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Ticu Elena-Loredana - - 2004
The hydrolysis kinetics of native and denatured haemoglobin, using pepsin immobilized on aluminium oxide, was studied in order to produce hydrolysates containing bioactive peptides. Pepsin was immobilized on acidic alumina and on 2-ethanolamine- O -phosphate (2-EAOP)-modified acidic alumina. Surface charge of the two supports was determined as a function of ...
Umetsu Hironori - - 2004
An action for various peptides and a kinetic study for amino acid p-nitroanilides (pNAs) and 4-methylcoumaryl-7-amides (MCAs) were performed with purified aminopeptidase from the mid-gut of the scallop. The enzyme preferred dipeptides having Ala, Met, and Phe in the amino-terminal or the penultimate position from the amino-termini. The catalytic efficiencies, ...
Hojo Keiko - - 2004
A new N-protecting group, ethanesulfonylethoxycarbonyl (Esc), was designed to perform peptide synthesis in both aqueous and organic solvents. Esc-amino acids were prepared by the reaction of Esc-Cl and amino acids. Although Esc-Cl was a highly reactive reagent, it was not stable and decomposed during the purification procedure. A more stable ...
Azad Maryam - - 2004
This work utilizes on-column ligand synthesis and affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) to determine binding constants ( K(b)) of 9-flourenylmethyloxy carbonyl (Fmoc)-amino acid derivatives to the glycopeptide antibiotics ristocetin (Rist) and teicoplanin (Teic). In this technique, two separate plugs of sample are injected on to the capillary column and electrophoresed. The ...
Virta Pasi - - 2004
Straightforward synthesis for two pentaerythrityltetramine precursors, 2,2-bis(azidomethyl)propane-1,3-diamine (1) and 2-[N-(allyloxycarbonyl)aminomethyl]-2-azidomethylpropane-1,3-diamine (2), has been described. Both propane-1,3-diamines have been attached by reductive amination to a solid-supported backbone amide linker derived from 4-(4-formyl-3,5-dimethoxyphenoxy)butyric acid. The presence of the two methoxy substituents on the linker is essential to avoid cross-linking between two linkers. ...
Sierra Marta M D - - 2004
A set of experiments, using model compounds, was carried out in order to evaluate the influence of amide linkages on acidity measurements of humic substances (HS). Three benzene-carboxylic acids (2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid; 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and phthalic acid) and two peptides (dl-alanyl-dl-alanine, and glycil-l-leucine) were employed to simulate the major acidic functional ...
Lagnoux David - - 2004
Peptide dendrimers were prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis. Monomeric dendrimers were first obtained by assembly of a hexapeptide sequence containing alternate standard alpha-amino acids with diamino acids as branching units. The monomeric dendrimers were then dimerized by disulfide-bridge formation at the core cysteine. The synthetic strategy is compatible with functional ...
Neubert Hendrik - - 2004
Large signals from alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) matrix complexes with sodium and potassium ions were found to interfere with sensitive matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) analysis of a hydrochloric acid digest of gelatine preparations. The nature of some selected matrix clusters was investigated by conventional post-source decay and LIFT-TOF/TOF experiments. The matrix ...
Cavelier F - - 2004
The need to replace natural amino acids in peptides with nonproteinogenic counterparts to obtain new medicinal agents has stimulated a great deal of innovation on synthetic methods. Here, we report the incorporation of non-natural silylated amino acids in substance P (SP), the binding affinity for the two hNK-1 binding sites ...
Commeyras Auguste - - 2004
We propose a scenario for the dynamic co-evolution of peptides and energy on the primitive Earth. From a multi component system consisting of hydrogen cyanide, several carbonyl compounds, ammonia, alkyl amine, carbonic anhydride, borate and isocyanic acid, we show that the reversibility of this system leads to several intermediate nitriles, ...
Bacher Jamie M - - 2004
Although the genetic code is almost universal, natural variations exist that have caused evolutionary biologists to speculate about codon evolution. There are two predominant hypotheses that specify either a gradual (ambiguous intermediate) or stochastic (codon capture) change in the code. These hypotheses are similar to two biotechnology techniques that have ...
Padliya Neerav D - - 2004
Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) is a powerful technique in which experimentally measured m/z values of peptides that result from a protein digest form the basis for a characteristic fingerprint of the intact protein. Due to its propensity to generate singly-charged ions, along with its relative insensitivity to salts and buffers, ...
Nakayama Hirokazu - - 2004
The intercalation of amino acids and some peptides into Mg-Al layered double hydroxide known as hydrotalcite was examined. Although the intercalation by ion-exchange method was unsuccessful, all the amino acids except for Lys and Arg, and peptides examined could be intercalated into the layered double hydroxide by reconstruction method using ...
Spanier A M - - 2004
While the majority of meat flavor is lipid in origin, the contribution of peptides and amino acids to overall meat flavor should not be overlooked. Amino acids and peptide levels have been shown to change with postmortem aging in muscle and with dry-curing, a process similar to PMA. Variation in ...
Yokoyama Shinnosuke - - 2003
We observed chemical evolution in a mixture of four amino acids, glycine, L-alanine, L-valine and L-aspartic acid, circulated through a flow reactor simulating the thermodynamic conditions of a hydrothermal environment. These monomers form peptides with tertiary structures and potential catalytic functions. The HPLC profile of synthesized oligomers varied with each ...
Cichosz Grazyna - - 2003
The relation between the sensory quality of Gouda cheese and the extent of paracasein degradation, i. e., the content of soluble N, peptide N, amino acid N and amine N, was studied. The above-mentioned parameters of paracasein degradation differently determined the sensory properties of Gouda cheese. The flavour of cheese ...
Santoro Stephen W - - 2003
The addition of novel amino acids to the genetic code of Escherichia coli involves the generation of an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and tRNA pair that is 'orthogonal', meaning that it functions independently of the synthetases and tRNAs endogenous to E.coli. The amino acid specificity of the orthogonal synthetase is then modified ...
Clive Derrick L J - - 2003
Three amino acids were converted into the derivatives 5.2 (from glycine), 6.4a and 6.4b (from alanine), and 8.3a and 8.3b (from O-benzyl serine). These N-alkylated amino acids, which can be deprotected after conversion of the carboxyl into an amide, correspond to the general structure 2.1, a compound class of use ...
You Shu-Li - - 2003
The total synthesis of dendroamide A (1), a multidrug-resistance reversing bistratamide-type peptide-derived macrocycle, has been accomplished in 19% yield. Fmoc-protected amino acids were condensed into appropriately protected dipeptides which were treated with bis(triphenyl)oxodiphosphonium trifluoromethanesulfonate to afford oxazoles and thiazolines (oxidized to thiazoles) with high chemo- and stereoselectivity. The convergent condensation ...
Takemura Toshio - - 2004
The epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain of the bovine blood coagulation factor IX (45-87) carrying glucose at Ser(53) was synthesized by a solid-phase method using 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-amino acids. The introduction of Ser(53) was carried out using the benzotriazolyl ester of Fmoc-serine carrying an unmasked glucose. The remaining sequence was also ...
Shao Ning - - 2003
Glycopeptide 1 with the fucosylated trisaccharide, beta-d-GlcNAc(1-->4)[alpha-l-Fuc(1-->6)]-beta-d-GlcNAc, linked to the Asn of CD52 peptide was prepared by two methods, both of which used the free glycosyl Asn 12 and glycotripeptide 21 as key intermediates. Thus, after the trisaccharide was prepared and linked to Asn, the carbohydrate moiety was deprotected to ...
Nordin Brian E - - 2003
The genetic code depends on amino acid fine structure discrimination by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. For isoleucyl- (IleRS) and valyl-tRNA synthetases (ValRS), reactions that hydrolyze misactivated noncognate amino acids help to achieve high accuracy in aminoacylation. Two editing pathways contribute to aminoacylation fidelity: pretransfer and post-transfer. In pretransfer editing, the misactivated amino ...
Murakami Hiroshi - - 2003
Here, we report a simple and economical tRNA aminoacylation system based upon a resin-immobilized ribozyme, referred to as Flexiresin. This catalytic system features a broad spectrum of activities toward various phenylalanine (Phe) analogs and suppressor tRNAs. Most importantly, it allows users to perform the tRNA aminoacylation reaction and isolate the ...
Pradeille Nicolas - - 2003
The protected 11 amino acid segment (6-16) of the peptaibol zervamicin II-2 was synthesized by using the 'azirine/oxazolone method' for the introduction of all Aib residues. Whereas a 2,2-dimethyl-2H-azirin-3-amine was used as the building block for Aib(7), methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-azirine-3-prolinate and -3-(3-hydroxyprolinate) proved to be ideally suited as dipeptide synthons for ...
Heyd Andrew - - 2003
A mathematical model is presented for the steps in the elongation process, and the steady-state elongation rate as a function of the amino acid concentrations is found. In addition, the reset sub-process of the elongation process is modeled. The rate of elongation of peptide chains is found to be a ...
Teixido Meritxell - - 2003
Preliminary studies and synthesis development for the preparation of a bicyclic homodetic peptide library have been carried out using orthogonal protection schemes. The best results have been obtained using two Fmoc/tBu-based strategies, in which the first cycle is carried out in the solid phase through side chain functional groups previously ...
Virta Pasi - - 2003
A straightforward method for the solid-supported synthesis of cryptand-like bicyclic peptides (1-5) on a backbone amide linker has been described. For the branching, two novel easily available building blocks, viz. N-(4-methoxytrityl)-N-(2-nitrobenzenesulfonyl)-protected N,N-bis(2-aminoethyl)-beta-alanine (6) and N-(9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl) protected iminodiacetic acid monoallyl ester (7), have been employed. The key steps of the synthesis ...
Basak Amit - - 2003
Novel enediynyl amino acids and peptides 3 and 5-8 were synthesized and their thermal reactivity towards Bergman cyclization studied and compared with the earlier reported amino acid 4, which demonstrated, for the first time, the effect of H-bonding and electrostatic interactions in lowering the activation energy of Bergman cyclization.
Yang Hongbo - - 2003
Until 30 years ago, it had been considered that D-amino acids were excluded from living systems except for D-amino acids in the cell wall of microorganisms. However, D-amino acids, in the form of free amino acids, peptides and proteins, were recently detected in various living organisms from bacteria to mammals. ...
Patil Basanagoud S - - 2003
The Curtius rearrangement of Fmoc-amino acid azides 1 was carried out in toluene by refluxing the solution for 30 min. The resulting isocyanates 2 have been isolated as crystalline solids and are fully characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and mass spectra. They are found to be stable for ...
Lee Sung G - - 2003
D-amino acids are commonly found in peptide antibiotics and the cell wall peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls but have not been identified in proteins or enzymes. Here we report the presence of 6-7 A-alanine residues in an endopeptidase of Streptococcus pyogenes, a unique enzyme involved in surface protein attachment that ...
Bonnet Dominique - - 2003
A novel procedure for the preparation of alpha-hydrazinoacetyl peptides is reported on the basis of the solid-phase coupling of partially or fully Boc-protected hydrazino acetic acid derivatives. The degree of unwanted polymerization of the activated ester during both activation and coupling was found to be significant for the monoprotected derivative ...
Okimura Keiko - - 2003
Acylation with long-chain fatty acids is a common modification at the N-terminal glycine residues of natural proteins. In this work, we performed HPLC analysis of myristoylglycine (Myr-Gly-OH), palmitoylglycine (Pal-Gly-OH) or lauroylglycine (Lau-Gly-OH), which were produced in the hydrolysates of synthetic Myr-Gly-, Pal-Gly-, or Lau-Gly-peptides, respectively, by means of a mild ...
Mwangi Daniel W - - 2003
N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) is one of the two most common forms of sialic acids present in glycoproteins and glycolipids of mammalian tissues. It is synthesized from the most ubiquitous sialic acid, N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) in a hydroxylation reaction catalysed by the enzyme Neu5Ac hydroxylase. Though Neu5Gc conjugates are prevalent in ...
Leitner Alexander - - 2003
A general labelling method is presented which allows the determination of the number of guanidine groups (related to arginine and homoarginine in peptides and proteins) by means of mass spectrometry. It implies a guanidine-selective derivatization step with 2,3-butanedione and an arylboronic acid under aqueous, alkaline conditions (pH 8-10). The reaction ...
Smith C Jeffrey - - 2003
Bombesin (BBN), a 14 amino acid peptide, is an analogue of human gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) that binds to GRP receptors (GRPrs) with high affinity and specificity. The GRPr is overexpressed on a variety of human cancer cells, including prostate, breast, lung, and pancreatic cancers. The specific aim of this study ...
Zikos Christos - - 2003
Four trityl-type (i.e. non-substituted trityl-, o-Cl-trityl-, o-F-trityl- and p-CN-trityl-) amidomethyl polystyrene resins were evaluated comparatively, in terms of the stability of the trityl-ester bond in slightly acidic dichloromethane solutions, and the p-CN-trityl-amidomethyl polystyrene resin was found to be the most stable of them. The above resins were applied, in parallel ...
Frankel Adam - - 2003
The universal genetic code links the 20 naturally occurring amino acids to the 61 sense codons. Previously, the UAG amber stop codon (a nonsense codon) has been used as a blank in the code to insert natural and unnatural amino acids via nonsense suppression. We have developed a selection methodology ...
Bray Brian L BL Trimeris, Inc., 3518 West Gate Drive, Durham, Noth Carolina NC27707, USA. - - 2003
The large-scale commercial production of a 36-amino-acid peptide by chemical synthesis has been demonstrated in the development of enfuvirtide (T-20 or Fuzeon), a first-in-class membrane fusion inhibitor for the treatment of HIV. The rationale behind route selection and the scale-up of the process used to manufacture enfuvirtide are discussed.
Jacob Rebecca - - 2003
The dissolution, spray and deposition (DSD) technique, a novel infrared (IR) sampling technique, gives very sharp spectra for amino acids and peptides. The mechanism of this unique technique has been established by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies and found to be due to the formation of several layers of fairly ...
Soengas Raquel G - - 2003
A promising new strategy for the transformation of nitrohexofuranoses into cyclopentylamines, based on intramolecular cyclization followed by controlled opening of the resulting 2-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane derivatives, allowed the first total synthesis of a carbocyclic beta-amino acid and its incorporation into peptides. This strategy also afforded a new route to cyclopentylamines with well-known ...
Rhoades Elizabeth - - 2003
Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is the major component of amyloid plaques found in the pancreatic islets of persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus. HIAPP belongs to the group of amyloidogenic proteins, characterized by their aggregation and deposition as fibrillar amyloid in various body tissues. The aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins ...
Zhang Chun-Mei - - 2003
Escherichia coli cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CysRS) achieves a high level of amino acid specificity without an editing reaction. The crystal structure of CysRS bound to substrate cysteine suggested that direct thiol coordination to a tightly bound zinc ion at the base of the active site is the primary determinant of selectivity ...
Croft Anna K - - 2003
Ab initio calculations have been used to design radical-resistant amino acid residues. Optimized structures of free and protected amino acids and their corresponding alpha-carbon-centered radicals were determined with B3-LYP/6-31G(d). Single-point RMP2/6-31G(d) calculations on these structures were then used to obtain radical stabilization energies, to examine the effect of steric repulsion ...
Carpino Louis A - - 2003
[reaction: see text] Isolated Fmoc amino acid fluorides have previously been shown to be among the most efficient reagents for peptide bond formation. Now, it has been found that anionic, polyhydrogen fluoride additives are capable of diverting many of the classical peptide coupling processes to acid fluoride couplings. Examples include ...
Yanagisawa Tatsuo - - 2003
Two isoleucyl-tRNA synthetases (IleRSs) encoded by two distinct genes (ileS1 and ileS2) were identified in pseudomonic acid (mupirocin)-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens. The most striking difference between the two IleRSs (IleRS-R1 and IleRS-R2) is the difference in their abilities to resist pseudomonic acid. Purified IleRS-R2 showed no sensitivity to pseudomonic acid even ...
Spivey Alan C - - 2003
The solid-phase synthesis of a cyclic peptide containing the 21-residue epitope found in the A-B loop of the Cepsilon3 domain of human immunoglobulin E has been carried out. The key macrocyclization step to form the 65-membered ring is achieved in approximately 15% yield via an "on-resin" Sonogashira coupling reaction which ...
Müller-Hartwieg J Constanze D - - 2003
The synthesis of heterocyclic compounds containing the 7-membered ring system [1,4]diazepane-2,5-dione is described. The aim of this study was to elaborate the solid phase and solution synthesis of eight representatives of the cyclic scaffold and to investigate their chemical stability and their conformational properties. The solid phase synthesis was performed ...
Bourel-Bonnet Line - - 2003
The modification of a peptide antigen by a fatty acid such as palmitic acid is now recognized as a mean to induce cellular responses. Mixtures of lipopeptides, obtained by combining individually synthesized compounds, were shown to be promising synthetic vaccine candidates. Usually, in lipopeptide synthesis, the fatty acyl moiety is ...
Doorn Jonathan A - - 2003
Peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids yields the lipid aldehydes 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and 4-oxononenal (4ONE). Adduction of proteins by 4HNE is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases. At the present time, the reactivity of 4ONE toward proteins is unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify ...
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