and jostaberry (<em>Ribes</em> <em>nigrum</em> x <em>Grossularia ...
Mahmood Tahir - - 2012
In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%), total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) ranged from 8.5-53.3%, 491-1884 mg ...
Rempt Martin - - 2012
Chemical defense of the invasive red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla has been studied and compared to that of the noninvasive but related Gracilaria chilensis. Both species rely on a wound-activated chemical defense that makes them less attractive to the herbivorous sea snail Echinolittorina peruviana. The chemical stress response of both species ...
Hagström Asa K - - 2012
Sex pheromones are essential in moth mate communication. Information on pheromone biosynthetic genes and enzymes is needed to comprehend the mechanisms that contribute to specificity of pheromone signals. Most heliothine moths use sex pheromones with (Z)-11-hexadecenal as the major component in combination with minor fatty aldehydes and alcohols. In this ...
Seminoff Jeffrey A - - 2012
Effective conservation strategies for highly migratory species must incorporate information about long-distance movements and locations of high-use foraging areas. However, the inherent challenges of directly monitoring these factors call for creative research approaches and innovative application of existing tools. Highly migratory marine species, such as marine turtles, regularly travel hundreds ...
Angell Alex R - - 2012
Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores) is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae--or any feedstock--which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically ...
Hong Sunhee - - 2012
Mycolic acid-producing bacteria isolated from the respiratory tract of human and non-human mammals were recently assigned as a distinct genus, Segniliparus, because they diverge from rhodococci and mycobacteria in genetic and chemical features. Using high accuracy mass spectrometry, we determined the chemical composition of 65 homologous mycolic acids in two ...
Thomas Raymond H - - 2012
Gastrointestinal symptoms and altered blood phospholipid profiles have been reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most of the phospholipid analyses have been conducted on the fatty acid composition of isolated phospholipid classes following hydrolysis. A paucity of information exists on how the intact phospholipid molecular species are altered ...
Maatta Sara - - 2012
Previous work has demonstrated that plant leaf polar lipid fatty acid composition varies during the diurnal (dark-light) cycle. Fatty acid synthesis occurs primarily during the light, but fatty acid desaturation continues in the absence of light, resulting in polyunsaturated fatty acids reaching their highest levels toward the end of the ...
Trumble Stephen J SJ Department of Biology, Baylor University Waco, TA, - - 2012
Diving mammals, are under extreme pressure to conserve oxygen as well as produce adequate energy through aerobic pathways during breath-hold diving. Typically a major source of energy, lipids participate in structural and regulatory roles and have an important influence on the physiological functions of an organism. At the stoichiometric level, ...
Sanz Miriam - - 2012
Although oak wood is the main material used in cooperage, other species are being considered as possible sources of wood for the production of wines and their derived products. In this work we have compared the phenolic composition of acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia), chestnut (Castanea sativa), cherry (Prunus avium) and ash ...
Kováčik Jozef - - 2012
Despite intensive phytochemical research, data related to the accumulation of phenols in carnivorous plants include mainly qualitative reports. We have quantified phenolic metabolites in three species: Drosera capensis, Dionaea muscipula and Nepenthes anamensis in the "leaf" (assimilatory part) and the "trap" (digestive part). For comparison, commercial green tea was analysed. ...
Kodama Tomohiro - - 2011
Tartaric acid catalyzes the asymmetric addition of vinylboronates to N-acyl quinoliniums, affording highly enantioenriched dihydroquinolines. The catalyst serves to activate the boronate through a ligand-exchange reaction and generates the N-acyl quinolinium in situ from the stable quinoline-derived N,O-acetal.
Türkez Hasan - - 2011
Ascorbic acid (AA), known as vitamin C, has important antioxidant and metabolic functions, making its incorporation into the human diet essential. On the other hand, imazalil (IMA), a commonly used fungicide in both agricultural and clinical domains is suspected to produce very serious toxic effects in vertebrates. In this study, ...
Coimbra Michelle Cardoso - - 2011
Vegetable oils are important sources of essential fatty acids. It is, therefore, important to characterize plant species that can be used as new oil sources. This study aimed to characterize the oils from guariroba (Syagrus oleracea), jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana), and macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata). The physicochemical characterization was performed using official ...
Tian Yong-Sheng - - 2011
A mutant of 5-enopyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Ochrobactrum anthropi was identified after four rounds of DNA shuffling and screening. Its ability to restore the growth of the mutant ER2799 cell on an M9 minimal medium containing 300 mM glyphosate led to its identification. The mutant had mutations in seven amino acids: ...
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