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Results 451 - 500 of 1377
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Westerhof W - - 2001
Mucopolysaccharides derived from the husk of psyllium (Plantago ovata) have properties beneficial for wound cleansing and wound healing. Recent studies indicate that these mucopolysaccharides also limit scar formation. Our in vitro and in vivo studies aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved, e.g., fluid absorption, bacterial adherence and in vitro stimulatory ...
Iyer R A RA Department of Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-4000, USA. - - 2001
Omapatrilat, a potent vasopeptidase inhibitor, is currently under development for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. This study describes the plasma profile along with isolation and identification of urinary metabolites of omapatrilat from subjects dosed orally with 50 mg of [(14)C]omapatrilat. Only a portion of the radioactivity in ...
Yang Y - - 2000
The metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is known to lead to a large number of oxygenated compounds, some of which can bind covalently to DNA. We have studied the integrated metabolism of BP in vivo in germ-free rats given (14)C-labeled BP. Urinary metabolites were separated into groups according to acidity using ...
Lohse C - - 2000
Epidemiological and toxicological studies often require the analysis of large numbers of samples for biological markers of exposure. The goal of this work was to develop a class-selective ELISA to detect groups of structurally closely related mercapturic acids with small nonpolar S-substituents. An assay was developed with strong recognition for ...
Larsen G L - - 2000
1. Radioactivity from oral doses of N-isopropyl[1-14C]acetanilide was excreted in urine (53.5%), faeces (8.1%) and expired air (17.0%) of rat. 2. Enterohepatic circulation occurred during formation of approximately 34% of the metabolites. N-isopropylacetanilide was metabolized by oxidation in all moieties of the molecule with subsequent conjugation with glucuronic and sulphuric ...
Nordbø S A - - 2000
First-catch urines from 276 asymptomatic male military recruits were screened by polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis. Eight initially positive specimens were retested by polymerase chain reaction, ligase chain reaction and transcription-mediated amplification. Urine specimens from six (2.2%) subjects were considered to contain C. trachomatis. However, retesting ...
Griffin J L - - 2000
The metabolic profiles of three wild mammals that vary in their trophic strategies, the herbivorous bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus), the granivorous wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), and the insectivorous white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens), were compared with that of a widely used strain of laboratory rat (Sprague Dawley). In conjunction with NMR ...
Hu Y A - - 2000
To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to test the validity of using cotton gauze pad as a ...
Banijamali A R - - 2000
Species differences in the metabolism of acetylenic compounds commonly used in the formulation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides have not been investigated. To better understand the in vivo reactivity of this bond, the metabolism of propargyl alcohol (PA), 2-propyn-1-ol, was examined in rats and mice. An earlier study (Banijamali, A. R.; ...
Boyle R - - 2000
1. The metabolic fate of 1,8-cineole was investigated in the brushtail possum. Six possums were fed an artificial diet to which 0.5% 1,8-cineole (wet weight) was added for 2 days. Urine and faeces were collected after the second day. A sample of each was extracted into ethyl acetate and analysed ...
Nohara Y - - 2000
An automated system for HPLC-fluorometry of serum guanidino compounds was constructed. This system accomplished simultaneous removal of protein and uremic fluorescences, abundant in the sera of uremic patients, which interfere with the fluorometric assay. This system was applied to the detailed elucidation of the behavior of guanidinosuccinic acid and methylguanidine ...
Papavasiliou A S - - 2000
The goal of this study was to examine the usefulness of neurometabolic testing in patients with unexplained developmental delay. We included 118 patients from ages 3 months to 13 years. The evaluation was conducted according to a protocol that called for stepwise investigations with the intention to minimize unnecessary tests. ...
Miyake Y - - 2000
Eriocitrin, a flavonoid glycoside present in lemon fruit, is metabolized in vivo to a series of eriodictyol, methylated eriodictyol, 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid, and their conjugates. Plasma antioxidant activity increased following oral administration of aqueous eriocitrin solutions to rats. Eriocitrin metabolites were found in plasma and renal excreted urine through HPLC and ...
Maier K G - - 2000
This study describes a fluorescent HPLC assay for measuring 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and other cytochrome P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid in urine, tissue, and interstitial fluid. An internal standard, 20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z),15(Z)-dienoic acid, was added to samples, and the lipids were extracted and labeled with 2-(2,3-naphthalimino)ethyl trifluoromethanesulfonate. P-450 metabolites were separated on ...
Chambliss K L - - 2000
Three patients have been reported with (putative) methylmalonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (MMSDH) deficiency. The urine metabolic pattern was strikingly different in all, including beta-alanine, 3-hydroxypropionic acid, both isomers of 3-amino- and 3-hydroxyisobutyric acids in one and 3-hydroxyisobutyric and lactic acids in a second, and mild methylmalonic aciduria in a third patient. ...
Gopaul S V - - 2000
Reactive and hepatotoxic metabolites formed from the biotransformation of valproic acid (VPA) are normally detoxified by conjugating with GSH and followed by mercapturic acid metabolism to produce their respective N-acetylcysteine (NAC) conjugates. Hence, the levels of NAC conjugates of VPA in human urine are an indirect measure of exposure of ...
Paulson S K - - 2000
1. The metabolism and excretion of celecoxib, a specific cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor, was investigated in mouse, rabbit, the EM (extensive) and PM (poor metabolizer) dog, and rhesus and cynomolgus monkey. 2. Some sex and species differences were evident in the disposition of celecoxib. After intravenous (i.v.) administration of [14C]celecoxib, ...
Lehner A F - - 2000
Remifentanil (4-methoxycarbonyl-4-[(1-oxopropyl)phenylamino]-1-piperidinepropionic acid methyl ester) is a mu-opioid receptor agonist with considerable abuse potential in racing horses. The identification of its major equine urinary metabolite, 4-methoxycarbonyl-4-[(1-oxopropyl)phenylamino]-1-piperidinepropionic+ ++ acid, an ester hydrolysis product of remifentanil is reported. Administration of remifentanil HCl (5 mg, intravenous) produced clear-cut locomotor responses, establishing the clinical ...
Sweeny D J - - 2000
The metabolism of [2-acetyl-(14)C]oseltamivir (GS4104, Ro 64-0796), the prodrug of the novel influenza neuraminidase inhibitor GS4071 (Ro 64-0802), was examined in rats after oral dosing. Intact oseltamivir was observed only in lung and urine, accounting for 37 and 15% of the total radioactivity in these samples, respectively. GS4071 was the ...
Adachi J - - 2000
Methods for the separation, identification, and quantitative assay of contaminants of L-tryptophan implicated in eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS) are described. Propylsulfonic acid (PRS), benzenesulfonic acid (SCX), and octyl-derivatized silica (C8) bonded-phase cartridges were used for the separation; LC-MS and GC-MS for identification; and HPLC-UV-fluorescence detection for quantitative analyses of norharman, harman, ...
Yamamoto H - - 2000
Instability of beta2-microglobulin in acidic urine was investigated by identifying an associated protease from normal urine. Degradation was completely blocked by pepstatin, an aspartic protease inhibitor, and the counterpart of the inhibitor was thus sought. The molecular weight of the counterpart was similar to that of the inhibitor, while its ...
Hodgson J M - - 2000
Gallic acid is one of the main phenolic components of black tea. The objective of this study was to identify urinary gallic acid metabolites with potential for use as markers of black tea intake. In an initial study, nine compounds, assessed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were found to increase ...
Nishiwaki F - - 2000
Urinary histamine and Ngamma-methylhistamine (1-MH), a histamine metabolite, are highly correlated with histamine in plasma. Therefore, allergic reactions can be examined by determination of histamine and 1-MH in urine. We separated histamine, 1-MH and Nalpha-methylhistamine (N-MH) by capillary electrophoresis with UV detection at 210nm, using borate buffer (pH 9) containing ...
Paul B D - - 2000
Pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) as an adulterant is popular for concealing drug-positive results. When 11-nor-delta9-THC-9-carboxylic acid (THC-acid) in urine was treated with 2 mmol/L of PCC (Cr6+ 104 microg/mL), 58-100% of the THC-acid was lost. The loss increased with decreasing pH and increasing reaction time (0-3 days). Free codeine and free ...
George S - - 2000
The amphetamine isomer ratios (l-amphetamine/d-amphetamine) in 373 urine specimens submitted for analysis over a two-year period have been determined using a chiral derivatizing agent in conjunction with a gas chromatograph fitted with a nitrogen-specific detector. All of the specimens were collected from known or suspected amphetamine abusers, some of which ...
van der Knaap M S - - 2000
Recently, 3 patients with a creatine synthesis defect have been described. They presented with developmental regression, extrapyramidal movement abnormalities, and intractable epilepsy, and they improved with treatment of creatine monohydrate. We report 2 unrelated boys with a creatine synthesis defect and nonspecific presenting signs of psychomotor retardation, behavioral problems, and, ...
Inoue O - - 2000
A hand-saving HPLC method to measure urinary phenylmercapturic acid (PMA) was developed which allows about 35 PMA determinations per day. The method involves conversion of pre-PMA to PMA by the addition of sulfuric acid to a urine sample, extraction into an ether-methanol mixture followed by condensation under a nitrogen stream. ...
Bosken J M - - 2000
Isoxsuprine is routinely recovered from enzymatically-hydrolyzed, post-administration urine samples as parent isoxsuprine in equine forensic science. However, the specific identity of the material in horse urine from which isoxsuprine is recovered has never been established, although it has long been assumed to be a glucuronide conjugate (or conjugates) of isoxsuprine. ...
Clifford M N - - 2000
1. Nine habitual tea-drinking volunteers were recruited and asked to follow a low-polyphenol and low-caffeine diet for 6 days and to provide daily 24-h urine samples. On day 4 of the experiment strong black tea brewed under standardized conditions was re-introduced to the volunteers' diet. 2. 1H-NMR and HPLC profiling ...
García A - - 2000
Separation conditions in CE, with a neutral coated capillary and reversed polarity, have been optimised to make direct measurement of vanillylmandelic acid, homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid possible in urine samples without pre-treatment. The method developed has been validated, presenting adequate parameters for linearity, accuracy and precision. Detection limits range ...
Fang M Z - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: Recently, S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) and trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine have been proposed as reliable biomarkers for monitoring occupational exposure to benzene. The aim of this study was to test the applicability of S-PMA and t,t-MA as exposure biomarkers and to monitor the occupational exposure level and the extent ...
Wax P M - - 2000
We investigated discordant urinary mercury testing results from 2 patients with potential mercury exposures. Two patients had mercury levels of 634 and > 1,000 micrograms/L respectively. Although repeat 24 h urine mercury levels were elevated, spot urines were negative. Investigation revealed that technical HCl with high mercury content had been ...
Linhart I - - 2000
Biotransformation of styrene and its toxic metabolite, phenyloxirane (1), in mice in vivo was studied. Mice were treated with single intraperitoneal doses of styrene (400 mg/kg of body weight), and with (R)-, (S)-, or racemic styrene oxide (150 mg/kg of body weight). Profiles of neutral and acidic metabolites were determined ...
Fu C - - 1999
Co-electroosmotic capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection at a Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) modified carbon paste electrode was evaluated for the determination of oxalic acid in urine. The running buffer consisted of 10 mM phosphate (pH=5.70) and 0.25 mM Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Under the optimum conditions, a detection limit of 0.12 muM was ...
Ladona M G - - 1999
In May 1981, a massive food-borne intoxication occurred in Spain. The so-called toxic oil syndrome (TOS) was associated with the consumption of aniline-denatured and refined rapeseed oil that was illegally sold as edible olive oil. Fatty acid anilides and fatty acid derivatives of 3-(phenylamino)propane-1,2-diol were detected in oils and implicated ...
Lever S Z - - 1999
meso-2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid is a suitable chelating agent for routine pharmacotherapy of lead poisoning in children. Administration of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid presumably permits complexation of lead in vivo, allowing excretion through urine or feces. Quantification of the lead is achieved independently from the analysis of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid and metabolites from the monobromobimane ...
Mokler F T - - 1999
Biodistribution studies with the radioiodinated 3(R)- and 3(S)-isomers of 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) in rats have shown that 3(R)-BMIPP has 20%-25% higher heart uptake than 3(S)-BMIPP (15-180 min). In contrast, the 3(S)-isomer has slightly higher liver uptake, and uptake in other tissues examined is similar. METHODS: To evaluate the possible differences ...
Feldmann J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Stability of chemical speciation during sample handling and storage is a prerequisite to obtaining reliable results of trace element speciation analysis. There is no comprehensive information on the stability of common arsenic species, such as inorganic arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, and arsenobetaine, in human urine. ...
Suzuki T - - 1999
In an attempt to elucidate metabolic destination of TBTO, sulfur-containing metabolites were investigated in the urine. Tri-n-butyltin chloride (TBTC), tri-n-butyltin oxide (TBTO), and their in vitro metabolites in rat liver microsomal enzyme systems, di-n-butyl(3-hydroxybutyl)tin chloride (T3OH), di-n-butyl(3-oxobutyl)tin chloride (T3CO), dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC), and monobutyltin trichloride (MBTC), were intraperitoneally administered to ...
Salerno C - - 1999
We describe a simple method for measuring orotic acid and uracil concentration in urine by capillary zone electrophoresis in 20 mM Na-borate buffer, pH 9.2. The method was applied for studying a patient with HHH (hyperomithinemia, hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria) syndrome. A high value of uracil excretion was found during periods ...
Gutsche B - - 1999
Evaluating the formation of tryptophan glycoconjugates other than well-established Amadori rearrangement products, HPLC-tandem MS (MS/MS) analysis of human urine collected from several healthy individuals proved the presence of one distinct tryptophan C-glycosyl compound [Horiuchi, Yonekawa, Iwahara, Kanno, Kurihara and Fujise (1994) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 115, 362-366]. After isolation, unambiguous identification ...
Kharasch E D - - 1999
The volatile anesthetic sevoflurane is degraded in anesthesia machines to fluoromethyl-2,2-difluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl)vinyl ether (FDVE), to which humans are exposed. FDVE is metabolized in rats and humans to two alkane and two alkene glutathione S-conjugates that are hydrolyzed to the corresponding cysteine S-conjugates. The latter are N-acetylated to mercapturic acids, or bioactivated ...
Graefe E U - - 1999
Flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids are polyphenolic compounds present in our daily diet in form of tea and vegetables as well as in herbal remedies used in phytomedicine. A wide range of in-vitro activities, in particular their antioxidant properties, have been studied intensively. However, in-vivo-data on absorption, bioavailability and metabolism after ...
Eggelte T A - - 1999
We have produced monoclonal antibodies against artelinic acid and investigated the reactivity with artemisinin drugs and metabolites. Antibody F170-10 is fairly specific for artelinic acid but does bind artemisinin and artemether (3-5% cross-reactivity). Dihydroartemisinin, artesunate, and metabolites of artemisinin showed less reactivity. With this antibody, an inhibition ELISA has been ...
Ravanat J L - - 1999
A method, involving a HPLC prepurification followed by a GC/MS analysis, has been set up for the measurement of nucleic acid oxidation products in human urine. For this purpose, isotopically labeled internal standards have been prepared and used for isotope dilution mass spectrometric detection. Using this approach, four oxidized DNA ...
Charnock J S JS Charnock and Associates, Coromandel House, Carrickalinga, South Australia, - - 1999
In a number of epidemiological surveys and in two recent intervention trials in cardiac patients, diets rich in marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which include both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been found to be beneficial in reducing the susceptibility of developing serious ventricular fibrillation (VF) ...
Sirén H - - 1999
Capillary zone electrophoresis with photodiode array detection at 220 nm was used for analysis of catechol compounds in human urine. The method was optimized with reference compounds 3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline, normetanephrine, dopamine, dopac (homogensitic acid), methanephrine, vanillyl-mandelic acid, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid and 3-methoxytyramic acid at pH 4.0 and ...
Kuhara T - - 1999
Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) techniques for urinary organic acid profiling have been applied to high-risk screening for a wide range of diseases, mainly for inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), rather than to low-risk screening or mass screening. Using a simplified procedure with urease-pretreatment and the GC-MS technique, which allows simultaneous ...
Habash M B - - 1999
In this study, urine was collected from groups of volunteers following the consumption of water, ascorbic acid, or cranberry supplements. Only ascorbic acid intake consistently produced acidic urine. Photospectroscopy data indicated that increased water consumption produced urine with lower protein content. Surface tension measurements of the collected urine showed that ...
Tsujimoto Y - - 1999
The structure was investigated of the mercapturic acid excreted in urine of rats after the i.p. administration of 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene. Of the two regioisomeric mercapturic acids, i.e. N-acetyl-S-(2,3-dimethylbenzyl)-L-cysteine and N-acetyl-S-(2,6-dimethyl-benzyl)-L-cysteine, only the former was isolated by preparative HPLC and identified, by comparison with an authentic specimen. The excretion rate of the ...
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