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Xu Hua-Jian - - 2012
In this work, an efficient CuSO(4)-catalyzed S-arylation of thiols with aryl and heteroaryl boronic acids at room temperature is established. This catalytic system can tolerate a wide variety of thiols and arylboronic acids in the presence of only 5 mol % of CuSO(4) as the catalyst and inexpensive 1,10-phen·H(2)O as ...
van der Wal Dianne E - - 2012
Introduction. Cold storage of platelets reduces bacterial growth and better preserves their haemostatic properties than current procedures. However, 0°C storage induces [14-3-3ζ-Glycoprotein Ibα] association, 14-3-3ζ release from phospho-Bad, Bad activation and apoptosis. Design and Methods. We investigated whether arachidonic acid, which also binds 14-3-3ζ, contributes to cold-induced apoptosis. Results. Cold ...
Chen Lin - - 2012
The effect of storage temperature and time on lipid composition of Scenedesmus sp. was studied. When stored at 4°C or higher, the free fatty acid content in the wet biomass increased from a trace to 62.0% by day 4. Using two-step catalytic conversion, algae oil with a high free fatty ...
Huang Lu - - 2012
The acidic stability of a methyl parathion hydrolase (Ochr-MPH) was improved by selectively changing basic amino acids to acidic ones. Mutation sites were selected based on the position-specific amino acid replacement probabilities (more than or equal to 0.2) and the entropy of each site (more than or equal to 0.8). ...
Herchi Wahid - - 2012
The aim of the present research is to investigate the effect of harvest date on the composition of flaxseed. Samples were collected at regular intervals from 7 to 56 days after flowering (DAF) and analyzed for phospholipid composition, storage protein content and chemical properties. Phospholipid (PL) percentage of the total ...
Kong Xiangli - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The granules of amaranth starch are very small compared with starches from other sources. In the current work, amaranth starches with different amylose contents were treated with hydrochloric acid as a function of time in order to study the effect of acid treatments on starches. Differential scanning calorimetry and ...
Zakzeski Joseph - - 2012
The solid acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose was studied under elevated temperatures and autogenous pressures using in situ ATR-IR spectroscopy. Standards of cellulose and pure reaction products, which include glucose, fructose, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), levulinic acid (LA), formic acid, and other compounds, were measured in water under ambient and elevated temperatures. A combination ...
Ahmad Iqbal - - 2012
The present study involves the evaluation of the effect of certain stabilizers, i.e. citric acid (CT), tartaric acid (TA) and boric acid (BA) on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AH(2) ) in oil-in-water cream formulations exposed to the UV light and stored in the dark. The apparent first-order rate constants ...
Temelso Berhane - - 2012
The role of the binary nucleation of sulfuric acid and water to form aerosols and its implications for global warming is one of the fundamental unsettled questions in atmospheric chemistry. We have investigated the thermodynamics of sulfuric acid hydration using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. For H2SO4(H2O)n where n=1-6, we ...
Aggarwal Amit Kumar - - 2012
Objective: The aim of the present study was to prepare the amino acid prodrugs of bromhexine hydrochloride to improve its solubility. Methods: All the prodrugs were synthesized by first reacting bromhexine with tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc) protected amino acid and then deprotection was carried out by using trifluoroacetic acid. These prodrugs were ...
Bertevello Pedro L - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Soybean oil is rich in ω-6 fatty acids, which are associated with higher incidence and more severe cases of inflammatory bowel diseases. The authors evaluated whether partial replacement of soybean oil by medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) or olive oil influenced the incidence and severity of experimental ulcerative colitis by using ...
Cerretani Lorenzo - - 2012
Three extra virgin olive oils having different fatty acid compositions and total phenol contents were submitted to an accelerated storage test at 60°C for up to 21 weeks. Their oxidative status, evaluated by peroxide values and total phenolic content, was related to differential scanning calorimetry cooling profiles and thermal properties. ...
Sudha M - - 2012
Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) producing bacterium was isolated from the Rhizosphere soil and identified as Rhizobium sp. and Bacillus sp., Optimization of Indole acetic acid production was carried out at different cultural conditions, such as pH, temperature and substrate with Rhizobium sp., Bacillus sp. and Rhizobium sp., produced higher amount ...
Sharma Arvind - - 2012
Dermal drug delivery system that is required to localizes methotrexate (MTX) in the synovial joint is needed to treat inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The present investigation aims at exploring the potential of fatty acid vesicles for the topical delivery of methotrexate. Vesicles were prepared by film hydration method using ...
Xin Jia-Ying - - 2012
Esterification of starch was carried out to expand the usefulness of starch for a myriad of industrial applications. Lipase B from Candida antarctica, immobilized on macroporous acrylic resin (Novozym 435), was used for starch esterification in two reaction systems: micro-solvent system and solvent-free system. The esterification of corn starch with ...
Marszałek Dorota - - 2012
The stability as a function of time of compounds with established anticonvulsant activity: picolinic acid benzylamide (Pic-BZA), picolinic acid 2-fluorobenzylamide (Pic-2-F-BZA), picolinic acid 3-fluorobenzylamide (Pic-3-F-BZA), picolinic acid 4-fluorobenzylamide (Pic-4-F-BZA) and picolinic acid 2-methylbenzylamide (Pic-2-Me-BZA) in body fluids and homogenates of body organs were determined after incubation. It was found that ...
Williams Kimtrele M - - 2012
Protocatechuic acid, or 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, is produced by both soil and marine bacteria in the free form and as the iron binding component of the siderophore petrobactin. The soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki ATCC 33679, contains the asb operon, but does not produce petrobactin. Iron restriction resulted in diminished B. ...
Kawata Keishi - - 2012
In the present study, all-trans retinoic acid (RA) gels formulated with various compositions of polyethylene oxide (Emulgen<sup>®</sup>) and iota-carrageenan (ι-CG) were prepared and their physicochemical properties were evaluated. The compression energy, which is the work required to compress the product through a fixed distance, increased with increasing amount of ι-CG ...
Salimon Jumat - - 2012
Linoleic acid (LA) is converted to per-carboxylic acid catalyzed by an immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435). This per-carboxylic acid is only intermediate and epoxidized itself in good yields and almost without consecutive reactions. Monoepoxide linoleic acid 9(12)-10(13)-monoepoxy 12(9)-octadecanoic acid (MEOA) was optimized using D-optimal design. At optimum conditions, ...
Bai Guoyun - - 2012
The effect of storage conditions on the microbiome and metabolite composition of human biological samples has not been thoroughly investigated as a potential source of bias. We evaluated the effect of two common storage conditions used in clinical trials on the bacterial and metabolite composition of the vaginal microbiota using ...
Gao Dawei - - 2012
Oleanolic acid is a pentacyclic triterpene present in many fruits and vegetables, and has received much attention on account of its biological properties. However, its poor solubility and low bioavailability limit its use. The objective of this study was to encapsulate oleanolic acid into nanoliposomes using the modified ethanol injection ...
Karimi-Jaberi Zahed - - 2012
β-acetamido ketones were synthesized in excellent yields through one-pot condensation reaction of aldehydes, acetophenones, acetyl chloride, and acetonitrile in the presence of boric acid as a solid heterogeneous catalyst at room temperature. It is the first successful report of boric acid that has been used as solid acid catalyst for ...
Baum Jennifer R - - 2012
Background: The proinflammatory cytokine Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which increases in the heart post myocardial infarction (MI), has been shown to cause loss of Connexin43 (Cx43) function, an event known to underlie formation of the arrhythmogenic substrate. Omega 3 Fatty acids exhibit antiarrhythmic properties and impact IL-1β signaling. We hypothesize that Omega-3 ...
Kang Jing X - - 2012
An elevated resting heart rate is one of the strongest predictors of cardiovascular mortality and is independently associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD). Agents capable of reducing heart rate without significant side effects are therefore of particular interest for the prevention of SCD. Recent human and animal studies have shown ...
Salvador-Montañés Oscar - - 2012
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice with growing prevalence in developed countries. Several medical and interventional therapies, such as atrial specific drugs and pulmonary vein isolation, have demonstrated prevention of recurrences. However, their suboptimal long-term success and significant rate of secondary effects have ...
Cao Hong - - 2012
Previous randomized studies have reported conflicting results on the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in preventing atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrences after cardioversion. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the role of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of atrial fibrillation recurrences after cardioversion was conducted. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Elsevier, Science ...
Liu Jianguo J Life Sciences School, Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei 071002, People's Republic of - - 2012
Protein stabilities can be affected sometimes by point mutations introduced to the protein. Current sequence-information-based protein stability prediction encoding schemes of machine learning approaches include sparse encoding and amino acid property encoding. Property encoding schemes employ physical-chemical information of the mutated protein environments, however, they produce complexity in the mean ...
Saaby Lasse - - 2011
A triterpene acid mixture consisting of oleanolic, ursolic and betulinic acid isolated from a standardized rose hip powder (Rosa canina L.) has been shown to inhibit interleukin (IL)-6 release from Mono Mac 6 cells. The present study examined the effects of the triterpene acid mixture on the cytokine production and ...
Kunitsugu Ichiro - - 2011
Background:  The effects of fish consumption and n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) levels on atopic disorders were inconsistent in previous reports, but few studies investigated the effects of both fish and n-3 PUFA. We investigated whether erythrocyte fatty acids and the consumption of fish are associated with atopic diseases and ...
Dianawati Dianawati - - 2011
Survival, acid and bile tolerance, and surface hydrophobicity of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb12 were studied during storage at room temperature (25 °C) at low water activity (0.07, 0.1, and 0.2). Two types of alginate-based systems were prepared with and without mannitol as microencapsulant of B. animalis ssp. lactis ...
Bradbury Joanne - - 2012
The study was undertaken to estimate the size of the impact of n-3 fatty acids in psychological stress and the extent to which it is mediated via proinflammatory cytokines. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze data from 194 healthy Australians. Biomarkers used were erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acids (docosahexaenoic ...
Tsai Shih-Jei - - 2011
Preventive or therapeutic effects of caffeic acid in brain of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treated mice against inflammatory injury were examined. Caffeic acid at 0.5, 1 or 2% was supplied either pre-intake or post-intake for 4weeks. Brain caffeic acid content was increased by caffeic acid pre-intake at 1 and 2%, and post-intake ...
Suo Maorong - - 2011
Five new phenolic lipids, 2-(8″Z-eicosenoyl)-6-(8'Z-pentadecenyl) salicylic acid (3), 2-(9″Z-hexadecenoyl)-6-(8'Z, 11'Z-pentadecadienyl) methyl salicylate (5), 2-(10″Z, 13″Z-nonadecadienoyl)-6-(8'Z, 11'Z-pentadecadienyl) salicylic acid (6), 2-(16″Z-pentacosenoyl)-6-(8'Z-pentadecenyl) salicylic acid (7) and 2-(9″Z-octadecenoyl)-6-(8'Z, 11'Z-pentadecadienyl) methyl salicylate (8), and three known compounds, cardols (1), anacardic acid (2) and cardanols (4), were isolated from the nuts of the cashew, Anacardium ...
Nunes Débora C O - - 2011
In the present study, an acidic PLA(2), designated Bl-PLA(2), was isolated from Bothrops leucurus snake venom through two chromatographic steps: ion-exchange on CM-Sepharose and hydrophobic chromatography on Phenyl-Sepharose. Bl-PLA(2) was homogeneous on SDS-PAGE and when submitted to 2D electrophoresis the molecular mass was 15,000Da and pI was 5.4. Its N-terminal ...
Isshiki Yasunori - - 2011
Structural characterization studies have been carried out on the carbohydrate backbone of Vibrio parahaemolyticus serotype O6 lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The carbohydrate backbone isolated from O6 LPS by sequential derivatization, i.e., dephosphorylation, O-deacylation, pyridylamination, N-deacylation and N-acetylation, is a nonasaccharide consisting of 3 mol of D-glucosamine (GlcN) (of which one is pyridylaminated), ...
Fonseca Beatriz - - 2011
The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the addition of a commercial phosphate mixture in 2 dry-ripened Spanish-style sausages: "salchichón" and "chorizo." Three batches of each of those sausages were prepared with low and high levels of phosphates, and selected quality variables (moisture, pH, a(w) , ...
Lin Yuhai - - 2011
The individual and interactive effects of green tea (GT) extract and sodium nitrite (NT) on lipolysis and lipid oxidation were investigated in pepperoni during processing and storage (4 °C). Pepperoni was treated with GT at concentrations of 0.02%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5%; and NT from 0.003% to 0.015% in increments ...
Montouto-Graña M - - 2011
To optimize the processing and storage of Kennebec potatoes for sale in peeled, vacuum-packed ready-to-cook form, we studied the effects of blanching, various anti-browning solutions, and storage temperature. Unblanched potatoes pretreated with a mixture of 1% ascorbic acid and 0.5% citric acid, and stored at 2 °C, were found to ...
Barnard Ross Thomas - - 2011
Extrapolation from recent disease history suggests that changes in the global environment, including virus, vector and human behavior, will continue to influence the spectrum of viruses to which humans are exposed. In this article, these environmental changes will be enumerated, and their potential impact on target-focused, nucleic acid-based diagnostic tests ...
Campoio T R - - 2011
Fatty acids (FA) have been shown to alter leukocyte function, and depending on concentration and type, they can modulate both inflammatory and immune responses. Astaxanthin (ASTA) is a carotenoid that shows notable antioxidant properties. In the present study we propose to evaluate the oxidative stress in human lymphocytes induced by ...
Deldar Aa - - 2011
Shigella, causative of bacillary dysentery, has two colony forms. The loss of large virulence plasmid from virulent Shigella sonnei form I, during cell storage and subculturing, lead to avirulent form II. Environmental factors, e.g. culture media composition, could affect the conversion of the bacterial forms. In this study, some components, ...
Yu Haoyong - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 is an endocrine factor actively involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in rodents. However, little is known about its physiological function and regulation in humans. This study investigated the diurnal changes in circulating FGF21 concentrations and their association with other metabolic markers in both ...
Akiba S - - 2011
Axillary sweat is odourless when freshly collected at the surface of human skin, but it contains non-odoriferous precursors, which can be transformed into odorous substances by bacteria. E-3-methyl-2-hexanoic acid (3M2H) is one of the key odorous substances, but there are two contradictory reports about its precursor form. One report states ...
Edris Amr E - - 2011
ABSTRACT The crude oil of Nigella sativa L. (Black cumin) has well-known nutraceutical and pharmaceutical properties. The oil is prone to rapid oxidative deterioration because of its high content of poly-unsaturated fatty acids. In the current investigation, different cold-pressed crude oils of N. sativa were examined for their composition of ...
Varki Nissi M - - 2011
Although humans are genetically very similar to the evolutionarily related nonhuman hominids (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans), comparative studies suggest a surprising number of uniquely human differences in the incidence and/or severity of biomedical conditions. Some differences are due to anatomical changes that occurred during human evolution. However, many cannot ...
Deus-de-Oliveira Natalia - - 2011
The allergenicity of Ricinus communis L. (castor bean, Euphorbiaceae) is associated with components of its seeds and pollen. Castor bean allergy has been described not only in laboratory workers, but also in personnel working in oil processing mills, fertilizer retail, the upholstery industry and other industrial fields. In the present ...
Shahrokh Zahra - - 2011
Recombinant human erythropoietin has been used to treat anemia associated with chronic renal disease. This paper provides a comprehensive comparative analysis of Dynepo and three other commercial erythropoiesis stimulating agents, Eprex, NeoRecormon and Aranesp. We found significant differences in the type, levels and amount of O-acetylation of sialic acids. Sialic ...
Masood Muhammad Irfan - - 2011
Lactic acid bacteria are a diverse group of bacteria that produce lactic acid as their major fermented product. Most of them are normal flora of human being and animals and produce myriad beneficial effects for human beings include, alleviation of lactose intolerance, diarrhea, peptic ulcer, stimulation of immune system, antiallergic ...
Qiu Y T - - 2011
Host-seeking behaviour of the anthropophilic malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is mediated predominantly by olfactory cues. Several hundreds of odour components have been identified from human emanations, but only a few have been proven to act as attractants or synergists in the host-seeking behaviour of female An. ...
Fumeaux René - - 2010
A systematic investigation of the human metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates was carried out. A set of 24 potential human metabolites of coffee polyphenols has been chemically prepared, and used as analytical standards for unequivocal identifications. These included glucuronide conjugates and sulfate esters of caffeic, ferulic, isoferulic, m-coumaric and p-coumaric ...
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