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Results 551 - 600 of 1393
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Jaeger L L - - 1998
Improved assessments of human exposure to electrophilic chemicals require rapid and inexpensive analytical techniques that can detect specific urinary metabolites at low levels as needed for epidemiological screenings of large populations. The first aim of this study has been to apply rational hapten design strategies to develop a more sensitive ...
Komarov A M - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: Concentration changes of free amino acids, urea and nitrate in plasma and urine were studied for the murine model of septic shock. METHODS: After administration of a bolus dose of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), concentrations of amino acids and urea in plasma, and urea and nitrate in urine were determined. ...
Bass L A - - 1998
Indium-111-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid-D-phenylalanine-octreotide ([111]In-DTPA-octreotide) is a cyclic eight amino acid somatostatin analogue which is approved for gamma scintigraphy of neuroendocrine tumors. To address the factors that contribute to liver and kidney retention of this radiopharmaceutical, its metabolism was evaluated in normal and tumor-bearing rats. The soluble fractions from nontarget (liver and ...
Tortoli E - - 1998
The isolation, from a urine sample, of a rapidly growing acid-fast mycobacterium assigned to the thermophilic species Mycobacterium hassiacum led to further insight into present knowledge of this newly described organism. Already known phenotypic traits of M. hassiacum were extended and its susceptibility to additional antimicrobials was investigated. The high-performance ...
Brüning T - - 1998
The present study reports on a 17-year-old male who ingested approximately 70 ml trichloroethene (TRI) in a suicide attempt. The patient developed fever, tremor, general motor restlessness, and sinus tachycardia and lost consciousness 5 h after poisoning. After 5 days of intubation under narcosis with forced hyperventilation and diuresis he ...
Kim S C - - 1998
The effects of the major nitrogenous components of urine (ammonia, creatinine, urea and uric acid) on sperm motility were investigated. Semen samples were obtained by masturbation from a young volunteer with a normal spermiogram and fertility. Sperm motility was measured using a Sperm Quality Analyzer and Makler Chamber. When semen ...
Angerer J - - 1998
A mercapturic acid attached to the aromatic ring of toluene was for the first time detected in human urine as a metabolite of toluene. Since the metabolism of toluene is usually considered to take place at the side-chain, this gives, besides the biosynthesis of cresols, a further hint of a ...
Bhavanandan V P - - 1998
The MUC1 glycoprotein, epitectin, a component of the human bladder epithelium, was purified from human urine. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis and gel filtration using polysaccharide or protein standards revealed a polydisperse preparation with molecular weights ranging from about 0.9 to 1.3 x 10(6). This suggests that in the native state epitectin ...
Pérez-Cerdá C - - 1998
We report a 5-year-old boy with propionic acidaemia who developed a rapidly fatal necrosis of the basal ganglia after an episode of clinical deterioration. Neither metabolic acidosis nor hyperammonaemia were present. Organic acid analysis in both urine and CSF showed increased levels of methylcitric and 3-hydroxypropionic acids. Propionic acidaemia was ...
Pietta P G - - 1998
Green tea contains relatively large amounts of catechins, that have been recognized to be efficient free-radical scavengers. In spite of a largely described antioxidant effect, the metabolic fate of catechins in humans has been scarcely studied. An infusion of green tea (about 400 mg of catechins) was given to healthy ...
Stein T P TP Department of Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford 08084, - - 1998
We measured the urine amino acid distribution patterns before, during and after space flight on the Space Shuttle. The urine samples were collected on two separate flights of the space shuttle. The first flight lasted 9.5 days and the second flight 15 days. Urine was collected continuously on 8 subjects ...
Wolf S C - - 1998
There is evidence that an activated renal endothelin (ET) system is involved in development of glomerulosclerosis. However it is still unknown if different ETs are involved in the pathogenesis of various types of glomerulonephritis (GN). This study characterized ET-1 and ET-3 levels in patients suffering from chronic GN. We performed ...
Marsilio R - - 1997
We report a simple and rapid HPLC procedure for measuring p-aminohippuric acid in serum and urine. After deproteinization with acetonitrile and addition of p-aminobenzoic acid as an internal standard, the chromatographic run is performed on a C18 column with the absorbance detector set at 275 nm. The separation is carried ...
Spindler S A - - 1997
The oxygenated metabolite of linoleic acid, 13(S)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid has recently been shown to play a role in cellular regulation. To detect this molecule in biological systems, we recently developed a specific polyclonal antibody. Using this antibody, we report the presence of 13(S)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid in human urine, cell culture media, and ...
Netticadan T J - - 1997
The cardiac sarcolemma was characterized in 13 normal and 11 ischemic dog hearts by enzyme analysis and compositional assays. Significant decreases in the activities of the sodium-potassium and calcium pumps and structural compositional disturbances were observed in ischemia. High concentrations of oleic acid, a fatty acid and palmitoyl carnitine, a ...
Yu S - - 1997
A measurement system for cystathionine (Cysta) lanthionine (LT), and S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine (AEC), and reduced products of their ketimines, perhydro-1,4-thiazepine-3,5-dicarboxylic acid (PHTZDC), 1,4-thiomorpholine-3,5-dicarboxylic acid (TMDA) and 1,4-thiomorpholine-3-carboxylic acid (TMA) in the urine samples of a patient with cystathioninuria and normal human subjects has been developed, using column liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The recoveries ...
Libert R - - 1997
Analysis of urinary medium-chain acylcarnitines extracted on C18 cartridges and gas chromatography mass spectrometry of their fatty acid moieties as picolinyl esters allowed the determination of the chemical structure of previously unidentified acylcarnitines in normal human urine. These are the 2,6-dimethylheptanoyl-, the 2,6-dimethyl-5-heptenoyl-, and the trans- and cis-3,4-methylene heptanoylcarnitines, also ...
elSohly M A - - 1997
Analysis of urine specimens collected from individuals ingesting 2 and 4 mg flunitrazepam (FN) showed positive results by OnLine and OnTrak immunoassays for up to 60 h. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of these specimens for FN, 3-OH-FN, 7-amino-FN, 7-amino-3-OH-FN, desmethyl-FN, and 3-OH-desmethyl-FN after glucuronidase treatment showed only low levels ...
de Rooij B M - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of urinary mercapturic acids as a biomarker of human exposure to allyl chloride (3-chloropropene) (AC). During three regular shut down periods in a production factory for AC, both types of variables were measured in 136 workers involved in maintenance operations. METHODS: Potential airborne exposure to ...
Stillwell W G - - 1997
Cooking meat, fish, or poultry at high temperature gives rise to heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), which may be metabolically activated to mutagenic or carcinogenic intermediates. The enzymes cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) and N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) are principally implicated in such biotransformations. We have determined the relationship between the activity of these two ...
Dietzen D J - - 1997
Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) is an autosomal recessive metabolic abnormality characterized by excessive oxalate excretion leading to nephrocalcinosis and progressive renal dysfunction. Type I primary hyperoxaluria (PH I) results from a deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase, whereas type II disease has been traced to a deficiency of D-glycerate dehydrogenase. The two syndromes ...
Angerer J - - 1997
The described method permits the determination of the five most important metabolites of the pyrethroids permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, fenvalerate, phenothrin and beta-cyfluthrin in human urine in one run. The major urinary metabolites of these substances are cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (cis-Cl2CA), trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (trans-Cl2CA), cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (Br2CA), fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (F-PBA) and ...
Gutzmer R - - 1997
Alkaptonuric ochronosis is a rare inborn metabolic disorder. Because of the deficient activity of the enzyme homogentisic acid oxidase, homogentisic acid accumulates in plasma, is deposited in various tissues and is excreted in large amounts in urine. Dark brown discoloration of urine on exposure to air or after addition of ...
Moon D H - - 1997
Chromatographic separation of the metabolites derived from toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene and xylene was carried out on untreated urine samples from factory workers. The elution sequence was as follows: phenylglyoxilic acid, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, hippuric acid, o-methylhippuric acid, p-methylhippuric acid, m-methylhippuric acid, p-cresol, m-cresol and o-cresol. The stability constants (K(G)) of cresol and ...
Holmes E - - 1997
750 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy has been used to characterise in detail the abnormal low molecular weight metabolites of urine from two patients with inborn errors of metabolism. One case of the rare condition 2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria has been examined. There is at present no rapid routine method to detect this ...
Flath B - - 1997
Deficiency of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase is a frequent and treatable metabolic defect, which can be diagnosed by detection of phenylpropionylglycine in urine after an oral load of phenylpropionic acid. We studied the determination of phenylpropionylglycine in urine by isocratic ion-exclusion chromatography on a cation-exchange column using water-sulphuric acid (pH values ...
Sidelmann U G - - 1997
Tolfenamic acid, an anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is metabolized in vivo to form several oxidative metabolites which are all conjugated with beta-D-glucuronic acid. In this study, the metabolites of tolfenamic acid were identified by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in urine samples obtained on days 7 to 10 from a ...
Pietta P G - - 1997
An extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb) was given to healthy volunteers. Urine samples were collected for 3 days, and blood samples were withdrawn every 30 min for 5 h. The samples were purified through SPE C18 cartridges and analyzed by reversed-phase LC-diode array detection for the presence of EGb ...
Meng L J - - 1997
Extracts of urine and serum from children with cholestatic liver disease were analyzed by fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry. About half of all spectra showed a peak at m/z 657, compatible with the presence of a glucuronidated cholestenediol sulfate. Separation by ion exchange chromatography before and after solvolysis and ...
Yoshida K - - 1997
The biotransformation following oral administration of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), an organoarsenical herbicide and the main metabolite of inorganic arsenic in mammals, was studied in rats. Male F344/DuCrj rats were administered a single dose of DMA (50 mg/kg) orally. Urine was collected at 0, 2, 4, 8, 10, 24, and 48 ...
Bostedor R G - - 1997
Farnesyl diphosphate, the substrate for squalene synthase, accumulates in the presence of zaragozic acid A, a squalene synthase inhibitor. A possible metabolic fate for farnesyl diphosphate is its conversion to farnesol, then to farnesoic acid, and finally to farnesol-derived dicarboxylic acids (FDDCAs) which would then be excreted in the urine. ...
Thompson C D - - 1997
3-Carbamoyl-2-phenylpropionaldehyde has recently been proposed [Thompson et al. (1996) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 9, 1225-1229] as a potential reactive metabolite of the anti-epileptic drug felbamate. This aldehyde was found to undergo rapid elimination to generate 2-phenylpropenal and reversible cyclization to generate 4-hydroxy-5-phenyltetrahydro-1,3-oxazin-2-one at physiological pH. 2-Phenylpropenal, an alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde commonly termed ...
Fischer D - - 1997
The H1-antagonist diphenhydramine can undergo direct glucuronidation at its tertiary amino group with formation of a quaternary ammonium glucuronide. The intraindividual variability in the amount of N-glucuronide excretion in urine was investigated in two female volunteers who repeatedly took single doses of 25 mg diphenhydramine hydrochloride without and with concomitant ...
Tuomainen P - - 1997
Conjugates of the catechol compounds, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), dopamine and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in human urine were analysed using the isocratic ion-pair reversed-phase HPLC method with electrochemical detection. Acid hydrolysis, using 4 mol/l HCl for 60 min, was more effective than treatment with sulphatase for the generation of free catechols. Free (non-conjugated) ...
Nakagawa Y - - 1997
Nephrocalcin (NC), an acidic glycoprotein with molecular weight 14,000, is present in urine and prevents kidney stone formation. Histoimmunochemical staining shows that NC is localized in the proximal tubles in kidneys. Isolated NC from mammalian urine, revealed at least 4 isoforms of NC (we call these isoforms NC-A, NC-B, NC-C, ...
Giardino N J - - 1997
In military courts of law, the good soldier defense is often used by the defendant to explain the presence of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in urine (hereafter referred to as THCA) above the Department of Defense (DOD) established limit of 15 ng/mL. The defense will contend the defendant unwittingly breathed side-stream marijuana ...
Linhart I - - 1997
Male Wistar rats were dosed intraperitoneally with styrene (400 mg/kg). Urine samples were collected over phosphate buffer, pH 6.5 for 24 h. Excretion of mandelic (MA) and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) amounted to 1.66 +/- 0.62 and 5.21 +/- 2.44% of dose, respectively, as determined by ion-pair HPLC. After acidic hydrolysis, ...
Richards L E - - 1997
1. Using synthetic standards and/or spectral data, seven moricizine metabolites were structurally identified in human urine. Two novel metabolites were identified as phenothiazine-2-carbamic acid and ethyl [10-(3-aminopropionyl) phenothiazin-2-yl] carbamate. Two novel human moricizine metabolites, 2-amino-10-(3-morpholino-propionyl) phenothiazine, a previously identified dog metabolite, and 2-aminophenothiazine, a previously identified rat metabolite, were also ...
Vree T B - - 1997
The clinical pharmacokinetics, metabolism and renal excretion of articaine and its metabolite articainic acid have been investigated in man after epidural administration. (+/-)-Articaine and its metabolite (+/-)-articainic acid have different pharmacokinetic constants (P = 0.0079) except for lag-time (tlag; 0.06 min), first phase distribution of elimination (t 1/2 alpha; 0.49 ...
Birner G - - 1997
The formation of cysteine S-conjugates is thought to play an important role in the nephrotoxicity of haloalkenes such as trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene and hexachlorobutadiene. Glutathione S-conjugates formed from these haloalkenes in the liver are processed to the corresponding cysteine S-conjugates, which may be N-acetylated to mercapturic acids and may be accumulated ...
Scheick C - - 1997
Urine samples of premature babies contain high amounts of thiodiacetic acid (TDA). Since these pre-term infants are exposed to an increased oxygen atmosphere in the incubator, we supposed that these high levels of thiodiacetic acid might be produced from ethylene, generated in the course of lipid peroxidation processes. Considering that ...
Lindh C H - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether methylhexahydrophthalic acid (MHHP acid) in urine and plasma can be used as a biomarker for exposure to methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA). METHODS: MHHPA in air was sampled by Amberlite XAD-2 and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionisation detection. MHHP acid in urine and plasma was ...
Vrca A - - 1997
In 49 printing-press workers occupationally exposed to toluene for approximately 21.6 years, the values of BEAP and VEP parameters were examined in relation to the length of exposure. With the exception of P2 wave, there was a significant increase in the latencies of all the BEAP waves examined as well ...
Grases F - - 1997
The effect of minimum doses of extradietary potassium citrate ingestion on urolithogenic parameters has been studied. Separate urine fractions were collected in 24-hour periods. Five calcium oxalate stone formers have participated in the study. pH, calcium, citric acid, and the crystallization inhibitory capacity levels in fractional urine samples were determined ...
Shawar L - - 1996
Pheochromocytoma is usually diagnosed by finding elevated levels of metanephrines, catecholamines, or vanillylmandelic acid in 24-hour urine collections. At least two of the three urine analytes are usually elevated. We found no report of a documented pheochromocytoma in which only one of the three analytes was elevated. Herein we report ...
Linhart I - - 1996
1. Biotransformation of 1,2-diethenylbenzene (1) in rat was studied. Five urinary metabolites were isolated by extraction of acid hydrolysed urine and identified by nmr and mass spectroscopy, namely, 1-(2-ethenylphenyl)ethane-1,2-diol (2) 2-ethenylmandelic acid (3), 2-ethenylphenylglyoxylic acid (4), 2-ethenylphenylacetylglycine (5) N-acetyl-S-[1-(2-ethenylphenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]cysteine (6) and N-acetyl-S-[2-(2-ethenylphenyl)-2-hydroxy-ethyl]cysteine (7). 2. In addition, minor metabolites, namely, 2-ethenylbenzoic ...
Cadenas S - - 1996
An experimental study on the effects of supplementation with antioxidant vitamins on urine lipid peroxidation products was performed in 21 young healthy men. The subjects ingested placebo, 1 g of vitamin C, or 100 mg of vitamin E per day just after the midday meal during 30 days. Urine samples ...
Leng G - - 1996
Due to their low mammalian toxicity but high insectical activity, pyrethroids are increasingly used for pest control. The objective of the present study was the development of a biological monitoring program to determine exposure to pyrethroids. A diastereoselective detection of the major pyrethroid metabolites cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid, cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid, ...
Mahajna M - - 1996
O,O,S-Trimethyl phosphorodithioate and phosphorothiolate [(MeO)2P(S)SMe and (MeO)2P-(O)SMe, respectively are known from earlier studies to be impurities, delayed toxicants, and detoxication inhibitors in several major O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate insecticides. Our recent studies show extensive S-methylation of mono- and dithiocarbamic acids in mice, suggesting the possibility that phosphorodithioic acids such as (MeO)2P(S)SH might ...
Castelló T - - 1996
The effect of ascorbic acid on urine pH was studied in spinal cord injury patients. Their urine was not colonized by urease positive microorganisms. The study was designed to compare the baseline urine pH value and the urine pH value after the administration of placebo or ascorbic acid 500 mg/6 ...
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