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Barankiewicz J - - 1985
The overall purine metabolism was studied in detail in resident peritoneal macrophages (M phi) and in thioglycolate elicited peritoneal M phi in vitro. The salvage of purine bases (adenine, hypoxanthine and guanine) was active in both M phi populations, whereas purine biosynthesis de novo was low. Purine nucleosides (inosine, guanosine ...
Kushaba-Rugaaju S - - 1985
The effects of diazinon (DZN), an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide, and nicotinamide (Nam) on the pyridine nucleotide, purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotides, and free alpha amino acid contents of chick embryos were determined. The teratogen (DZN) and/or the anti-teratogen (Nam) were administered by the intravitelline route to chicken eggs at day 3 ...
Boss G R - - 1985
When cultured human lymphoblasts are starved 3 h for an essential amino acid, rates of purine nucleotide synthesis decrease markedly because of a decrease in the intracellular phosphoribosylpyrophosphate concentration (Boss, G.R., and Erbe, R.W. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 4242-4247; Boss, G. R. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 2936-2941). In ...
Schattenkerk C - - 1985
The bifunctional phosphorylating reagent O,O-bis[1-benzotriazolyl]phosphoromorpholidate was used to introduce a 5'-O-triphosphate and a 3'-O-diphosphate function in a partially protected riboguanosine. Pilot studies indicated that protection of the 2'-OH of ribonucleosides with the acid-labile tetrahydropyranyl group, instead of the more labile 4-methoxytetrahydropyran-4-yl group, was most satisfactory for the preparation of the ...
Schwartz A W - - 1985
In studying the origins of life, it is important to examine reactions of substrate mixtures that could plausibly have accumulated on the primitive earth. Nucleoside diphosphates would probably have been synthesized along with the standard nucleotides under prebiotic conditions. For these reasons, the template-directed reactions of activated derivatives of these ...
Ogoshi S - - 1985
After partial hepatectomy rats were used as a model of patients with liver tumor after extensive hepatectomy. Supplementation of a nucleotide and nucleoside mixture to the total parenteral nutrition solution in rats after 70% hepatectomy resulted in earlier restoration of the nitrogen balance in the first 3 days than the ...
Golankiewicz B - - 1985
The rates of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of a hypermodified nucleoside, wyosine and its 5'-monophosphate were determined at various pH, temperature and buffer concentrations. The results show that despite distinct differences in structure and the glycosyl bond stability, the hydrolysis of wyosine proceeds via cleavage of the C-N bond by A-1 mechanism, ...
Rasenack J - - 1985
Quantitative aspects of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis in rat hepatocytes were monitored. A reduction of intracellular UTP contents by different concentrations of D-galactosamine led to a dose-dependent increase of 14CO2 incorporation into the sum of all acid-soluble uracil nucleotides. In controls the rate of de novo synthesis which was calculated ...
Barak A - - 1985
6-Trichloromethyl-9-methylpurine (1) rearranges to 6-dichloromethyl-9-methyl-8-oxopurine (2) in aqueous mild acidic solution. The rearrangement is rationalized in terms of a reaction involving protonation, covalent hydration, prototropic equilibrium and/or a hydride transfer. An alternative mechanism involving a "positive' halogen compound and hypochlorous acid as an intermediary is also proposed. Compound 1 condenses ...
McIlwain H - - 1985
[(14)C]Adenine derivatives in normal guinea pig or rat neocortical tissues maintained by superfusion included ATP, ADP and AMP collectively forming some 98% of the acid-extracted (14)C; adenosine, inosine and hypoxanthine each at less than 0.5% and S-adenosylhomocysteine at about 0.1%. l-Homocysteine and/or its thiolactone increased only a little the S-adenosylhomocysteine. ...
Monks A - - 1985
Carbamyl phosphate (CP) is synthesized in the liver by two separate enzymes, CPS I and CPS II. CPS I, an intramitochondrial enzyme involved in ureogenesis, has a relative activity of 500- to 1000-fold greater than CPS II, a cytoplasmic enzyme which initiates the sequence of reactions for pyrimidine biosynthesis. The ...
van Rossum G D - - 1985
The metabolic activity of frog lung perfused through its vascular bed has been assessed by determining changes in metabolites in the perfusion medium and by measuring the adenine nucleotides, ions and water in the tissue after perfusion under a variety of conditions. The addition of respiratory inhibitors, CN- or antimycin ...
Varma A - - 1985
We have investigated the physiological conditions under which meiosis and the ensuing sporulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are initiated. Initiation of sporulation occurs in response to carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulfur deprivation, and also, when met auxotrophs are partially starved for methionine, but not after starvation of other amino acid auxotrophs. ...
Eriksson G - - 1984
Nucleotides and sugar nucleotides were extracted from cultures of human fibroblasts with perchloric acid, separated by isotachophoresis, and quantified by uv absorption analysis at 254 nm. ATP (936 pmol/micrograms DNA) was, as expected, the dominating nucleotide pool. The energy charge was estimated to 0.9. The UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool was also a ...
Klee C B - - 1984
Oncomodulin was purified from Morris rat hepatoma according to the procedure of Durkin, J.P., Brewer, L.M. and MacManus, J.P. (1983) Cancer Res. 43, 5390-5394. The preparation, in general, had the properties and amino acid composition of the material which they described. However, we were unable to confirm the reported stimulation ...
Shivakumar K - - 1984
Upon transfer of the fresh-water fish, Sarotherodon mossambicus, to 50% sea water, extensive changes take place in the functions of the gill mitochondria. The changes are (i) loss of ADP/O and RCI; (ii) loss of the ability to contract upon addition of ATP-Mg2+; (iii) lowered energy-dependent 45Ca uptake; (iv) increased ...
Parkin D W - - 1984
Adenosine 5'-phosphate was synthesized with 3H or 14C label specifically located as [1'-3H]AMP, [1'-14C] AMP, [5'-3H]AMP, and [5'-14C]AMP. The synthesis was accomplished from adenine and glucose or adenine and ribose using enzymes from the pentose pathway and/or from the purine salvage pathways. Structural analysis of the compounds confirmed the locations ...
Yates A J - - 1984
A common method of studying ganglioside metabolism is to measure the amounts of radioactivity incorporated into ganglioside from a radiolabeled precursor. This requires that radioactive nonganglioside material be completely removed from the ganglioside fraction. Nucleotide sugars and aminosugars comprise an important source of such contaminants. Therefore, we have studied their ...
Lovatt C J - - 1984
Lovatt et al. (1979 Plant Physiol 64: 562-569) have previously demonstrated that end-product inhibition functions as a mechanism regulating the activity of the orotic acid pathway in intact cells of roots excised from 2-day-old squash plants (Cucurbita pepo L. cv Early Prolific Straightneck). Uridine (0.5 millimolar final concentration) or one ...
Wang C C - - 1984
Tritrichomonas foetus and Trichomonas vaginalis are both incapable of de novo purine nucleotide synthesis. Previous studies indicated that T. foetus relies mainly on the salvage of hypoxanthine and subsequent conversion of IMP to AMP and GMP, whereas T. vaginalis depends on direct conversions of exogenous adenosine to AMP and guanosine ...
Jaenchen R - - 1984
Coenzyme F420 is a 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin present in methanogenic bacteria. We have investigated whether the pyrimidine ring of the deazaflavin originates from guanine as in flavin biosynthesis, in which the pyrimidine ring of guanine is conserved. For this purpose the incorporation of [2-14C]guanine and of [8-14C]guanine into F420 by growing cultures ...
Prior J J - - 1984
In acidic media, the 5,6-double bond of uridine is rapidly hydrated to give a small amount of 6-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrouridine (Urd-H2O), the mechanism of which is known from studies of the acid-catalyzed dehydration of Urd-H2O (Prior, J. J., Maley, J., and Santi, D. V. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 2422-2428). In addition ...
Hamel E - - 1984
We have examined the effects of dilution, Ca2+, reduced temperature, and triphosphate depletion on microtubules formed from purified tubulin, heat-treated microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), and either GTP, 2',3'-dideoxyguanosine 5'-diphosphate (ddGDP), or 2',3'-dideoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate (ddGTP). The stability of the polymer formed with tubulin plus ddGTP without MAPs was also examined. In all ...
Michels W - - 1984
We describe studies concerning the ability of a nuclear dinucleoside triphosphatase to act as a decapping enzyme in RNA catabolism. The enzymatic release of GMP from the Gp3A moiety was determined in the capped RNA model compounds Gp3A3'pA, Gp3A3'pA-isoprop and Gp3A2'pA in isolated rat liver nuclei; i.e., in the environment ...
Graur D - - 1985
The patterns of point mutation and nucleotide substitution are inferred from nucleotide differences in three coding and two noncoding regions of retroviral genomes. Evidence is presented in favor of the view that the majority of mutations accumulate at the reverse transcription stage. Purifying selection is apparently very weak at the ...
Thomas J - - 1984
The effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatment on acid soluble pools of uridine nucleoside and nucleotides were investigated in Tetrahymena pyriformis and in isolated mouse lymphocytes and spermatogenic cells. In THC treated Tetrahymena and mouse lymphocytes the uptake of labelled precursor into acid soluble pools of uridine nucleoside and nucleotides ...
Shimizu M - - 1984
Strong and specific interactions between amino acids and their cognate tRNAs have been found by the CD, fluorescence, and UV absorption difference spectroscopy and by the gel-filtration method. New types of strong hydrogen bonding interactions between an amino acid and polynucleotides, nucleotides, nucleosides, and nucleic acid bases in aqueous solution ...
Folbergrová J - - 1984
In order to obtain information on the mechanisms of neurotoxicity of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, rats maintained artificially ventilated on N2O:O2 (70:30) were exposed to a concentration of 1,1,1-trichloroethane of 8000 ppm, 43.7 mg L-1, that induces moderate ataxia in awake, spontaneously breathing animals. After 5 and 60 min of exposure, as well ...
Omura S - - 1983
The mode of action of virustomycin A, a novel 18-membered macrolide, on Trichomonas foetus was investigated. The antibiotic inhibited the biosynthesis of RNA, DNA and protein in the organism. The inhibition of RNA biosynthesis was the most severe. Virustomycin A repressed the incorporation of [3H]uridine into both acid-soluble and insoluble ...
Rial E - - 1983
The increased proton permeability induced by the addition of a synthetic proton translocator to non-respiring hamster brown-fat mitochondria is unaffected by purine nucleotide addition. In contrast the permeability induced by fatty acids is inhibited by nucleotide, indicating that fatty acids act at the 32000-Mr uncoupling protein. Fatty acids lower the ...
Sato A - - 1983
Deoxyribonucleosides were separated from ribonucleosides by chromatography on polyethyleneimine cellulose columns (Pasteur pipettes. The deoxyribonucleosides were quantitatively eluted with 25 mM boric acid in less than 10 ml while the ribonucleosides were retained. The ribonucleosides were eluted with 1 M NaCl. This method was utilized to assay for GDP, UDP, ...
Crouch D H - - 1983
Polyadenylated RNA was detected in the cyanobacteria Nostoc sp. strain MAC and Anabaena variabilis by oligodeoxythymidylic acid-cellulose chromatography and by hybridization to [3H]polyuridylic acid. Polyadenylate tracts from A. variabilis were located at the 3' end of RNA chains and had an estimated length of 15 to 22 nucleotides.
Alvarez-Gonzalez R - - 1983
Three different immobilized boronates were compared with respect to their possible utility in studies of adenine and pyridine nucleotide metabolism. These included boronate derivatives of polyacrylamide, Sepharose, and the cation-exchange resin, Bio-Rex 70. The relative binding affinities, binding capacities, and elution properties were compared. Under the conditions utilized, the Sepharose ...
Paglia D E - - 1983
Erythrocytes from a patient with classical pyrimidine nucleotidase (PyN) deficiency had less than 10% residual PyN activity with uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) or cytidine 5'-monophosphate (CMP) as substrate, but exhibited brisk nucleotidase activity with thymidine 5'-monophosphate (dTMP). This strongly suggests the existence of separate enzymes or isozymes of PyN in normal ...
Moyer J D - - 1983
Hypoxanthine is an inefficient precursor of purine nucleotides in mouse tissues. In vitro, mouse erythrocytes salvage less than 10% of hypoxanthine (10 microM) added to whole blood in 30 min of incubation at 37 degrees C. In vivo, circulating hypoxanthine is rapidly degraded (greater than 90% in 10 min) to ...
Tyagi V V - - 1983
Dihydrodipicolinic acid reductase, an enzyme which catalyzes the pyridine nucleotide-linked reduction of dihydrodipicolinic acid to tetrahydrodipicolinic acid in the biosynthetic pathway leading to l-lysine, has been partially purified from maize (Zea mays cv Pioneer 3145) kernels. The crude maize extract and the partially purified enzyme were assayed for dihydrodipicolinic acid ...
Unkefer C J - - 1983
An intracellular coenzyme has been observed by carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The pyridine nucleotides in Escherichia coli were specifically labeled with carbon-13 from the biosynthetic precursor, nicotinic acid. The intracellular redox status and metabolic transformations of the pyridine nucleotides were examined under a variety of conditions. A highly reduced ...
Kombrink E - - 1983
During germination and early growth of castor bean (Ricinus communis), all cellular constituents of the endosperm are eventually transferred to the growing embryo. The present results bear on the transport of breakdown products of nucleic acids. The total content of nucleic acids and nucleotides declines rapidly between day 4 and ...
Patterson D - - 1983
The isolation and characterization of a new pyrimidine requiring mutant of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-Kl, pro-) is described. This mutant (P192) shows an absolute requirement for uridine for growth but is fully capable of pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. P192 cells accumulate exceedingly large amounts of a compound identified by a ...
McFall-Ngai M J - - 1983
The gas bladder of leiognathid fishes functions not only in buoyancy but also in reflection of bioluminescent light from the circumesophageal light organ. Purine distribution, quality (guanine/hypoxanthine ratio), and concentration, as the basis for reflectivity, were assayed enzymatically for different portions of the gas bladder lining of the common leiognathid, ...
McConnell B - - 1983
Amino 1H NMR line width as a measure of amino proton exchange in guanosine compounds is completely unaffected by the addition of ca. 1 M tris(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane, imidazole, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid, glycine, or cacodylate, all shown to be effective buffer catalysts in adenosine and cytidine proton exchange. Line broadening, seen only with ...
Hayden L J - - 1983
Control of lipogenesis by glucagon and cyclic nucleotide derivatives was examined in freshly isolated hepatocytes. [14C]Acetate was incorporated at a linear rate for 2 h into cellular lipids and for at least 6 h into medium lipids. About 80% of the incorporated label was recovered in fatty acids. Incorporation of ...
Shapiro I M - - 1983
The objective of this study was to examine the nucleotides of chick growth-plate cartilage and to measure the concentration of adenine nucleotides in the pre-mineralizing and mineralizing zones. Nucleotides were isolated from the two regions using a rapid-freezing technique and the concentration of individual components was ascertained by HPLC. The ...
Mak I T - - 1983
The decrease in respiration rate following thyroidectomy is preceded by changes in the lipid composition of the mitochondrial membrane (Hoch, F.L., Subramanian, C., Dhopeshwarkar, G.A. and Mead, J.F. (1981) Lipids 16, 328-334) and in concert, changes in the kinetic parameters of the adenine nucleotide translocase (Mak, I.T., Shrago, E. and ...
Yamada O - - 1983
The effects of L-leucine and its metabolites on pyridine nucleotide synthesis were investigated in human blood. After 30 min-incubation 40% of the added (carboxyl-14C)-nicotinic acid was incorporated into pyridine nucleotides, most of which was nicotinic acid mononucleotide. Leucine and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid reduced pyridine nucleotide synthesis by 40% and 15%, respectively ...
Sherman I W - - 1983
Plasmodium requires a living cell for growth and reproduction. Intraerythrocytically the parasite stores no reserve carbohydrate, relying entirely on host-supplied glucose and certain amino acids (glutamic acid) for its energy. Plasmodia are microaerophiles degrading glucose primarily to lactate rather than to CO2. The limited amounts of oxygen utilized may serve ...
Ogura R - - 1983
The metabolism of both free nucleosides and bases in hyperkeratosis induced by topical application of n-hexadecane on the epidermis of guinea pig was discussed, based on the technique of high-pressure liquid chromatography. The level of nucleosides and bases decreased in the hyperkeratotic stage of epidermis, in spite of the high ...
Krauss G J - - 1983
When [2-14C] orotic acid hydrazide (OAH) was injected i.p. in mice the bulk of the radioactivity of the acid-soluble fraction of liver was found in a metabolite obviously not identical with natural pyrimidines known so far as elucidated by chromatographic methods. This compound is also formed in vitro by the ...
Reddington M - - 1983
The incorporation of [14C]adenosine into various metabolites was studied in a hippocampal slice preparation in order to assess the extent of adenosine metabolism via synthesis of S-adenosylhomocysteine, a potent inhibitor of transmethylation reactions. Highest incorporation of 14C occurred into nucleotides, with only a few percent being recovered in inosine + ...
Gietzen K - - 1982
Oleic acid, phosphatidylserine and pyrenedecanoic acid were found to activate calmodulin-deficient cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase at concentrations above their critical micellar concentration. In contrast with calmodulin these activators do not require the presence of Ca2+ for their action. It is shown that the size of phosphatidylserine vesicles is of crucial importance ...
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