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Results 551 - 600 of 1404
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Rossi Grace C - - 2002
Orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N), the endogenous ligand for the orphan receptor-like/kappa(3)-like opioid receptor clone, produces a variety of behavioral responses, including those associated with pronociception and antinociception. The OFQ/N precursor rattus-proOFQ (rppOFQ/N) contains several paired basic amino acids, which raises the possibility that post-translational processing can be responsible for the production ...
Bittner S - - 2002
Four series of omega-N-quinonyl amino acids were synthesized by Michael-like additions. The quinones include 2-phenylthio-1,4-benzoquinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone. These modified amino acids can be used for post chain assembly modifications of biologically active peptides, which target the quinonic drug to a cancer damaged area. The electron-transfer capabilities of the ...
Christophe G - - 2002
The paper describes the development of periodic modules used for the peptide synthesis of hydroxamic acid. A powder conveyor using the principle of positive weighing distribution is described. Purification is provided using automatic filtration and a liquid- liquid extraction module separation device. Device quality is improved using failure mode and ...
Chen Zhong-Zhou - - 2002
The negative-ions of N-phosphoryl amino acids were studied by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The negative-ion ESI-MS/MS of N-phosphoryl amino acids showed characteristic fragmentation patterns different from those observed in the corresponding positive-ion ESI-MS/MS and negative-ion fast-atom bombardment mass spectra. For negative-ion ESI-MS/MS, a unique fragmentation from the N-terminal ...
Gazal S - - 2001
General methods for the preparation of protected Nalpha(omega-thioalkyl) amino acids building units for backbone cyclization using reductive alkylation and on-resin preparation are described. The synthesis of non-Gly Fmoc-protected S-functionalized N-alkylated amino acids is based on the reaction of readily prepared protected omega-thio aldehyde with the appropriate amino acid. Preparation of ...
López-Macià A - - 2001
Kahalalide F, the only member of the family of peptides called kahalalides, isolated from the sacoglossan mollusc Elysia rufescens and the green alga Bryopsis sp., with important bioactivity, is in clinical trials for treatment of prostate cancer. An efficient solid-phase synthetic approach is reported. Kahalalide F presents several synthetic difficulties: ...
Turkstra J A - - 2001
Immunocastration targeting gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) can be obtained in male piglets using native GnRH conjugates. However, due to insufficient efficacy of these conjugates, improved GnRH antigens, like peptides existing of repeats of the GnRH amino acid sequence, have been designed. We previously reported about a dimerised GnRH-tandem peptide with ...
Kumar M K - - 2001
A hydrophobic analogue of human galanin (1-19) fragment has been synthesized using Boc/Bzl tactics to demonstrate the synthetic utility of the flexible crosslinked polystyrene support prepared by the suspension polymerization of styrene and 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate. The copolymer was chloromethylated to 2.36 mmol Cl/g. The functionalized resin was found to possess ...
Gavigan C S - - 2001
Intra-erythrocytic Plasmodium parasites digest host cell haemoglobin and use the liberated amino acids for protein synthesis. Although several endoproteases (aspartic, cysteine, and metallo-) have been shown to be involved in the initial stages of haemoglobin degradation, little is known about the steps immediately before amino acid release. In our studies, ...
Zhang Y - - 2001
This paper describes a two-step procedure whereby on-column ligand synthesis and partial-filling affinity capillary electrophoresis (PFACE) are sequentially coupled to each other to determine the binding constants of 9-fluorenylmethoxy carbonyl (Fmoc)-amino acid-D-Ala-D-Ala species to vancomycin (Van) from Streptomyces orientalis. In this technique four separate plugs of sample are injected onto ...
Garner P - - 2001
Alpha-helical peptide nucleic acids (alphaPNAs) are synthetic molecules that merge the alpha-helix secondary structure of peptides with the codified Watson-Crick base pairing capability of nucleic acids. It is now demonstrated that alphaPNAs made up of either L- or D-amino acids are resistant to degradation by the proteases present in human ...
Chicharro C - - 2001
In order to improve the leishmanicidal activity of the synthetic cecropin A-melittin hybrid peptide CA(1-7)M(2-9) (KWKLFKKIGAVLKVL-NH(2)), a systematic study of its acylation with saturated linear fatty acids was carried out. Acylation of the N(epsilon)-7 lysine residue led to a drastic decrease in leishmanicidal activity, whereas acylation at lysine 1, in ...
Hohsaka T - - 2001
Extension of the genetic code for the introduction of nonnatural amino acids into proteins was examined by using five-base codon-anticodon pairs. A streptavidin mRNA containing a CGGUA codon at the Tyr54 position and a tRNA(UACCG) chemically aminoacylated with a nonnatural amino acid were added to an Escherichia coli in vitro ...
Pastrnak M - - 2001
The development of a method for the site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo would significantly facilitate studies of the cellular function of proteins, as well as make possible the synthesis of proteins with novel structures and activities. Our approach to this problem consists of the generation ...
Gao Y - - 2001
Examination of the PTP1B inhibitory potency of an extensive series of phosphotyrosyl (pTyr) mimetics (Xxx) expressed in the EGFr-derived hexapeptide platform Ac-Asp-Ala-Asp-Xxx-Leu-amide previously led to the finding of high inhibitory potency when Xxx = 4-(phosphonodifluoromethyl)phenylalanyl (F2Pmp) (K(i) = 0.2 microM) and when Xxx = 3-carboxy-4-carboxymethyloxyphenylalanyl (K(i) = 3.6 microM). In ...
Cattani-Scholz A - - 2001
Two dendritic peptides containing a branched lysine core and up to eight azobenzene moieties in the periphery were synthesized on solid support employing the omega-amino acid 4-(aminomethyl)phenylazobenzoic acid. With an additional peptidic tail consisting of an oligolysine portion, water solubility was achieved for the dendrimers, which allowed for the characterization ...
Coradin T - - 2001
The polymerization of silicic acid in aqueous solutions at different pH was followed by the colorimetric molybdosilicate method. The role of four amino acids (serine, lysine, proline and aspartic acid) and the corresponding homopeptides was studied. All four amino acids behave the same way and favor the condensation of silicic ...
Iida T - - 2001
D-amino acid-containing peptides with biological activities have been isolated from invertebrates and amphibians, and partial racemization of amino acid residues in mammalian peptides associated with aging and diseases have been discussed. Here, we review the amino acid configuration determination methods in these peptides and recent progress of simultaneous determination method ...
Tominaga M - - 2001
The stable free radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid (TOAC) is the only spin labeled amino acid that has been used to date to successfully label peptide sequences for structural studies. However, severe difficulty in coupling the subsequent amino acid has been the most serious shortcoming of this paramagnetic marker. This problem stems ...
Ranganathan D - - 2001
A novel family of cystine-based spirobicyclic peptides (cystinospiranes) has been synthesized by a single-step procedure involving condensation of pentaerythritol-derived tetrachloride with either the simple L-cystine dimethyl ester or its C,C'-extended bispeptides leading to a variety of 19-membered spirobicyclic peptides or its N,N'-extended bispeptides affording the ring-expanded 25-membered cystinospiranes. The design ...
Beuning P J - - 2001
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are a family of enzymes responsible for ensuring the accuracy of the genetic code by specifically attaching a particular amino acid to their cognate tRNA substrates. Through primary sequence alignments, prolyl-tRNA synthetases (ProRSs) have been divided into two phylogenetically divergent groups. We have been interested in understanding whether ...
Pellarini F - - 2001
[see structure]. A fullerene derivative containing a free amino group has been condensed with N-Fmoc-L-glutamic acid alpha-tert-butyl ester to give a C60-functionalized amino acid. The carboxylic end of this amino acid has been deprotected in acidic conditions, and the resulting acid has been used for solid-phase peptide synthesis. The final ...
Hojo K - - 2001
Fibronectin contains the active sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), along with its synergic site Pro-His-Ser-Arg-Asn (PHSRN). However, the PHSRN peptide does not show synergic activity when it is mixed with the RGD peptide, indicating that a spatial array between RGD and PHSRN in fibronectin may be necessary for synergic activity. Here, we ...
Cavalcanti A R - - 2001
We have analyzed the relative G,C content from protein coding regions of 530 organisms and found that the ratio of the G,C content of the codons of the amino acids corresponding to Class II and Class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases decreases in a statistically significant way from prokaryotes to animals. This ...
Nakahara Y - - 2001
The prototype glycopeptidyl fragments of serglycin, a proteoglycan with the characteristic peptide sequence of repeating L-seryl-L-glycine, were synthesized by a convergent method involving block condensation on a solid support. In order to facilitate detachment of the protected glycopeptides from the resin, a new allyl ester type of linker, which is ...
Luo L - - 2001
The three-domain initiation module PheATE (GrsA) of Bacillus brevis gramicidin S synthetase catalyzes the activation, thiolation and epimerization of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe), the first amino acid incorporated into the decapeptide antibiotic gramicidin S. There are three activated intermediates in the PheATE catalyzed chemical pathway: L-phenylalanyl-adenosine-5'-monophosphate diester (L-Phe-AMP), L-Phe-S-4'-phosphopantetheine(Ppant)- and D-Phe-S-4'-Ppant-acyl enzyme. ...
Mursinna R S - - 2001
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases ensure the fidelity of protein synthesis by accurately selecting and activating cognate amino acids for aminoacylation of the correct tRNA. Some tRNA synthetases have evolved an editing active site that is separate from the amino acid activation site providing two steps or "sieves" for amino acid selection. These ...
Melo R L - - 2001
We synthesized one series of fluorogenic substrates for cathepsin B derived from the peptide Bz-F-R-MCA (Bz=benzoyl, MCA=7-methyl-coumarin amide) substituting Phe at the P(2) position by non-natural basic amino acids that combine a positively charged group with aromatic or aliphatic radicals at the same side chain, namely, 4-aminomethyl-phenylalanine, 4-guanidine-phenylalanine, 4-aminomethyl-N-isopropyl-phenylalanine, 3-pyridyl-alanine, ...
Ding J - - 2001
Langmuir isotherms and fluorescence and atomic force microscopy images of synthetic model lung surfactants were used to determine the influence of palmitic acid and synthetic peptides based on the surfactant-specific proteins SP-B and SP-C on the morphology and function of surfactant monolayers. Lung surfactant-specific protein SP-C and peptides based on ...
Oudgenoeg G - - 2001
The tyrosine-containing peptide Gly-Tyr-Gly (GYG) was oxidatively cross-linked by horseradish peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. As products, covalently coupled di- to pentamers of the peptide were identified by LC-MS. Oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid with horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide resulted in the formation of dehydrodimers. Kinetic studies ...
Bayer T - - 2001
A new synthesis of orthogonally protected diaminoglutaric acid containing peptides using the Ugi four component condensation is presented. To demonstrate that this method is useful to replace cystine by diaminoglutaric acid in biologically interesting peptides, we built up two cyclic somatostatin analogues deriving from Sandostatin and from TT-232. A photolytically ...
Ahlman B - - 2001
Insulin's effect on the synthesis of liver proteins remains to be fully defined. Previous studies using various surrogate measures of amino acyl-tRNA have reported variable results of insulin's effect on liver protein synthesis. We determined the effect of insulin with or without amino acid supplementation on the synthesis rates of ...
Wang L - - 2001
A unique transfer RNA (tRNA)/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair has been generated that expands the number of genetically encoded amino acids in Escherichia coli. When introduced into E. coli, this pair leads to the in vivo incorporation of the synthetic amino acid O-methyl-l-tyrosine into protein in response to an amber nonsense codon. ...
Wurtz N R - - 2001
[structure: see text]. Polyamides containing N-methylimidazole (Im) and N-methylpyrrole (Py) amino acids are synthetic ligands that have an affinity and specificity for DNA comparable to those of many naturally occurring DNA binding proteins. A machine-assisted Fmoc solid phase synthesis of polyamides has been optimized to afford high stepwise coupling yields ...
Farrow M A - - 2001
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases establish the rules of the genetic code by aminoacylation reactions. Occasional activation of the wrong amino acid can lead to errors of protein synthesis. For isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, these errors are reduced by tRNA-dependent hydrolytic editing reactions that occur at a site 25 A from the active site. These ...
Bianco A - - 2001
Recent advances in the chemistry of fullerene have allowed the synthesis of many classes of novel fullerene derivatives. Among these classes, fullerene-based amino acids and peptides are particularly interesting, both for structural studies and biological applications. In this review, we will discuss our own achievements in this rapidly growing field. ...
Thomas N A - - 2001
Archaeal flagellins are made initially as preproteins with short, positively charged leader peptides. Analysis of all available archaeal preflagellin sequences indicates that the -1 position is always held by a glycine while the -2 and -3 positions are almost always held by charged amino acids. To evaluate the importance of ...
Di Giulio M - - 2001
We consider a model of the origin of genetic code organization incorporating the biosynthetic relationships between amino acids and their physicochemical properties. We study the behavior of the genetic code in the set of codes subject both to biosynthetic constraints and to the constraint that the biosynthetic classes of amino ...
Gellerman G - - 2001
Protected Nalpha-(aminoallyloxycarbonyl) and Nalpha-(carboxyallyl) derivatives of all natural amino acids (except proline), and their chiral inverters, were synthesized using facile and efficient methods and were then used in the synthesis of Nalpha-backbone cyclic peptides. Synthetic pathways for the preparation of the amino acid building units included alkylation, reductive amination and ...
Kadereit D - - 2001
Lipidated peptides and their neolipoprotein derivatives are efficient tools for the investigation of biological processes in molecular detail. These compounds are often acid- and base-labile, and their synthesis requires the use of a combination of blocking groups that can be removed under very mild conditions. In this article we demonstrate ...
Lundquist J T JT - - 2001
[structure: see text]. Pure alpha-azido acids were prepared using an efficient diazo transfer method followed by buffered workup. These building blocks were used to prepare small peptides on Wang resin by two approaches. Peptides prone to diketopiperazine formation were prepared in good yields by coupling acids to resin bound iminophosphoranes ...
Makowski M - - 2001
Three dehydrotetrapeptides of rationally varying structure were prepared and tested as affectors of cathepsin C. These compounds appeared to be substrates of the enzyme, being equipotent with their classical counterparts. Thus, replacement of amino acid in a short peptide by corresponding dehydroamino acid does not prevent cathepsin C in recognizing ...
Demarcus M - - 2001
Different dipeptide analogues containing an oxirane ring in the place of the peptidic bond were prepared starting from naturally occurring amino acids. N-Fmoc-amino aldehydes were transformed into the corresponding methoxyvinyl derivatives through a Wittig reaction, and the addition of PhSeCl gave a series of different alpha-phenylselenyl aldehydes. Mukajiama reaction with ...
Bokesch H R - - 2001
A 37 amino acid cyclic polypeptide has been isolated from the organic extract of the tropical tree Palicourea condensata. Palicourein (1) is the largest of a growing family of plant peptides that contain a cyclized amino acid backbone cross-linked via three internal disulfide bridges. Palicourein inhibits the in vitro cytopathic ...
Bianco-Batlles D - - 2001
Thymosin alpha1 (Talpha1) is an immune response modifying peptide isolated from thymus tissue. The synthetic peptide has been evaluated in clinical trials as an adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy, an enhancer of vaccine potency, and an anti-viral for both hepatitis B and C. Among its multiple in vitro activities is the ...
Wan F - - 2001
A cyclic depsipeptide, georgamide (1), was isolated from an Australian cyanobacterium and characterized by spectroscopic means. The constituent units were five amino acid residues, one each of L-Thr, L-Pro, L-Val, N-Me-L-Val, and N-Me-L-Phe, and two hydroxy carboxylic acids, 2(S)-hydroxy-3(R)-methylpentanoic acid and the unusual 2,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-7-octynoic acid. The stereochemistry was determined by ...
Henlin J M - - 2001
A complete 331,776-member library of tetrapeptides made of 24 amino acid building blocks was synthesized robotically on solid phase and subjected to a deconvolution based on the inhibitory potency of the sublibraries in a HPLC assay of the S-farnesyltransferase activity in vitro. One of the non-natural peptide and noncysteine-containing leads ...
Scharn D - - 2001
A novel concept for the synthesis of macrocyclic peptidomimetics which incorporate heteroaromatic units is reported. The method involves sequential SNAr reactions of orthogonally protected amino groups of peptides and other linear oligomers on halogenated heterocycles such as 2,4,6-trichloro[1,3,5]triazine, 2,4,6-trichloropyrimidine, 4,6-dichloro-5-nitropyrimidine, and 2,6,8-trichloro-7-methylpurine. The scope of this novel solid-phase approach was ...
Tashtoush B M - - 2001
Chloramine-T (CAT) is commonly used in radiolabeling of bioactive molecules by halogenation. CAT is used to release radioactive elemental iodine by oxidation of its salts. Unfortunately, CAT is a strong oxidizing agent and can cause significant damage to peptides and proteins. This may lower the yield of the iodination reaction ...
Gorohovsky S - - 2001
Quinonyl amino acids are building blocks in the preparation of peptides which target the quinonic drug to cancer damaged area. Novel N-(3-chloro-1,4-dihydro-1,4-dioxonaphthalen-2-yl)-alpha-amino acids la-f were prepared by direct substitution of 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone. The quinonic moiety was reduced by NaBH4 to yield the corresponding hydroquinones 2a-f, which in acidic conditions underwent internal ...
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