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Beyo─člu Diren - - 2012
The proposition posed is that the value of amino acid conjugation to the organism is not, as in the traditional view, to use amino acids for the detoxication of aromatic acids. Rather, the converse is more likely, to use aromatic acids that originate from the diet and gut microbiota to ...
Koh Phil-Ok - - 2011
Ferulic acid protects neuronal cells from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and focal cerebral ischemia. This study investigated whether ferulic acid exerts a neuroprotective effect through the activation of Akt and its downstream targets, Bad and 14-3-3. Adult male rats were immediately treated with ferulic acid (100mg/kg, i.v.) after middle cerebral artery occlusion ...
Shinoda Satoshi - - 2011
A dynamic combinatorial library of lanthanide complexes was prepared to develop induced-circular-dichroism (CD) chirality probes. It totaled 168 combinations of coordinative N-aromatic chromophores, trivalent lanthanide centers, and guest amino acids. Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) complexes prepared with quinolinecarboxylic acid were particularly effective as induced-CD chirality probes for selective alanine detection, whereas ...
Rodrigues Melissa Raboni Alves - - 2011
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: : Salvia officinalis L. has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for gastric disturbances and inflammatory processes. This study investigated the toxicological, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroalcoholic extract (HE) from leaves of Salvia officinalis and its isolated compounds in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were ...
Liu Jian-Sheng - - 2011
Objective Glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 (GAD65) is a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthetase. This study aimed to construct a recombinant lentivirus-rGAD65 (rLV-rGAD65) vector containing the cDNA of rat GAD65 (rGAD65) and assess its functional activity in vitro and in vivo. Methods cDNA of rGAD65 was amplified by RT-PCR and subcloned into ...
Li Yinxia - - 2011
L: -Amino acid dehydrogenases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible oxidative deamination of L: -amino acids to their corresponding 2-oxoacids, using either nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+)) as cofactors. These enzymes have been studied widely because of their potential applications in the ...
Ding Jianxun - - 2011
A novel pH-responsive poly(amino acid) grafted with oligocation was prepared through the combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and subsequent atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Firstly, poly(γ-2-chloroethyl-L-glutamate) (PCELG) with a pendent 2-chloroethyl group was synthesized through ROP of γ-2-chloroethyl-L-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride (CELG NCA) using n-hexylamine as the initiator. Then, PCELG was used ...
McGlinchey Ryan P - - 2011
Pmel17 is a human amyloid involved in melanin synthesis. A fragment of Pmel17, the repeat domain (RPT) rich in glutamic acids, forms amyloid only at mildly acidic pH. Unlike pathological amyloids, these fibrils dissolve at neutral pH, supporting a reversible aggregation-disaggregation process. Here, we study RPT dissolution using atomic force ...
Li Yang - - 2011
We have accomplished an asymmetric synthesis of each enantiomer of 4,4-difluoroglutamic acid. This α-amino acid has been of interest in medicinal chemistry circles. Key features of the synthesis include highly scalable procedures, a Reformatsky-based coupling reaction, and straightforward functional group manipulations to make the parent amino acid. Enantioenrichment derives from ...
Kim Hyeyoung - - 2011
Dietary supplementation with nutrients enhancing immune function is beneficial in patients with surgical and critical illness. Malnutrition and immune dysfunction are common features in hospitalized patients. Specific nutrients with immunological and pharmacological effects, when consumed in amounts above the daily requirement, are referred to as immune-enhancing nutrients or immunonutrients. Supplementation ...
Park Hye Sun - - 2011
pH-stimuli-responsive near-infrared optical imaging nanoprobes are designed and synthesized in this study in a facile one-step synthesis process based on the use of the biocompatible and biodegradable polymer poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA)/poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE). PBAE has good transfection efficiency and promotes degradation properties under acidic conditions. This pH-responsive degradability can be ...
Yang Mingxing - - 2012
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, affecting millions of people worldwide with almost 80% of them as ischemic stroke and understanding the multiple mechanisms underlying cerebral ischemia is essential for development of effective treatments. To understand metabolic changes induced by focal brain ischemia, we conducted a comparative ...
Savage Thomas J - - 2011
Understanding how environmental signals regulate production of domoic acid in blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. at a molecular level requires description of the biochemical pathway to this kainoid neurotoxin. Precursor feeding studies have suggested domoic acid arises from the condensation of the C(10) isoprenoid geranyl diphosphate with glutamate, but the specific ...
Amaral Alexandre Umpierrez - - 2011
Tissue accumulation and high urinary excretion of ethylmalonic acid (EMA) occur in ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) and short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD). Although these autosomal recessive disorders are clinically characterized by neurological abnormalities, the mechanisms underlying the brain damage are poorly known. Considering that little is known about the neurotoxicity ...
Fülöp Ferenc - - 2011
Pharmacological and histological studies of ten new amides of kynurenic acid revealed that N-(2-N,N-dimethylaminoethyl)-4-oxo-1H-quinoline-2-carboxamide hydrochloride has effective neuroprotective properties. Namely, this molecule is: (1) proved to be an effective inhibitor of excitatory synaptic transmission in the CA1 region of the hippocampus both in in vitro and ex vivo studies, (2) ...
Korus Anna - - 2011
BACKGROUND: The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the level of amino acids and quality of protein in raw and processed kale leaves. RESULTS: In all samples the dominant amino acids in g kg(-1) raw matter were glutamic acid, aspartic acid and proline. In raw kale leaves the limiting ...
Stanton-Humphreys Megan N MN Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TA, - - 2012
Irradiation of a mixture of 4-methoxyphenacyl-caged (S)-glutamate and 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzyl-caged γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) on neurons, at ~260 nm, evokes selective photorelease of (S)-glutamate (Glu) whereas photolysis at 405 nm causes selective photorelease of GABA.
Le Vo Tam Dinh - - 2011
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-essential amino acid and a precursor of pyrrolidone, a monomer of nylon 4. GABA can be biosynthesized through the decarboxylation of L: -glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase. In this study, the effects of glutamate decarboxylase (gadA, gadB), glutamate/GABA antiporter (gadC) and GABA aminotransferase (gabT) on GABA ...
Choi Sung-Seen - - 2011
Amino acid was mixed with silica and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to favor pyrolysis of amino acid monomer. The pyrolysis products formed from amino acid monomer were using GC/MS and GC. 20 amino acids of alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, ...
Han Xiao-Fei - - 2011
The anti-tumor action of Taxol was investigated in the changes of amino-acids involved in tumor cell survival. By tracing the intracellular amino-acid profiles of HeLa cells treated with non-conditioned and three conditioned media (Taxol, L: -alanine, and Taxol + L: -alanine), it was observed that an alteration of amino-acid metabolism participates in ...
Gilreath Marla S - - 2011
Elongation factor P is modified with (R)-β-lysine by the lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) paralog PoxA. PoxA specificity is orthogonal to LysRS, despite their high similarity. To investigate α- and β-lysine recognition by LysRS and PoxA, amino acid replacements were made in the LysRS active site guided by the PoxA structure. A233S ...
Prokhorova Aleksandra F - - 2011
Strong adsorption of eremomycin on the fused-silica capillary wall was used for separation of enantiomers by CE. The capillary with adsorbed chiral selector was shown to be easily prepared and has reproducible properties. The effect of the chiral selector concentration, pH and composition of the BGE, and applied voltage on ...
Pang Min - - 2011
The feasibility of esterification of phytosterol with amino acid L-Glutamic was established. The influence of various organic solvents was investigated and n-butanol was selected as an ideal solvent for phytosteryl esters synthesis with L-Glutamic. The reaction conditions were further optimized by orthogonal experiments and that 92.3% degree of esterification was ...
Su Marcia S - - 2011
Acid stress impacts the persistence of lactobacilli in industrial sourdough fermentations, and in intestinal ecosystems. However, the contribution of glutamate to acid resistance in lactobacilli has not been demonstrated experimentally, and evidence for the contribution of acid resistance to the competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough is lacking. It was therefore ...
Lammens Tijs Merijn - - 2011
Glutamic acid is an important constituent of waste streams from biofuels production. It is an interesting starting material for the synthesis of bio-based chemicals, thereby decreasing the dependency on fossil fuels. The objective of this paper was to compare the environmental impact of four bio-based chemicals from glutamic acid with ...
Chang Pishan P Centre for Biomedical Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, TW20 0EX, - - 2012
Valproic acid (VPA) is the most widely prescribed epilepsy treatment worldwide, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Our previous work identified a previously unknown effect of VPA in reducing phosphoinositide production in the simple model Dictyostelium followed by the transfer of data to a mammalian synaptic release model. In ...
Das Sudipta - - 2011
A weakly fluorescent cobalt(ii) complex is synthesized using 2-(2-pyridyl)-benzimidazole (PBI) as a chelating fluorescent ligand and characterized by single crystal X-ray structure. This complex serves as an efficient fluorescent probe for trace level determination of aspartic acid (AspA) and glutamic acid (GluA) in aqueous solution. Rest of the naturally occurring ...
Szyndler J - - 2012
Our study demonstrated that the development of seizures during the electrically induced kindling of seizures is associated with significant changes in the concentration of kynurenic acid (KYNA) and its precursor, tryptophan (TRP). The primary finding of our study was an increase in KYNA levels and the KYNA/TRP ratio (a theoretical ...
Schatschneider Sarah - - 2011
To elucidate the biosynthetic pathways for all proteinogenic amino acids in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, this study combines results obtained by in silico genome analysis and by (13)C-NMR-based isotopologue profiling to provide a panoramic view on a substantial section of bacterial metabolism. Initially, biosynthesis pathways were reconstructed from an improved annotation ...
Fulara Aleksandra - - 2011
Amyloid fibrils, which are often associated with certain degenerative disorders, reveal a number of intriguing spectral properties. However, the relationship between the structure of fibrils and their optical traits remains poorly understood. Poly(L-glutamic) acid is a model polypeptide shown recently to form amyloid-like fibrils with an atypical infrared amide I' ...
Szabó Nikoletta - - 2011
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common disabling neurodegenerative diseases. Although several therapeutic approaches are available, there are two major unresolved issues: the lack of proved neuroprotective therapy and the treatment of L-dopa-induced motor complications. In the brain, 90% of the tryptophan is metabolized in the kynurenine pathway. ...
Korff Christian M - - 2011
To increase the recognition of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies-related encephalitis in childhood. Case report and review of the literature. Patient  A 6-year-old girl who had developed refractory seizures, developmental regression, and type 1 diabetes mellitus at age 25 months. Blood analysis, electroencephalogram, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography scan, ...
Yarlagadda Atmaram A Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA. - - 2011
Glutamic acid decarboxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of gamma aminobutyric acid, an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Autoantibodies to the glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 isoform have been associated with chronic psychotic disorders and are found in neurons and pancreatic islets. Blood samples were collected from normal controls (n=16), individuals with ...
Penkman Kirsty E H - - 2011
Marine and ice-core records show that the Earth has experienced a succession of glacials and interglacials during the Quaternary (last ∼2.6 million years), although it is often difficult to correlate fragmentary terrestrial records with specific cycles. Aminostratigraphy is a method potentially able to link terrestrial sequences to the marine isotope ...
Aydillo Carlos - - 2011
A domino process that involves a Michael type addition followed by a Dieckmann reaction mediated by the participation of the cyclic carbamate group is the key step in the synthesis of both enantiomers of alpha-(hydroxymethyl)glutamic acid (HMG).
Perez-Benito Joaquin F - - 2011
The reactions of permanganate ion with seven α-amino acids in aqueous KH2PO4-K2HPO4 buffers have been followed spectrophotometrically at two different wavelengths: 526 nm (decay of MnO4 - ) and 418 nm (formation of colloidal MnO2). All the reactions studied were autocatalyzed by colloidal MnO2, the contribution of the autocatalytic reaction ...
Yamagishi Reiko - - 2011
Prostaglandin (PG) analogues may have an additional effect to protect neurons independent of IOP reduction. Only a few reports indicated that some PG analogues had neuroprotective effects or increased blood flow in in vivo and in vitro models. However, there is no comparative study using all clinically available PG analogues and also ...
Tardito Saverio - - 2011
L: -Methionine sulfoximine (MSO) and DL: -Phosphinothricin (PPT), two non-proteinogenic amino acids known as inhibitors of Glutamine Synthetase, cause a dose-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of the mTOR substrate S6 kinase 1. The effect is particularly evident in glutamine-depleted cells, where mTOR activity is very low, but is detectable for ...
Tcherkez Guillaume - - 2011
Day respiration is the cornerstone of nitrogen assimilation since it provides carbon skeletons to primary metabolism for glutamate (Glu) and glutamine synthesis. However, recent studies have suggested that the tricarboxylic acid pathway is rate limiting and mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenation is partly inhibited in the light. Pyruvate may serve as a ...
Chen Chongyi - - 2011
The synthesis and characterization of new thermo-responsive pegylated poly-L-glutamate (poly-L-EGxGlu) are described. The obtained polypeptides display low critical solution temperature (LCST) behaviors in water, and the LCST can be tuned via copolymerization of different amino acid monomers at varied molar ratio. This is the first example of thermo-responsive polypeptide made ...
Sasahara Ayako - - 2011
The aspartate:alanine antiporter (AspT) of the lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus is a member of the aspartate:alanine exchanger (AAEx) transporter family. T. halophilus AspT catalyzes the electrogenic exchange of L-aspartate(1-) with L-alanine(0). Although physiological functions of AspT were well studied, L-aspartate(1-):L-alanine(0) antiport mechanisms are still unsolved. Here we report that ...
Crockett Stephanie - - 2011
Oxidative stress and excitotoxic injury are commonly associated with several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and periventricular leukomalacia. As cystine is imported into the cell, it is used in the synthesis of intracellular glutathione, an important antioxidant necessary for the defense of brain cells from oxidative stress ...
Ohide Hiroko - - 2011
It was believed for long time that d-amino acids are not present in mammals. However, current technological advances and improvements in analytical instruments have enabled studies that now indicate that significant amounts of d-amino acids are present in mammals. The most abundant d-amino acids are d-serine and d-aspartate. d-Serine, which ...
Peng Lijie - - 2011
A series of α-glutamic acid scaffold based 4-(benzamido)-4-(1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl) butanoic acids were designed and synthesized as new ADAMTS inhibitors. The compounds dose-dependently inhibited the enzymatic activities of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5. One of the most active compound 2h potently inhibited ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 with IC(50) values of 1.2 and 0.8μM, respectively. These ...
Brauc Sigrid - - 2011
Arabidopsis possesses several genes encoding aspartate aminotransferase, which catalyzes the bidirectional conversion of aspartate into glutamate. These amino acids together with asparagine and glutamine play an important role in N storage and distribution. In addition, they act as precursors for other amino acids. The gene encoding cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase, Asp2, ...
Zhang Wei - - 2011
An improved synthesis of (2S, 4S)- and (2S, 4R)-2-amino-4-methyldecanoic acids was accomplished using a glutamate derivative as starting material and Evans' asymmetric alkylation as the decisive step. The NMR data of the two diastereomers were measured and compared with those of the natural product. As a result, the stereochemistry of ...
Moradi Mahmoud - - 2011
There has been considerable debate about the intrinsic PPII propensity of amino acid residues in denatured polypeptides. Experimentally, this scale is based on the behavior of guest amino acid residues placed in the middle of proline-based hosts. We have used classical molecular dynamics simulations combined with replica exchange methods in ...
Yong Xiaoyu - - 2011
Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a polymer with uses in foods, cosmetics, medicine and agriculture. The medium for the production of γ-PGA by Bacillusamyloliquefaciens C1 was optimized by response surface methodology using agro-industrial wastes in solid-state fermentation (SSF). The optimal SSF medium (20g substrates with 50% initial moisture) for producing γ-PGA ...
Melø Torun M - - 2011
Evaluating early changes in cerebral metabolism in hydrocephalus can help in the decision making and the timing of surgical intervention. This study was aimed at examining the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate and (13)C label incorporation into neurotransmitter amino acids and other compounds 2 weeks after rats were subjected to ...
Castro-Coronel Yaneth - - 2011
Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic severely damages the central nervous system. Glutamate is the major excitatory amino acid, and is highly neurotoxic when levels in the synaptic cleft are not properly regulated by a family of Na(+)-dependent excitatory amino acid transporters. Within the cerebellum, the activity of the Bergmann glia ...
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