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Results 351 - 400 of 1403
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Marimganti Srinivasa - - 2005
The synthesis of the omega-amino acid 4 is described utilizing a two-dimensional synthesis strategy combined with an enzymatic differentiation of homotopic ester groups. The amino acid 4 features two non-bonded interactions that result in conformational constraints on a cyclic construct. This amino acid was incorporated into the four macrolactams 17, ...
Lee Suzanne R - - 2005
Amino acid deprivation triggers dramatic physiological responses in all organisms, altering both the synthesis and destruction of RNA and protein. Here we describe, using the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a previously unidentified response to amino acid deprivation in which mature transfer RNA (tRNA) is cleaved in the anticodon loop. We observed ...
Dale Taraka - - 2005
Recent structural and biochemical experiments indicate that bacterial elongation factor Tu and the ribosomal A-site show specificity for both the amino acid and the tRNA portions of their aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) substrates. These data are inconsistent with the traditional view that tRNAs are generic adaptors in translation. We hypothesize that each ...
Schneider Stephen E SE Process Research and Development, Trimeris, Inc., Durham, Morrisville, NC, USA. - - 2005
In the past 25 years, the worldwide AIDS epidemic has grown such that roughly 38 million people were estimated to be living with the disease worldwide at the end of 2003. The introduction of antiretroviral-based therapies, beginning in 1987, has enabled many to live with HIV as a chronic, rather ...
Queiroz Maria-João R P - - 2005
[structure: see text] A new photochromic thieno-2H-chromene alpha-amino acid derivative was prepared by C-N palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of a bromothieno-2H-chromene with the aminated aromatic side chain of the methyl ester of a N,N-diprotected amino acid. Its good photochromic properties demonstrated by flash photolysis and continuous irradiation indicate a possible application in ...
Krzycki Joseph A - - 2005
Pyrrolysine is an amino acid encoded by the amber codon in genes required for methylamine utilization by members of the Methanosarcinaceae. Pyrrolysine and selenocysteine share the distinction of being the only two non-canonical amino acids that have entered natural genetic codes. Recent experiments have shown that encoding of pyrrolysine, unlike ...
Auernheimer Jörg - - 2006
The development of biocompatible coatings is an ongoing issue. Mimicking the physiological adhesion process of osteoblasts to the extracellular matrix improves cell adhesion of osteoblasts in vitro and results in improved and earlier osseous integration of implants in vivo. Titanium, an often used material in implant surgery, can be easily ...
Yin Zheng - - 2006
Substrate-based tetrapeptide inhibitors with various warheads were designed, synthesized, and evaluated against the Dengue virus NS3 protease. Effective inhibition was achieved by peptide inhibitors with electrophilic warheads such as aldehyde, trifluoromethyl ketone, and boronic acid. A boronic acid has the highest affinity, exhibiting a K(i) of 43 nM.
Park Eun Young - - 2005
The effects of the addition of amino acids and peptides on the oxidation of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (EPE) encapsulated by maltodextrin (MD) were investigated. The encapsulated lipid was prepared in two steps, that is, by mixing of EPE with MD solutions (+/-amino acids and peptides) to produce emulsions and ...
Torres Allan M - - 2005
The recent discovery that the natriuretic peptide OvCNPb (Ornithorhynchus venom C-type natriuretic peptide B) from platypus (Ornithorynchus anatinus) venom contains a D-amino acid residue suggested that other D-amino-acid-containing peptides might be present in the venom. In the present study, we show that DLP-2 (defensin-like peptide-2), a 42-amino-acid residue polypeptide in ...
Hojo Hironobu - - 2005
Peptide thioester corresponding to a MUC2 tandem repeat unit, which retains seven GalNAc moieties, was prepared by the Fmoc method followed by the low TfOH treatment to remove benzyl groups at the carbohydrate portions. The glycosylated peptide thioester was then consecutively joined by the activation of a thioester group by ...
Chin Hang Gyeong - - 2005
The activity of recombinant murine G9a toward lysine 9 of histone H3 was investigated. GST fusion proteins containing various lengths of the histone H3 amino-terminal tail were used as substrates in the presence of recombinant G9a enzyme and AdoMet cosubstrate. The minimal substrate methylated by G9a contained seven amino acids ...
Plankensteiner Kristof - - 2005
"Mutual" amino acid catalysis of glycine on the formation of ditryptophan, dilysine, and diserine in the prebiotically relevant Salt-Induced Peptide Formation (SIPF) Reaction was investigated varying the starting concentration and chirality of the educt amino acid, and analyzing the increase of yield resulting from this catalytic effect. Our results show ...
Frycák Petr - - 2005
Fumaric acid esters, namely dimethylfumarate, have been used for the treatment of psoriasis for many years. Still, their mode of action is not fully clear. Because addition of nucleophiles to the double bonds of fumarates can occur (Michael analogous addition), a study of the interaction of fumarates with cysteine and ...
Röhrig Christoph H - - 2005
The in vitro non-natural amino acid mutagenesis method provides the opportunity to introduce non-natural amino acids site-specifically into proteins. To this end, a chemically synthesised aminoacylated dinucleotide is enzymatically ligated to a truncated suppressor transfer RNA. The loaded suppressor tRNA is then used in translation reactions to read an internal ...
Wright Helena - - 2005
Acylaminoacyl peptidase (also known as acylamino-acid-releasing enzyme or acylpeptide hydrolase; EC 3.4.19.1) is an unusual member of the prolyl oligopeptidase family catalysing the hydrolysis of an N-acylated peptide to an acylamino acid and a peptide with a free N-terminus. Acylaminoacyl peptidase purified from porcine liver has been crystallized in mother ...
Ocampo Sandra M - - 2005
[reaction: see text] 5'-Peptide oligonucleotide conjugates were prepared stepwise on a single support using N(alpha)-Fmoc-protected amino acids and unprotected phosphate groups. The method uses commercially available reagents and is successful with most natural amino acids. The simplicity of the method may encourage researchers to prepare new oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates with novel ...
Siemion Ignacy Z - - 2005
The alpha-guanidino acids derived of 15 proteinaceous amino acids, omega-guanidino acids with gradually increased hydrocarbon chains, and amidinated dipeptides, were tested as the mimetics of antiadhesive peptides in Mycobacteria phagocytosis inhibition. The crystal structure of omega-guanidino acids used was determined by X-ray structural analysis. It follows from our experiments that ...
Biron Eric - - 2005
Derivatives of amino acids bearing a porphyrin moiety on a side chain were synthesized by coupling a porphyrin to a glutamic acid side chain; the utility of these compounds was demonstrated by their use in solid-phase synthesis of a peptide bearing a cationic porphyrin and by studying its DNA-binding properties.
Bujdák Juraj - - 2006
Preferential adsorption of dipeptide diastereomers (dialanine, Val-Ala) on clay mineral surfaces was observed. Significantly higher adsorption of dipeptides composed from only one type of enantiomer of amino acid units in comparison to those containing both L- and D-type of amino acid units in their molecules, was experimentally proven. This selectivity ...
Zhang Xingang X Roger Adams Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, - - 2005
The synthesis of six nonproteinogenic amino acids appropriately protected for Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis is described. These amino acids are (2S,3R)-vinylthreonine, (2S)-(E)-2-amino-5-fluoro-pent-3-enoic acid (fluoroallylglycine), (S)-beta(2)-homoserine, (S) and (R)-beta(3)-homocysteine, and (2R,3R)-methylcysteine. Once incorporated into peptides, these compounds were envisioned to serve as alternative substrates for the lantibiotic synthases that dehydrate serine ...
Navab Mohamad - - 2005
A peptide containing only 4 amino acid residues (KRES) that is too small to form an amphipathic helix, reduced lipoprotein lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), increased paraoxonase activity, increased plasma HDL-cholesterol levels, rendered HDL antiinflammatory, and reduced atherosclerosis in apoE null mice. KRES was orally effective when synthesized from either L or ...
Kumar Ish - - 2005
Bacterial dd-peptidases, the targets of beta-lactam antibiotics, are believed to catalyze d-alanyl-d-alanine carboxypeptidase and transpeptidase reactions in vivo. To date, however, there have been few concerted attempts to explore the kinetic and thermodynamic specificities of the active sites of these enzymes. We have shown that the peptidoglycan-mimetic peptide, glycyl-l-alpha-amino-epsilon-pimelyl-d-alanyl-d-alanine, 1, ...
Salam Sayed Mohiuddin Abdus - - 2005
Alpha-chymotrypsin-catalyzed peptide synthesis was carried out between an N-protected D-amino acid ester and an L-amino acid amide (acyl donor, 10 mM; acyl acceptor, 50 mM; enzyme, 2 mg ml(-1); pH 8). By using a highly reactive carbamoylmethyl (Cam) ester as acyl donor, the D-amino acid was incorporated into the N-terminus ...
Cooper Travis J - - 2005
We report a new fragmentation pathway for the CID of (b3 - 1 + Cat)+ product ions derived from the model peptide AXAG, where X = beta-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, epsilon-amino-n-caproic acid, or 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid. By changing the amino acid to the C-terminal side of the amino acid X, and incorporating ...
Kourouklis Dimitrios - - 2005
Here we describe a novel technology that allows users to charge nonnatural amino acids onto any tRNA. This technology is based on a resin-immobilized ribozyme system, called Flexiresin. It enables users to readily and rapidly synthesize misacylated tRNAs with a wide variety of phenylalanine analogs. Since Flexiresin is reusable and ...
Sisido Masahiko - - 2005
Techniques for position-specific incorporation of non-natural amino acids in an in vitro protein synthesizing system are described. First, a PNA-assisted non-enzymatic tRNA aminoacylation with a variety of natural and non-natural amino acids is described. With this technique, one can aminoacylate a specific tRNA simply by adding a preformed amino acid ...
Chrikishvili D - - 2006
Transformation of [1(14)C]- and [7(14)C] benzoic acids in sterile seedlings of maize (Zea mays) and pea (Pisum sativum) was studied. The tested labeled compounds were supplied in plants through roots as water solutions. The larger part of the assimilated benzoic acid forms conjugates with low-molecular-weight plant peptides. As a result ...
Chang Ding-Kwo - - 2005
Two glutamic acid-rich fusion peptide analogs of influenza hemagglutinin were synthesized to study the organization of the charged peptides in the membranous media. Fluorescence and gel electrophoresis experiments suggested a loose association between the monomers in the vesicles. A model was built which showed that a positional difference of 3, ...
Semenova Ekaterina - - 2005
Peptide microcin J25 (MccJ25) inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase. We show that thermolysin-cleaved MccJ25 and MccJ25 lacking amino acids 13 to 17 also inhibit transcription. Our data and structural analysis of intact and thermolysin-digested MccJ25 suggest that distinct regions of MccJ25 are involved in transcription inhibition and cell entry.
Dwivedi Shweta - - 2005
We report the crystal structure of an archaea-specific editing domain of threonyl-tRNA synthetase that reveals a marked structural similarity to D-amino acid deacylases found in eubacteria and eukaryotes. The domain can bind D-amino acids despite a low sequence identity to other D-amino acid deacylases. These results together indicate the presence ...
Willett R L - - 2005
A fundamental, yet underexplored, materials system is the interface between biological molecules and inorganic surfaces. In an elemental approach to this problem, we have systematically examined the adhesion of amino acids to a series of inorganic surfaces including metals, insulators, and semiconductors. Significant differential adhesion is observed over the full ...
Neuhof Torsten - - 2005
Hassallidin A (1), a new antifungal glycosylated lipopeptide, was isolated from an epilithic cyanobacterium collected in Bellano, Italy, identified as Tolypothrix (basionym Hassallia) species. Chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectroscopic analyses, including one- and two-dimensional NMR, were performed to determine an esterified eight-residue cyclic peptide linked with a carbohydrate and a ...
Vaughan M D - - 2005
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the stepwise coupling of specific amino acid substrates to their cognate tRNAs. The first intermediate formed in this process is the aminoacyl-adenylate, which then subsequently reacts with the 3'-terminus of the cognate tRNA to transfer the amino acid to the tRNA. This overall reaction is critical for ...
Takayama Toshimitsu - - 2005
It is generally believed that only L-amino acids are acceptable in protein synthesis, though some D-amino acids, including D-tyrosine, D-aspartate, and D-tryptophan are known to be bound enzymatically to tRNAs. In this report, we newly show that D-histidine and D-lysine are also able to be the substrates of respective Escherichia ...
Ramachandran Sivakumar S Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, - - 2005
A pair of mutually attractive but self-repulsive decapeptides, with alternating charged/neutral amino acid sequence patterns, was found to co-assemble into a viscoelastic material upon mixing at a low total peptide concentration of 0.25 wt %. Circular dichroism spectroscopy of individual decapeptide solutions revealed their random coil conformation. Transmission electron microscopy ...
Huck Bayard R - - 2005
[reaction: see text] We have recently shown that members of a new class of beta-peptides, containing 2,2-disubstituted pyrrolidine-4-carboxylic acid residues, display discrete conformational preferences despite the impossibility of internal hydrogen bonding (Huck et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 9035). Here we describe the synthesis of a variety of ...
Guth Ethan - - 2005
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) join amino acids to their cognate transfer RNAs, establishing an essential coding relationship in translation. To investigate the mechanism of aminoacyl transfer in class II Escherichia coli histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS), we devised a rapid quench assay. Under single turnover conditions with limiting tRNA, aminoacyl transfer proceeds at ...
Berthelot Thomas - - 2005
Two coumarin-labelled lysines were conveniently prepared as a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair for peptide cleavage detection. 7-Methoxy and 7-diethylamino coumarin-3-carboxylic acids were synthesized according to a modification of known procedures. Labelling at lysine was achieved in solution via the active N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of the carboxylic acid coumarin derivatives ...
Head D B - - 2005
The excluded protecting group (EPG) method has been used for the solution synthesis of several peptides including Merrifield's Model Tetrapeptide, linear antamanide and an analogue of magainin-1, [Ala(19), Asn(22)]magainin-1. In the approach reported, the C-terminal amino acid is esterified to the 2-position of cholestane as the [2s,3s]iodohydrin ester and the ...
Plankensteiner Kristof - - 2005
The catalytic effects of the simple amino acid glycine on the formation of diproline and divaline in the prebiotically relevant salt-induced peptide formation (SIPF) reaction was investigated in systems of different amino acid starting concentrations and using the two enantiomeric forms of the respective amino acid. Results show an improved ...
Carpenter Anne E - - 2005
Large-scale chromatin decondensation has been observed after the targeting of certain acidic activators to heterochromatic chromatin domains. Acidic activators are often modular, with two or more separable transcriptional activation domains. Whether these smaller regions are sufficient for all functions of the activators has not been demonstrated. We adapted an inducible ...
Teixidó M - - 2005
A library of peptides required for a project investigating the factors relevant for blood-brain barrier transport was synthesized on solid phase. As a result of the high N-methylamino acid content in the peptides, their syntheses were challenging and form the basis of the work presented here. The coupling of protected ...
Dittmar Kimberly A - - 2005
Aminoacylated (charged) transfer RNA isoacceptors read different messenger RNA codons for the same amino acid. The concentration of an isoacceptor and its charged fraction are principal determinants of the translation rate of its codons. A recent theoretical model predicts that amino-acid starvation results in 'selective charging' where the charging levels ...
Rothman Deborah M - - 2005
We present the chemical and biological synthesis of caged phosphoproteins using the in vitro nonsense codon suppression methodology. Specifically, phosphoamino acid analogues of serine, threonine, and tyrosine with a single photocleavable o-nitrophenylethyl caging group were synthesized as the amino acyl tRNA adducts for insertion into full-length proteins. For this purpose, ...
Yokozeki Kenzo - - 2005
We report herein the development of a novel and efficient enzymatic method for the production of oligopeptides. This newly discovered method is a simple, cost-effective process, using unprotected amino acids as substrates in an aqueous solution and producing peptides in high yield. The target of our initial screen was l-alanyl-L-glutamine, ...
Mori Sumiko - - 2005
Tripeptidases from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (L9PepTR), L. lactis subsp. cremoris (L6PepTR), and L. lactis subsp. hordniae (hTPepTR) were cloned, overexpressed, purified, and characterized. Although these enzymes contained three to seven naturally occurring amino acid differences, both metal-binding and catalytic sites were highly conserved. The k(cat) values of hTPepTR were ...
Swairjo Manal A - - 2005
The genetic code is fixed in aminoacylation reactions catalyzed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Amino acid discrimination occurs at two sites: one for amino acid activation and aminoacylation and one for editing misactivated amino acids. Although the active site sieves out bulkier amino acids, misactivation occurs with substrates whose side chains are ...
Cho Soung-Hun - - 2005
An antimicrobial peptide was purified from fermented skate skin extract using the solid-phase extraction and separation on HPLC reversed-phase chromatography. Amino acid sequence of the purified peptide (Peak A) having an antimicrobial activity revealed the presence of many cationic residues of the total 28 amino acids. Its molecular mass was ...
Bernatchez Pascal N - - 2005
In endothelia, NO is synthesized by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), which is negatively regulated by caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the primary coat protein of caveolae. We show that delivery of Cav-1 amino acids 82-101 (Cav) fused to an internalization sequence from Antennapedia (AP) blocks NO release in vitro and inflammation and tumor ...
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