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Naidoo Vinogran - - 2012
Advances in the understanding of the endogenous cannabinoid system have led to several therapeutic indications for new classes of compounds that enhance cannabinergic responses. Endocannabinoid levels are elevated during pathogenic conditions, and inhibitors of endocannabinoid inactivation promote such on-demand responses. The endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol have been implicated in ...
Manolopoulos K N - - 2012
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Fatty acid entrapment in femoral adipose tissue has been proposed to prevent ectopic fat deposition and visceral fat accumulation, resulting in protection from insulin resistance. Our objective was to test the hypothesis of femoral, compared with abdominal, adipose tissue resistance to adrenergic stimulation in vivo as a possible mechanism. ...
Thakoersing Varsha S - - 2012
Previous results showed that our in-house human skin equivalents (HSEs) differ in their stratum corneum (SC) lipid organization compared with human SC. To elucidate the cause of the altered SC lipid organization in the HSEs, a recently developed liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method was used to study the free fatty acid ...
Di Venere Almerinda - - 2012
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a membrane protein that plays a relevant role in the metabolism of fatty acid amides and esters. It degrades important neurotransmitters such as oleamide and anandamide, and it has been involved in a number of human pathological conditions, representing therefore a valuable target for ...
Mládková Jana - - 2012
Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2 (BHMT-2) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-methylmethionine to l-homocysteine, yielding two molecules of l-methionine. It is one of three homocysteine methyltransferases in mammals, but its overall contribution to homocysteine remethylation and sulfur amino acid homeostasis is not known. Moreover, recombinant BHMT-2 is highly unstable, ...
Bakke Siril S - - 2012
Development of insulin resistance is positively associated with dietary saturated fatty acids and negatively associated with monounsaturated fatty acids. To clarify aspects of this difference we have compared the metabolism of oleic (OA, monounsaturated) and palmitic acid (PA, saturated) in human myotubes. Human myotubes were treated with 100μM OA or ...
Lubinus Tim - - 2012
PURPOSE: The objective was to investigate the metabolic fate of phytosteryl/-stanyl fatty acid and ferulic acid esters upon consumption by healthy humans. METHODS: A capillary gas chromatographic methodology was employed to follow a randomized, single-blind three group crossover clinical trial and to quantify simultaneously individual intact esters, liberated phytosterols/-stanols and ...
Lamers Daniela - - 2012
It is widely accepted that obesity is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. In this context, adipose tissue produces a variety of adipokines and releases free fatty acids, contributing to a chronic-low grade inflammation state implicated in vascular complications. In this study we investigated the role of ...
Banda Kalyan - - 2012
Although N-acetyl groups are common in nature, N-glycolyl groups are rare. Mammals express two major sialic acids, N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Although humans cannot produce Neu5Gc, it is detected in the epithelial lining of hollow organs, endothelial lining of the vasculature, fetal tissues, and carcinomas. This unexpected expression ...
Bergfeld Anne K - - 2012
The two major mammalian sialic acids are N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). The only known biosynthetic pathway generating Neu5Gc is the conversion of CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid into CMP-Neu5Gc, which is catalyzed by the CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase enzyme. Given the irreversible nature of this reaction, there must be pathways for elimination or ...
Pifferi Fabien - - 2012
The particular interest in supplementing human foods with n-3 fatty acids has arisen from the findings that this series of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have an impact on neuronal functions. Indeed vertebrates, including humans, preferentially use docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) over other long-chain n-3 PUFA for the genesis of their ...
Pavlović M - - 2012
Soft tissue fillers (STFs) together with botulinum toxin have profoundly improved our possibilities to rejuvenate the face and other parts of human body. Among many types of STFs currently used for esthetic and medical indications in routine clinical practice dominate hyaluronic acid-based STFs and calcium hydroxylapatite. Collagen fillers (bovine, porcine ...
Reid David G DG Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1EW, United - - 2012
Pathomechanisms underlying vascular calcification biogenesis are still incompletely understood. Biomineral from human atherosclerotic intimal plaques; human, equine, and bovine medial vascular calcifications; and human and equine bone was released from collagenous organic matrix by sodium hydroxide/sodium hypochlorite digestion. Solid-state (13)C NMR of intimal plaque mineral shows signals from cholesterol/cholesteryl esters ...
Grigoryan Hasmik - - 2012
Long-term exposures to reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been linked to scores of chronic diseases. This has motivated interest in oxidation products of the only free cysteine residue (Cys34) of human serum albumin (HSA) as possible biomarkers of ROS exposure. However, Cys34 oxidation products have not been detected in human ...
Xiao Yi - - 2012
Human cytochrome P450 (P450) 2W1 is still considered an "orphan" because its physiological function is not characterized. To identify its substrate specificity, the purified recombinant enzyme was incubated with colorectal cancer extracts for untargeted substrate searches using an LC/MS-based metabolomic and isotopic labeling approach. In addition to previously reported fatty ...
Cunnane Stephen C - - 2012
A crossroads has been reached on research into docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). On the one hand, several prospective observational studies now clearly indicate a protective effect of higher fish and DHA intake against risk of AD. On the other hand, once AD is clinically evident, supplementation trials ...
Kotake-Nara Eiichi - - 2012
We reported previously that lysophosphatidylcholine remarkably enhanced β-carotene uptake from bile acid-mixed micelles by human intestinal Caco-2 cells. In the present study, we evaluated how mixed micelle components other than phospholipids, viz., fatty acids, monoolein, and cholesterol, affect carotenoid uptake by Caco-2 cells. Each component influenced the β-carotene uptake in ...
Kim Beob Soo - - 2012
Collagen, the most abundant protein in vertebrates, is a useful biomaterial in pharmaceutical and medical industries. So far, most collagen has been extracted from animals and cadavers. Herein, we suggest human adipose tissue, which is routinely abandoned after liposuction, as a plentiful source of human collagen. In this study, human ...
York Brian - - 2012
Oxidation of lipid substrates is essential for survival in fasting and other catabolic conditions, sparing glucose for the brain and other glucose-dependent tissues. Here we show Steroid Receptor Coactivator-3 (SRC-3) plays a central role in long chain fatty acid metabolism by directly regulating carnitine/acyl-carnitine translocase (CACT) gene expression. Genetic deficiency ...
Michelet Jean F - - 2012
Jasmonic acid is involved in plant wound repair and tissue regeneration, but no study has been reported in human skin. The effect of a jasmonic acid derivative, tetra-hydro-jasmonic acid (LR2412, 1 and 10 μm) was investigated on an in vitro reconstructed skin model, Episkin™. Using real time RTQPCR studies, results showed ...
Wang Bing - - 2012
The early stages of neurodevelopment in infants are crucial for establishing neural structures and synaptic connections that influence brain biochemistry well into adulthood. This postnatal period of rapid neural growth is of critical importance for cell migration, neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity, and axon fasciculation. These processes thus place an unusually ...
Xu Zhi-Feng - - 2012
To study the metabolic profile of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSC) and adipogenic differentiation by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. HUMSC isolated from human umbilical cord stroma were induced to adipocytes over 2 wk by adding dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, indomethacin, and insulin to the culture medium. Adipogenic differentiation was confirmed ...
Marin-Valencia Isaac - - 2012
Brain glucose supplies most of the carbon required for acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) generation (an important step for myelin synthesis) and for neurotransmitter production via further metabolism of acetyl-CoA in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. However, it is not known whether reduced brain glucose transporter type I (GLUT-1) activity, the hallmark ...
Ameur Adam A Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, SciLifeLab Uppsala, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, - - 2012
Omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are essential for the development and function of the human brain. They can be obtained directly from food, e.g., fish, or synthesized from precursor molecules found in vegetable oils. To determine the importance of genetic variability to fatty-acid biosynthesis, we studied FADS1 ...
Pinnick Katherine E KE Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, - - 2012
The expansion of lower-body adipose tissue (AT) is paradoxically associated with reduced cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk. We examined whether the beneficial metabolic properties of lower-body AT are related to the production and release of the insulin-sensitizing lipokine palmitoleate (16:1n-7). Using venoarterial difference sampling, we investigated the relative release of ...
Dubbelman Anne Charlotte - - 2012
Bendamustine is an alkylating agent consisting of a mechlorethamine derivative, a benzimidazole group, and a butyric acid substituent. A human mass balance study showed that bendamustine is extensively metabolized and subsequently excreted in urine. Limited information, however, is available on the metabolite profile of bendamustine in human urine. The objective ...
Gerchman Yoram - - 2012
Cerumen, also known as ear wax, is a yellowish waxy substance secreted from specialized glands in the ear canal of mammals. Human cerumen is rich in protein (mainly keratin), lipids (long-chain fatty acids), alcohols, squalene, and cholesterol. To-date the role of cerumen is not totally clear but it is believed ...
Torres María José - - 2012
The single cysteine residue of human serum albumin (HSA-SH) is the most abundant plasma thiol. HSA transports fatty acids (FA), a cargo that increases under conditions of diabetes, exercise or adrenergic stimulation. The stearic acid-HSA (5/1) complex reacted sixfold faster than FA-free HSA at pH 7.4 with the disulfide 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic ...
Vaya Jacob - - 2012
Many human conditions, including neurological diseases, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetic complications and aging, are thought to be associated with oxidative stress (OS). The development of reliable and informative markers for the characterization of OS in humans is thus highly important. Various endogenous markers are known, but their accumulation with increasing OS ...
Jacobs Doris M - - 2012
Red wine and grape polyphenols are considered to promote cardiovascular health and are involved in multiple biological functions. Their overall impact on the human metabolome is not known. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous metabolilc effects were determined in fasting plasma and 24-hour urine from healthy male adults consuming a mix of ...
Wattanachai Nitsupa - - 2012
Long chain unsaturated fatty acids inhibit several cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes involved in drug metabolism, including CYP2C8, CYP2C9, UGT1A9, UGT2B4 and UGT2B7. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) enhances these P450 and UGT activities by sequestering fatty acids that are released during the course of incubations, especially with human liver ...
Kishita Yoshihito - - 2012
Mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP), which consists of the MTPα and MTPβ subunits, catalyzes long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation. MTP deficiency in humans results in Reye-like syndrome. Here, we generated Drosophila models of MTP deficiency by targeting two genes encoding Drosophila homologs of human MTPα and MTPβ, respectively. Both Mtpα(KO) and Mtpβ(KO) ...
Baack M L - - 2012
To determine fatty acid levels in the US donor milk supply. Donor human milk samples from Iowa (n=62), Texas (n=5), North Carolina (n=5) and California (n=5) were analyzed by gas chromatography. Levels in the Iowa donor milk were compared before and after pasteurization using Student's t-test. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and ...
Valdearcos Martín - - 2012
Lipin-2 is a member of the lipin family of enzymes, which are key effectors in the biosynthesis of lipids. Mutations in the human lipin-2 gene are associated with inflammatory-based disorders; however, the role of lipin-2 in cells of the immune system remains obscure. In this study, we have investigated the ...
Contreras Carlos M - - 2012
In humans, maternal cues guide newborns to the maternal breast, and transitional cues may be present in maternal-fetal fluids. The aim of the present study was to determine the consistent presence of sensorial cues in three maternal-fetal fluids-amniotic fluid, colostrum, and milk-and test the ability of these cues to produce ...
Nobusawa Eri - - 2012
It is not well understood how the antibodies of individual convalescent human serum bind to each amino acid residue at the antigenic sites of hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza viruses, and how the antigenic drift strains of influenza viruses are selected by the human sera. In our previous study we indicated ...
Kumar Amit - - 2012
In the present study, two freshwater fishes Channa punctatus and Clarias batrachus were exposed to sub-acute concentrations of a commercial-grade λ-cyhalothrin, REEVA-5, for 96 h to observe the changes in amino acid catabolism under pyrethroid-induced stress and to investigate the comparative mechanisms of ammonia detoxification in both fishes. The experiments ...
Botta Sergio B - - 2012
This study aimed to evaluate the chemical interaction of collagen with some substances usually applied in dental treatments to increase the durability of adhesive restorations to dentin. Initially, the similarity between human dentin collagen and type I collagen obtained from commercial bovine membranes of Achilles deep tendon was compared by ...
Tomé Luciana I N - - 2012
Although the understanding of the influence of ionic liquids (ILs) on the solubility behavior of biomolecules in aqueous solutions is relevant for the design and optimization of novel biotechnological processes, the underlying molecular-level mechanisms are not yet consensual or clearly elucidated. In order to contribute to the understanding of the ...
Mock Christie M - - 2012
Purpose The use of levocarnitine for the treatment of valproic-acid-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy (VHE) is reviewed. Summary VHE is generally characterized by an acute onset of impaired consciousness, focal neurologic symptoms, and increased seizure frequency. The exact mechanism of VHE is unclear but relates to the accumulation of toxic valproic acid ...
Sato Shun - - 2012
2,3-O-Dipalmitoyl-D-glyceric acid (PA<inf>2</inf>-DGA) was synthesized from D-glyceric acid calcium salt and palmitoyl chloride with improved yield. Direct condensation between the D-glyceric acid calcium salt and palmitoyl chloride produced PA<inf>2</inf>-DGA with a yield of <10%, whereas stepwise synthesis yielded this compound at up to 24% of overall yield. PA<inf>2</inf>-DGA was then ...
Gotoh Naohiro - - 2012
Actual ratios of triacylglycerol (TAG) positional isomers in human, rat, and cow milk fat and cow, buffalo, goat, and sheep cheese fat were analyzed using HPLC-UV-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS/MS system equipped with an octacosyl silylation column or polymeric ODS column. We substituted cheese fats for milk fats in parts of ...
Rigobello-Masini Marilda - - 2012
This chapter describes a sequential injection chromatography method to automate the fluorimetric determination of amino acids after precolumn derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde in presence of 2-mercaptoethanol using reverse-phase liquid chromatography in C(18) silica-based monolithic column. The method is low-priced and based on six steps of isocratic elutions. At a flow rate ...
Gefflaut Thierry - - 2012
Aminotransferases are key enzymes of the metabolism of proteinogenic amino acids. These ubiquitous biocatalysts show high specific activities and relaxed substrate specificities making them valuable tools for the stereoselective synthesis of unnatural amino acids. We describe here the application of aspartate aminotransferase and branched chain aminotransferase from E. coli for ...
Tedeschi Gabriella - - 2012
D: -Amino acid oxidase and D: -aspartate oxidase are two well-known FAD-containing flavooxidases that catalyze the same reaction (the oxidative deamination) on different D: -amino acids. D: -aspartate oxidase is specific for acidic D: -amino acids (i.e., D: -aspartate and D: -glutamate) and D: -amino acid oxidase is active on ...
Nagahama Kenji - - 2012
Reflux esophagitis is caused mainly by excessive exposure of the mucosa to gastric contents. In the present study, we examined the effect of several amino acids on acid reflux esophagitis in rats. After 18 h of fasting, acid reflux esophagitis was induced by ligating both the pylorus and the transitional ...
Han De-en DE State Key Laboratory of Natural Products and Functions, Ministry of Education, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, P.R. - - 2012
Glucuronidation is an important pathway in the elimination of salvianolic acid A (Sal A); however the mechanism of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) in this process remains to be investigated. In this study, the kinetics of Sal A glucuronidation by pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs), pooled human intestinal microsomes (HIMs) and 12 recombinant ...
López-Meraz Maria-Leonor - - 2011
Incidence of status epilepticus (SE) is higher in children than in adults and SE can be induced in developing rats. The cerebellum can be affected after SE; however, consequences of cerebellar amino acid transmission have been poorly studied. The goal of this study was to determine amino acid tissue concentration ...
Beyoğlu Diren - - 2012
The proposition posed is that the value of amino acid conjugation to the organism is not, as in the traditional view, to use amino acids for the detoxication of aromatic acids. Rather, the converse is more likely, to use aromatic acids that originate from the diet and gut microbiota to ...
Koh Phil-Ok - - 2011
Ferulic acid protects neuronal cells from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and focal cerebral ischemia. This study investigated whether ferulic acid exerts a neuroprotective effect through the activation of Akt and its downstream targets, Bad and 14-3-3. Adult male rats were immediately treated with ferulic acid (100mg/kg, i.v.) after middle cerebral artery occlusion ...
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