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Results 301 - 350 of 1387
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Portilla D - - 2006
We have shown that cisplatin inhibits fatty acid oxidation, and that fibrate treatment ameliorates renal function by preventing the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation and proximal tubule cell death. Urine samples of mice treated with single injection of cisplatin (20 mg/kg body weight) were collected for 3 days and analyzed ...
Xu H - - 2006
The metabolism and excretion of imrecoxib, a novel and moderately selective cyclooxygenase-II inhibitor, were investigated in rat. The structures of metabolites were identified by mass spectrometry (MSn) and nuclear magnetic resonance. Metabolic profiles of imrecoxib in urine, bile and faeces were obtained by HPLC and LC/MSn, and cumulative excretion was ...
Geuns Jan M C - - 2006
Stevioside (250 mg capsules) was given three times daily to 10 healthy subjects. Steviol glucuronide (steviol 19-O-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid; MM, 494.58; melting point, 198-199 degrees C) was characterized in the 24 h urine as the only excretion product of oral stevioside by MS, NMR, IR, and UV spectroscopy. This is the ...
Navrátil T - - 2007
We have found that the determination of thiodiglycolic acid (TDGA) in urine may help to characterize metabolic imbalance of substances participating in methionine synthesis, which leads to hyperhomocystinuria. From the metabolic scheme, based on a proper combination of known facts, we attempted to theoretically explain and to demonstrate the possibilities ...
Yang Jie - - 2006
Hydroxylated fatty acids are important mediators of many physiological and pathophysiological processes in a variety of human tissues. Recent evidence shows that in humans many of these are ultimately excreted in the urine as the glucuronide conjugates. In this paper we describe a general approach for the chemical synthesis of ...
Wessel Julia C - - 2006
Metamizol (dipyrone, 1), a widely used drug with effective analgesic and antispasmodic properties, shows severe side effects like agranulocytosis and anaphylactic shock reactions, the reasons of which are not known until today. After oral administration 1 is completely metabolized. All hitherto known metabolites have an intact pyrazolinone ring structure like ...
Fill J A - - 2006
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a complex disorder associated with an acute inflammatory response thought to contribute to tissue injury. Desmosine, a cross-linking amino acid present in elastin, is released during matrix degradation and cleared by the kidney. Results from animal models and human disease studies have suggested that ALI ...
Ling Jie - - 2006
Metabolism and excretion of erlotinib, an orally active inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, were studied in healthy male volunteers after a single oral dose of [14C]erlotinib hydrochloride (100-mg free base equivalent, approximately 91 microCi/subject). The mass balance was achieved with approximately 91% of the administered dose recovered ...
Kim Sungkyoon - - 2006
Although the toxicity of benzene has been linked to its metabolism, the dose-related production of metabolites is not well understood in humans, particularly at low levels of exposure. We investigated unmetabolized benzene in urine (UBz) and all major urinary metabolites [phenol (PH), E,E-muconic acid (MA), hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CA)] ...
Marais Adriaan A S - - 2005
A validated GC-MS method for the analysis of urinary metabolites of alkyl benzenes is reported. Metabolites for exposure to toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene were analyzed simultaneously using stable isotope substituted internal standards. The method entailed acidic deconjugation of urine samples followed by extractive alkylation with pentafluorobenzyl bromide as alkylating agent. ...
Overy David P - - 2005
A survey of Penicillium albocoremium was undertaken to identify potential taxonomic metabolite markers. One major and four minor metabolites were consistently produced by the 19 strains surveyed on three different media. Following purification and spectral studies, the metabolites were identified as the known protein farnesyl transferase inhibitors andrastin A (1) ...
Skotland Tore - - 2006
The 99mTc-complex of NC100668 [Acetyl-Asn-Gln-Glu-Gln-Val-Ser-Pro-Tyr(3-iodo)-Thr-Leu-Leu-Lys-Gly-NC100194] is being evaluated for nuclear medical imaging of venous thromboembolism. NC100668 is a 13-amino acid peptide with a Tc-binding chelator [NC100194; -NH-CH2-CH2-N(CH2-CH2-NH-C(CH3)2-C(CH3)=N-OH)2] linked to the C-terminal end. Following injection in rats of [Asn-U-14C]NC100668 (labeling of the N-terminal amino acid), approximately 70% of the radioactivity was ...
Franks S J - - 2006
A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model describing the disposition of 2-butoxyethanol (2-BE) was developed in order to predict the urinary concentration of its major metabolite, butoxyacetic acid (BAA) under a range of exposure scenarios. Based on Corley et al. [Corley, R.A., Bormett, G.A., Ghanayem, B.I., 1994. Physiologically based pharmacokinetics of ...
Paul Buddha D - - 2005
Tests for oxidizing adulterants in urine are a continuing challenge to the drug-testing program. Iodine was found to destroy morphine and 6-acetylmorphine almost immediately. The effects were less evident on 11 -nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-acid). When the urine solution was tested for iodine by a chromogenic substrate, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), no ...
Athersuch T J - - 2006
As end products of xenobiotic metabolism via glutathione conjugation, mercapturic acids (MCAs) can be used as markers to indicate exposure to allylic compounds as well as the rate and efficiency of their excretion. In addition, the formation of certain MCAs indicates metabolism via the known toxin acrolein, a strong electrophile. ...
Whiting Susan Joyce - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Net endogenous acid production, reflected in the steady state as net acid excretion (NAE), is implicated in bone loss because it is positively associated with urinary calcium loss. Protein is one of the main sources of dietary acid load, whereas fruit and vegetables provide alkaline potassium salts that counteract ...
Riley P - - 2005
The metabolic fate of azimilide in man is unusual as it undergoes a cleavage in vivo resulting in the formation of two classes of structurally distinct metabolites. During a metabolite profiling study conducted in human volunteers to assess the contribution of all pathways to the clearance of (14)C-azimilide, greater than ...
Liu Kwang-Hyeon - - 2005
Rats were treated with pyribenzoxim (O-[2,6-bis[(4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)oxy]benzoyl]oxime), a new herbicide, to investigate the related metabolites in urine and feces. Metabolites were identified using LC/MS (electrospray ionization) and GC/MS (electron impact ionization) following the relatively simple and rapid extraction and purification procedures. Three metabolites were identified in urine either from oral gavage ...
Zwickenpflug Wolfgang - - 2005
The alkaloid myosmine is present not only in tobacco products but also in various foods. Myosmine is easily nitrosated, yielding 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB) and the esophageal tobacco carcinogen N'-nitrosonornicotine. Due to its widespread occurrence, investigations on the metabolism and activation of myosmine are needed for risk assessment. Therefore, the metabolism of ...
Cerdá Begoña - - 2005
Dietary ellagic acid and related polyphenols are metabolized in humans to dibenzopyran-6-one derivatives, and the microbial origin of these metabolites has been suggested. However, this has not been demonstrated so far. Fecal samples donated by six volunteers were incubated under anaerobic conditions, and aliquots were used to evaluate the fecal ...
Paik Man-Jeong - - 2005
Simultaneous profiling analysis of urinary amino acids (AAs) and carboxylic acids (CAs) was combined with retention index (I) analysis for graphic recognition of abnormal metabolic state. The temperature-programmed I values of the AA and CA standards measured as ethoxycarbonyl (EOC)/methoxime (MO)/tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) derivatives were used as the reference I values. ...
Yokota Kozo - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether methyltetrahydrophthalic acid (MTHP acid) in urine can be used as a biomarker for exposure to methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA). METHODS: Workers occupationally exposed to MTHPA were studied in combination with one of the authors, who was experimentally exposed to MTHPA. Air levels of MTHPA were determined by ...
Kraft Otakar - - 2005
A 59-year-old woman with a history of chronic pyelonephritis underwent a renal scintiscan with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA). Images showed substantially hypofunctional small left kidney. A large oval extrarenal uptake area above the urine bladder was also seen. An iv X-ray urography showed at the same area a spacious "shadow". ...
Wang Cheng Yin - - 2005
Benorilate was determined by the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using a carbon paste electrode modified by silver nanoparticles in 1.25x10(-3)moll(-1) KH(2)PO(4) and Na(2)HPO(4) buffer solution (pH=6.88, 25 degrees C) .The anodic peak potential was +0.970V (versus SCE). A good linear relationship was realized between the anodic peak currents and benorilate ...
Johns Douglas O - - 2005
A sensitive and reproducible method is described for the analysis of trichloroacetic acid in urine and 1,1,1-trichloroethane in blood using dynamic headspace GC/MS. Samples were analyzed using the soil module of a modified purge and trap autosampler to facilitate the use of disposable purging vessels. Coefficients of variation were below ...
Riches James - - 2005
A sensitive method has been developed for the trace analysis of alkyl alkylphosphonic acids, metabolites of nerve agents, in urine using a benchtop ion trap mass spectrometer. The acids were isolated from urine by simple solid phase extraction and converted to their pentafluorobenzyl esters. An ion trap mass spectrometer in ...
Zou Lihong - - 2005
This study describes the synthesis of 6 -phenyl-3-hexen-2-one, a proposed metabolite of kava-kava (kava, 'Awa, Yaqona, Piper methysticum Forst.), its reactivity with glutathione in vitro, and its isolation and identification, as its mercapturic acid adduct using LC/MS/MS, in the urine of two human subjects following their ingestion of kava. A ...
Rutherfurd-Markwick K J - - 2005
Isovalthine is a branched-chain sulphur amino acid, which has been found in the urine of normal cats. The concentrations of isovalthine in the urine of healthy adult cats are approximately 24-66 micromol/l and are not affected by the gender of the cat. Isovalthinuria can be induced in other species (rats, ...
Cerdá Begoña - - 2005
Ellagitannins (ETs) are dietary polyphenols, containing ellagic acid (EA) subunits, with antioxidant and cancer chemopreventive activities that might contribute to health benefits in humans. However, little is known about their metabolic fate. We investigate here the metabolism of different dietary ETs and EA derivatives in humans. Forty healthy volunteers were ...
Leng Gabriele - - 2005
A new developed gas chromatographic-high resolution mass spectrometric method for the sensitive simultaneous determination of trans-chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid, cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid, cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid and 4-fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid in human urine is presented. These metabolites are biomarkers for an exposure to pyrethrum, allethrin, resmethrin, phenothrin, tetramethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, ...
Kato Kayoko - - 2005
Diesters of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid are a family of industrial compounds called "phthalates." The physical and chemical properties of these diesters, and therefore their potential uses, depend on the structure of the dialkyl or alkyl/aryl side chain. The urinary concentrations of phthalate monoesters, which are metabolites, have been used as biomarkers ...
Meier Kathryn H - - 2005
A 3-year-old child developed vomiting, ataxia, and crystalluria after ingestion of approximately 232 mg/kg of felbamate elixir. High-powered polarization microscopy of the urine revealed sharp, needle-like crystals. The analysis of the urine crystals showed unchanged felbamate (80.9%), monocarbamate felbamate (18.8%), and trace amounts of mercapturic acid conjugates of the metabolite ...
Bowron A - - 2005
Urine organic acid analysis is routinely performed to investigate inborn errors of metabolism; however, interpretation can be difficult owing to the detection of compounds derived from other disease states or from nonpathological causes. We describe the finding of elevated homovanillc acid (HVA) on urine organic acid analysis which was not ...
Bal D - - 2005
High-resolution 1H and 13C NMR of N-acetylaspartic acid as its 2-(S)-butyl diester allows the two enantiomers to be unambiguously identified. Analysis of urine samples from five patients with Canavan disease (N-aspartoacylase deficiency) showed that more than 95% of the excreted N-acetylaspartate had the S-configuration.
Jones C R - - 2005
Nitrotoluenes are important intermediates in the chemical industry. 2,6-Dinitrotoluene (26DNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (24DNT) and 2-nitrotoluene (2NT) are carcinogenic in animals and possibly carcinogenic in humans. Thus, it is important to develop methods to biomonitor workers exposed to such chemicals. The authors have monitored the air and urine metabolite levels for a ...
Jensen Berit Packert - - 2005
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) has been used to determine the rate and routes of excretion of bromine following the intraperitoneal administration (50 mg kg(-1)) of 2-, 3- and 4-bromobenzoic acids to male bile-duct-cannulated rats. Analysis of urine and bile for (79/81)Br using ICPMS showed that all three bromobenzoic ...
Ashavaid Tester F - - 2005
Cardiac mitochondria provide energy for the contraction/relaxation cycle. The aim of our study was to isolate and characterize mitochondria from Caprine hearts under control and in-vitro induced ischemia. A decrease in activities of all the enzymes was observed in the ischemic models. Further characterization of proteins was done by SDS-PAGE ...
Korman Stanley H - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Isolated excretion of 2-methylbutyrylglycine (2-MBG) is the hallmark of short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD), a recently identified defect in the proximal pathway of L-isoleucine oxidation. SBCADD might be underdiagnosed because detection and recognition of urine acylglycines is problematic. Excretion of 2-ethylhydracrylic acid (2-EHA), an intermediate formed in the normally ...
Petersen Søren O - - 2004
Within grazed pastures, urine patches are hot spots of nitrogen turnover, since dietary N surpluses are excreted mainly as urea in the urine. This short-term experiment investigated 13C uptake in microbial lipids after simulated deposition of cattle urine at 10.0 and 17.1 g of urea C m(-2). Confined field plots ...
Skordi E - - 2004
The identity of the human metabolites of ketoprofen (2-(3-benzoylphenyl)-propanoic acid) excreted via urine was investigated after a single oral dose of the racemic drug. Drug metabolites were concentrated and partially purified from urine using solid-phase extraction chromatography before separation and identification by directly coupled HPLC-MS and HPLC-NMR. The metabolites identified ...
Zydroń Mirosława - - 2004
An SPE method, using RP18 phases, for the simultaneous extraction of caffeine, theobromine, theophylline, paraxanthine, 1-methylxanthine, 3-methylxanthine, 7-methylxanthine, 1-methyluric acid, 1,3-dimethyluric acid, 1,7-dimethyluric acid, and 1,3,7-trimethyluric acid from urine has been developed. Besides a gradient HPLC system for the analysis of the compounds of interest on a LiChrosorb RP-18 (7 ...
Krishnamurthi K - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: From the ancient period cow's urine has been used as a medicine. In Veda, cow's urine was compared to the nectar. In Susrut, several medicinal properties of cow's urine have been mentioned and are known to cause weight loss, reversal of certain cardiac and kidney problems, indigestion, stomach ache, ...
Kuroda Koichi - - 2004
Dimethylarsinic acid [DMA, (CH(3))(2)AsO(OH)] causes cancer in the urinary bladder of rats. However, its mechanism of cancer or the ultimate carcinogenic form is not yet known. Rats administered dimethylarsinic acid excrete three unknown arsenic compounds (termed M-1, M-2, and M-3) in urine or feces, and these compounds are presumed to ...
Choi Hong Soon - - 2004
Alkyl cellosolves include ethylene glycol monomethylether, ethylene glycol monoethylether, ethylene glycol monobuthylether. And their urine metabolites are methoxyacetic acid, ethoxyacetic acid and butoxyacetic acid. The current analytical method for urinary alkoxyacetic acid is liquid-liquid phase extraction. But the liquid-liquid phase extraction method needs a more complex pre-treatment process and has ...
Menke Tim B - - 2004
There is clear evidence that the occurrence of specific mRNAs in plasma and serum is associated with cancer, while the usefulness of other body fluids for nucleic acid-based cancer detection remains to be elucidated. Nevertheless, due to the principal advantages of urine (large sample quantities, easy to acquire), several attempts ...
Frederiksen H - - 2004
2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AalphaC) is a mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amine formed during ordinary cooking. In model systems AalphaC can be formed by pyrolysing either tryptophan or proteins of animal or vegetable origin. In the present study, the in vivo metabolism of AalphaC in rats was investigated. Rats were dosed with tritium ...
Thiesen Flavia Valladão - - 2004
In order to measure urinary level of hippuric acid among Brazilian homeless youth suspected of having inhaled toluene in previous hours, urine samples were voluntarily collected from the youth around two hours after they arrived at an "open-school" in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Hippuric acid levels were determined by gas chromatography ...
Ben-Brik E - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Glycol ethers are solvents that are present in a large number of products used commercially and domestically. During recent years, ethylene glycol ether derivatives, in particular ethylene glycol methyl ether and ethylene glycol ethyl ether, have been progressively replaced by propylene glycol ether derivatives, which are less toxic. The ...
Hmiel Stanley Paul - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of amino acid clearances by continuous venovenous hemodialysis with filtration in treatment of a metabolic decompensation in acute maple syrup urine disease. DESIGN: Single patient assessment. SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit. PATIENTS: A 10-yr-old male with known maple syrup urine disease (branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency) with metabolic ...
Waidyanatha Suramya - - 2004
A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for measurement of the main urinary metabolites of benzene, namely, phenol, catechol, hydroquinone, 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene (trihydroxybenzene), t,t-muconic acid (muconic acid), and S-phenylmercapturic acid (phenylmercapturic acid), is reported. The method is considerably simpler than existing assays. It was applied to urine from benzene-exposed subjects and controls from ...
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