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Pham Minh Hien - - 2007
Flavone-8-acetic acid (FAA) is a potent anticancer agent in mouse but has not shown activity in humans. Because FAA metabolism could play a role in this interspecies difference, our aim was to identify the metabolites formed in vitro using mouse microsomes compared with those in human microsomes. Mouse microsomes produced ...
Ukai Hirohiko - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: This study was initiated to make comparative evaluation of five proposed urinary markers of occupational exposure to toluene, i.e., benzyl alcohol, benzylmercapturic acid, omicron-cresol, hippuric acid and un-metabolized toluene. METHODS: In practice, six plants in Japan were surveyed, and 122 Japanese workers (mostly printers; all men) together with 12 ...
Xu Man - - 2007
A method using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis was established for the identification of metabolites in rat after oral administration of protocatechuic aldehyde, a major bioactive phenolic acid in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Eleven metabolites in rat plasma and urine were firstly identified as protocatechuic aldehyde, ...
Lee Byung Chul - - 2007
99mTc(CO)3-15-[N-(Acetyloxy)-2-picolylamino]pentadecanoic acid (1a) was prepared by incorporating [99mTc(CO)3]+ into 15-[N-(hydroxycarbonylmethyl)-2-picolylamino]pentadecanoic acid (2a). The overall radiochemical yield of 1a after HPLC purification was 60-63%. Radiotracer 1a was found to be chemically stable when incubated in human plasma for 4 h at 37 degrees C. Tissue distribution studies showed that high radioactivity ...
Mayboroda Oleg A - - 2007
Analysis of amino acid profiles in urine and plasma is an essential part of modern clinical diagnostic routine. Here we present an approach for the analysis of amino acids in urine by capillary electrophoresis/time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. At first a method combining improved separation, high dynamic range, and high sensitivity ...
Mennen L I - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Estimation of dietary intake of polyphenols is difficult, due to limited availability of food composition data and bias inherent to dietary assessment methods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether we could detect polyphenols and their metabolites in a spot urine sample in a free-living human ...
Valentova Katerina - - 2007
This study assessed the effect of an 8 week consumption of dried cranberry juice (DCJ) on 65 healthy young women. Basic biochemical and hematological parameters, antioxidant status, presence of metabolites in urine, and urine ex vivo antiadherence activity were determined throughout the trial. A 400 mg amount of DCJ/day had ...
Stingel Dana - - 2007
Human metabolism of 2-ethylhexanoic acid (2-EHA), which is a known metabolite of important phthalates, was investigated using 2-EHA-contaminated food. The results of our studies reveal that the major catabolic pathway of 2-EHA in human is beta-oxidation. The dominant final urinary metabolite was identified and quantified as 3-oxo-2-ethylhexanoic acid (3-oxo-2-EHA), but ...
Krawczyk H - - 2007
Methylcitric acid (3-carboxy-3-hydroxy-2-methyl-pentanedioic acid; MCA) is elevated in body fluids of patients with propionic acidaemia (PA; McKusick: 232000, 232050), methylmalonic aciduria (MMA; McKusick: 251000, 251120) and multiple carboxylase deficiency (McKusick: 253260, 253270). MCA molecule has two stereogenic centers so that it can occur in the form of four stereoisomers. Only ...
Kobayashi Hironori - - 2007
Acylcarnitines in urine from 45 patients with organic acidemias and fatty acid oxidation disorders were evaluated using ESI-MS/MS. The urinary acylcarnitine profiles in organic acidemias, SCAD deficiency and MCAD deficiency were compatible with blood acylcarnitine profiles, and abnormalities in urinary acylcarnitine profiles in these conditions were enhanced following carnitine loading. ...
Begas E E Laboratory of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, 22 Papakiriazi St, 41222 Larissa, - - 2007
A RP-HPLC method was developed for the assessment of caffeine and its metabolites in urine and was used for the evaluation of the CYP1A2, CYP2A6, xanthine oxidase (XO) and N-acetyl-transferase-2 (NAT-2) in vivo activities in 44 Greek volunteers (21 men, 23 women). Spot urine samples were analyzed 6 h after ...
Ni Yan - - 2007
We present here a combined GC-MS and LC-MS metabolic profiling approach to unraveling the pathological outcomes of aristolochic acid (AA)-induced nephrotoxicity. Urine samples were analyzed by GC-MS and LC-MS in combination with pattern recognition techniques, e.g. principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis. The work indicates that ...
Chen Ting - - 2007
Chrysanthemum morifolium extract (CME) has the protective effect on cardiovascular diseases. Luteolin and apigenin are two major bioactive components in vivo when CME is orally administrated to experimental animal. The present paper shows the study of the absorption and excretion of luteolin and apigenin in rats after a single oral ...
Kuo Yu-Haey - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The irreversibly crippling disease neurolathyrism is caused by prolonged over-consumption of Lathyrus sativus seed. The molecular mechanism of toxicity is unclear and more biochemical information is needed. METHODS: The urinary amino acids from 5 recent patients and 9 healthy subjects in Ethiopia were analysed by HPLC after PITC (phenyl ...
Cortese Victor S - - 2007
This study demonstrated the ability of the antimicrobials tulathromycin (Draxxin) and ceftiofur crystalline free acid sterile suspension (Excede) to clear the spirochete Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis (L. hardjo-bovis) from experimentally infected cattle. Treatment with tulathromycin resulted in clearance of L. hardjo-bovis organisms from the urine and kidney tissue ...
Sleno Lekha - - 2007
The in vitro metabolism of the nootropic drug fipexide was studied using different liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) techniques. This drug has been withdrawn from the market due to toxic effects. No previous reports have investigated the possible involvement of reactive metabolites in the toxicity of fipexide. The hydrolysis of this ...
Jones C R - - 2007
For workers exposed to 4-chloronitrobenzene (4CNB), the major metabolites were determined. Urine were analysed before and after acid hydrolysis to qualify the free and conjugated metabolites of 4CNB. Three conjugated metabolites were identified in exposed workers: the mercapturic acid N-acetyl-S-(4-nitrophenyl)-L-cysteine (NANPC) was the only metabolite detected in non-hydrolysed urine, and ...
Vella M - - 2007
Urine is a complex balanced solution containing dissociated and non-dissociated solutes. Any variation in urine saturation grade (number of crystals dissolved in a volume of urine), urinary pH and the concentration of crystallization inhibitors can break the normal existing balance and lead to urolithiasis. In the present article we analyze ...
Ihara Hiroshi - - 2007
Circulating bilirubin is thought to function as a physiological antioxidant. One of the decomposition products of this process is the biopyrrins, which include two regioisomers: biotripyrrin-a (1,14,15,17-tetrahydro-2,7,13-trimethyl-1,14-deoxy-3-vinyl-16H-tripyrrin-8,12-dipropionic acid) and biotripyrrin-b (1,14,15,17-tetrahydro-3,7,13-trimethyl-1,14-deoxy-3-vinyl-16H-tripyrrin-8,12-dipropionic acid). We measured biopyrrins in random urine specimens and investigated whether the biopyrrin values obtained were valid when expressed ...
Durocher Lawren L - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prolonged exercise by conditioned sled dogs affects urine concentrations of homovanillic acid (a metabolite of dopamine), vanillylmandelic acid (a metabolite of norepinephrine and epinephrine), and cortisol. ANIMALS: 24 conditioned Alaskan sled dogs (2 to 8.5 years old) that were in training for a multiday endurance race. ...
Wiwanitkit Viroj - - 2006
There is a particular concern with toluene because some research has indicated that toluene exposure could result in chronic toxicity including mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. This study aimed to determine the rate of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), a marker for genotoxicity, and its correlation to the classical urine biomarker for toluene ...
O'Brien Martin - - 2006
Secondary metabolites produced by Penicillium paneum and Penicillium roqueforti from baled grass silage were analyzed. A total of 157 isolates were investigated, comprising 78 P. paneum and 79 P. roqueforti isolates randomly selected from more than 900 colonies cultured from bales. The findings mostly agreed with the literature, although some ...
Wang Lai-Hao - - 2007
p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and its metabolites (p-aminohippuric acid, p-acetamidobenzoic acid, and p-acetamidohippuric acid) were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography with an electrochemical (carbon paste) detector (HPLC-ECD). For direct current (dc) mode, with the current at a constant potential, and measurements with suitable experimental parameters, a linear concentration from 0.125 to ...
Frandsen H - - 2007
The metabolism of the carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) has been investigated in rabbit liver S9. Two phase I metabolites, N(2)-OH-PhIP and 4'-OH-PhIP were identified based on UV and mass spectra and co-elution with reference standards. Fortification of the incubation with UDGPA resulted in a complete glucuronidation of PhIP and N(2)-OH-PhIP, while ...
Suzuki Kazuo T - - 2007
Thioarsenicals are newly found arsenic metabolites in man and animals, and also in marine organisms. Dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA(V)) and dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTA(V)) are the only two thioarsenic metabolites detected in man and/or animals. However, their toxicological and biological significance is not known yet. The present study was performed to gain ...
Halperin Mitchell L - - 2006
Two processes permit the urine pH and the medullary interstitial pH to remain in an "ideal range" to minimize the risk of forming kidney stones. First, a medullary shunt for NH(3) maintains the urine pH near 6.0 to minimize uric acid precipitation when distal H(+) secretion is high. Second, excreting ...
Hong Yun-Jeong - - 2006
The glutathionylation of quercetin was investigated in murine hepatic suspensions, in the absence of chemically or enzymatically induced oxidative stress, and in human urine after the consumption of 200 g of cooked onions ( approximately 74 mg of quercetin). In murine hepatic suspensions, 22 metabolites, including glucuronide, sulfate, and glutathione ...
Giri Sarbani - - 2007
The alkaloid arecoline is a main constituent of areca nuts that are chewed by approximately 600 million persons worldwide. A principal metabolite of arecoline is arecoline 1-oxide whose metabolism has been poorly studied. To redress this, synthetic (+/-)-arecoline 1-oxide was administered to mice (20mg/kg p.o.) and a metabolomic study performed ...
Ohnishi Ryoko - - 2006
Chlorogenic acid possessed a weak caffeine-like psychostimulant property when assessed for its effect on spontaneous locomotor activity in mice. In the evaluation of the effects for the major metabolites of chlorogenic acid which were detected upon incubation with rat feces and/or excreted in urine after oral administration to rats, caffeic ...
Newman Debra - - 2007
Trichloroethylene (TCE) and other halogenated alkenes are known environmental contaminants with cytotoxic and nephrotoxic effects, and are potential carcinogens. Their metabolism via the mercapturate metabolic pathway was shown to lead to their detoxification. The final products of this pathway, mercapturic acids or N-acetyl-l-cysteine S-conjugates, are secreted into the lumen in ...
Van Dorsten Ferdi A - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of black and green tea consumption on human metabolism. Seventeen healthy male volunteers consumed black tea, green tea, or caffeine in a randomized crossover study. Twenty-four-hour urine and blood plasma samples were analyzed by NMR-based metabonomics, that is, high-resolution 1H ...
Ferraz Renato Ribeiro Nogueira - - 2006
Metabolic evaluation of stone-forming (SF) patients is based on the determination of calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid and other parameters in 24-h urine samples under a random diet. A reliable measurement of urinary oxalate requires the collection of urine in a receptacle containing acid preservative. However, urinary uric acid cannot ...
Sauer Christoph - - 2006
Studies are described on the metabolism and toxicological detection of the phencyclidine-derived designer drug N-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)-3-ethoxypropanamine (PCEPA) in rat urine using gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric techniques. The identified metabolites indicated that PCEPA was metabolized by N-dealkylation, O-deethylation partially followed by oxidation of the resulting alcohol to the corresponding carboxylic acid, hydroxylation of ...
Suzuki Kazuo T - - 2006
Nutritional selenocompounds are considered to be transformed into the common intermediate selenide for utilization as selenoenzymes and/or for excretion as selenosugar and trimethylselenonium (TMSe). Therefore, selenocompounds can only be traced with a labeled selenium atom. Methylseleninic (MSA(IV)) has been proposed to be a third nutritional selenium source, the other two ...
Krawczyk Hanna - - 2007
Methylcitric acid (MCA) was synthesised in Reformatsky reaction (2RS, 3RS stereoisomers) and in the nucleophilic addition (2RS, 3SR stereoisomers). The stereoselectivity of these reactions was analysed. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of diastereoisomers of methylcitric acid were recorded and interpreted. The values of (1)H chemical shifts and (1)H-(1)H coupling constants ...
Vermeulen Martijn - - 2006
A high intake of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This protective effect has been linked to isothiocyanates, enzymatic hydrolysis products of glucosinolates. In this study, the metabolic fate of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates after ingestion of 19 different cruciferous vegetables was studied in ...
Tan It-Koon - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: The analysis of amino acids in plasma and urine was introduced in Singapore when a laboratory for the investigation of inherited metabolic disorders was established by the Ministry of Health. Reference ranges are required for interpreting test results and making diagnoses. Initially, reference ranges established for Caucasians were used ...
Tseng Y L - - 2006
Recently, the endogenous origin of nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) and other 19-norsteroids has been a focus of research in the field of drug testing in sport. In the present study, we investigated metabolites conjugated to a glucuronic acid and to a sulfuric acid in urine following administration of four xenobiotic 19-norsteroids. Adult ...
Giri Sarbani - - 2006
The areca alkaloids comprise arecoline, arecaidine, guvacoline, and guvacine. Approximately 600 million users of areca nut products, for example, betel quid chewers, are exposed to these alkaloids, principally arecoline and arecaidine. Metabolism of arecoline (20 mg/kg p.o. and i.p.) and arecaidine (20 mg/kg p.o. and i.p.) was investigated in the ...
Hedlund Gary L - - 2006
Glutaric acidemias comprise different disorders resulting in an increased urinary excretion of glutaric acid. Glutaric acidemia type 1 (GA-1) is an autosomal recessive disorder of lysine, hydroxylysine, and tryptophan metabolism caused by deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. It results in the accumulation of 3-hydroxyglutaric and glutaric acid. Affected patients can present ...
Portilla D - - 2006
We have shown that cisplatin inhibits fatty acid oxidation, and that fibrate treatment ameliorates renal function by preventing the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation and proximal tubule cell death. Urine samples of mice treated with single injection of cisplatin (20 mg/kg body weight) were collected for 3 days and analyzed ...
Xu H - - 2006
The metabolism and excretion of imrecoxib, a novel and moderately selective cyclooxygenase-II inhibitor, were investigated in rat. The structures of metabolites were identified by mass spectrometry (MSn) and nuclear magnetic resonance. Metabolic profiles of imrecoxib in urine, bile and faeces were obtained by HPLC and LC/MSn, and cumulative excretion was ...
Geuns Jan M C - - 2006
Stevioside (250 mg capsules) was given three times daily to 10 healthy subjects. Steviol glucuronide (steviol 19-O-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid; MM, 494.58; melting point, 198-199 degrees C) was characterized in the 24 h urine as the only excretion product of oral stevioside by MS, NMR, IR, and UV spectroscopy. This is the ...
Navrátil T - - 2007
We have found that the determination of thiodiglycolic acid (TDGA) in urine may help to characterize metabolic imbalance of substances participating in methionine synthesis, which leads to hyperhomocystinuria. From the metabolic scheme, based on a proper combination of known facts, we attempted to theoretically explain and to demonstrate the possibilities ...
Yang Jie - - 2006
Hydroxylated fatty acids are important mediators of many physiological and pathophysiological processes in a variety of human tissues. Recent evidence shows that in humans many of these are ultimately excreted in the urine as the glucuronide conjugates. In this paper we describe a general approach for the chemical synthesis of ...
Wessel Julia C - - 2006
Metamizol (dipyrone, 1), a widely used drug with effective analgesic and antispasmodic properties, shows severe side effects like agranulocytosis and anaphylactic shock reactions, the reasons of which are not known until today. After oral administration 1 is completely metabolized. All hitherto known metabolites have an intact pyrazolinone ring structure like ...
Fill J A - - 2006
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a complex disorder associated with an acute inflammatory response thought to contribute to tissue injury. Desmosine, a cross-linking amino acid present in elastin, is released during matrix degradation and cleared by the kidney. Results from animal models and human disease studies have suggested that ALI ...
Ling Jie - - 2006
Metabolism and excretion of erlotinib, an orally active inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, were studied in healthy male volunteers after a single oral dose of [14C]erlotinib hydrochloride (100-mg free base equivalent, approximately 91 microCi/subject). The mass balance was achieved with approximately 91% of the administered dose recovered ...
Kim Sungkyoon - - 2006
Although the toxicity of benzene has been linked to its metabolism, the dose-related production of metabolites is not well understood in humans, particularly at low levels of exposure. We investigated unmetabolized benzene in urine (UBz) and all major urinary metabolites [phenol (PH), E,E-muconic acid (MA), hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CA)] ...
Marais Adriaan A S - - 2005
A validated GC-MS method for the analysis of urinary metabolites of alkyl benzenes is reported. Metabolites for exposure to toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene were analyzed simultaneously using stable isotope substituted internal standards. The method entailed acidic deconjugation of urine samples followed by extractive alkylation with pentafluorobenzyl bromide as alkylating agent. ...
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