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Pimpão Rui C RC Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Av. da República, EAN, Oeiras, - - 2014
The colonic metabolism of dietary flavonoids, phenolic acids and their phenolic metabolites is complex and many metabolites and conjugates have not yet been unambiguously identified in humans. Urine samples from nine healthy human volunteers obtained after the ingestion of a puree of five (poly)phenol-rich berry fruits were analysed using LC-Orbitrap ...
Röytiö H H Kantvik Active Nutrition, DuPont Nutrition and Health, Sokeritehtaantie 20, 02460 Kantvik, Finland Functional Foods Forum and Institute of Biomedicine, 20014 University of Turku, - - 2014
Polydextrose is a randomly bonded glucose polymer with a highly branched and complex structure. It resists digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract and is partially fermented in the large intestine by the colonic microbes. Due to its complex structure, a plethora of microbes is required for the catabolism of polydextrose ...
Dhaneshwar Suneela S SS Suneela S Dhaneshwar, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune-411 038, Maharashtra, - - 2014
Despite the advent of biological products, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor-α monoclonal antibodies (infliximab and adalimumab), for treatment of moderate to severe cases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), most patients depend upon aminosalicylates as the conventional treatment option. In recent years, the increased knowledge of complex pathophysiological processes underlying IBD ...
Yang Guo-Xun GX a Department of Natural Products Chemistry , School of Pharmacy, Fudan University , No. 826 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 201203 , P.R. - - 2014
In search of anti-inflammatory lead compounds from traditional Chinese medicines, a bioassay-guided phytochemical study on Melastoma dodecandrum was carried out. As a result, 18 compounds have been isolated. Their chemical structures were determined on the basis of their physicochemical properties and spectral data. Among the isolates, three pentacyclic triterpenoids, ursolic ...
Mei Li - - 2014
A novel intestinal-targeted carrier for pH-responsive protection of Lactic acid bacteria in stomach and rapid release of Lactic acid bacteria in small intestine is successfully developed. The proposed carrier is composed of a Ca-alginate/protamine (CAP) composite shell and a Lactobacillus-casei-encapsulated Ca-alginate (CA) core. The carriers are prepared simply by a ...
Piazzi Giulia G Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Center for Applied Biomedical Research (CRBA), S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, - - 2014
Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with increased risk of developing colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Epidemiological data show that the consumption of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) decreases the risk of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). Importantly, recent data have shown that eicosapentaenoic acid-free fatty acid (EPA-FFA) reduces polyp formation and ...
Cazarin Cinthia Bb CB Department of Food and Nutrition, School of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, 13083-862, Campinas/SP, - - 2014
Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic relapsing disease that affects millions of people worldwide; its pathogenesis is influenced by genetic, environmental, microbiological, and immunological factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short- and long-term Passiflora edulis peel intake on the antioxidant status, microbiota, and short-chain ...
Cho H T HT Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, - - 2014
The influence of droplet size (d32=0.21, 0.70 or 2.2μm) and oil digestibility (corn oil versus mineral oil) on the bioavailability of a model long chain fatty acid (heptadecanoic acid) and lipophilic nutraceutical (Coenzyme Q10) was investigated using a rat feeding study. Initially, we showed that small droplets were digested more ...
González J J Departamento de Producción Animal, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040, Madrid, - - 2014
Microbial corrected in situ estimates of ruminal undegraded fraction (RU) and intestinal effective digestibility (IED) of amino acids (AA) except tryptophan of rye, wheat and corn grains, wheat bran, wheat- or barley-distilled dried-grains and corn gluten feed were measured on three rumen and duodenum cannulated wethers using (15) N labeling-techniques ...
Clark David A DA Albany Medical College, Albany, NY, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis which develops after feeding preterm infants is characterized by severe intestinal inflammation and profound systemic metabolic acidosis. The fermentation of undigested dietary carbohydrate by colonic flora yields gases (CO2 and H2) and short chain organic acids. These organic acids can disrupt the intestinal mucosa and initiate inflammation ...
Plett Jonathan M JM INRA, UMR 1136 INRA-University Henri Poincaré, Lab of Excellence ARBRE, Interactions Arbres/Microorganismes, INRA-Nancy, 54280, Champenoux, France; Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, University of Western Sydney, Richmond, NSW, 2753, - - 2014
The plant hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid have interconnecting roles during the response of plant tissues to mutualistic and pathogenic symbionts. We used morphological studies of transgenic- or hormone-treated Populus roots as well as whole-genome oligoarrays to examine how these hormones affect root colonization by the mutualistic ectomycorrhizal ...
Druart Céline C Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, - - 2014
In vitro studies have suggested that isolated gut bacteria are able to metabolize PUFA into CLA (conjugated linoleic acids) and CLnA (conjugated linolenic acids). However, the bioavailability of fatty acid metabolites produced in vivo by the gut microbes remains to be studied. Therefore, we measured intestinal concentration and plasma accumulation ...
Ren Wenkai W Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in South-Central, Ministry of Agriculture, Hunan Provincial Engineering Research Center of Healthy Livestock Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, Hunan, - - 2014
This study was conducted to investigate serum amino acids profile in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, and impacts of graded dose of arginine or glutamine supplementation on the colitis. Using DSS-induced colitis model, which is similar to human ulcerative colitis, we determined serum profile of amino acids at day 3, ...
Reimer Raylene A RA Faculty of Kinesiology and Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada. - - 2014
Many of the health benefits associated with dietary fiber are attributed to their fermentation by microbiota and production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentability of the functional fiber PolyGlyopleX® (PGX®) in vitro. A validated dynamic, computer-controlled in vitro system simulating ...
Tomas-Barberan Francisco F Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS-CSIC, Murcia, - - 2013
Chlorogenic acid (3-O-caffeoyl-quinic acid, C-QA), the caffeic ester of quinic acid, is one of the most abundant phenolic acids in Western diet. The majority of C-QA escapes absorption in the small intestine and reaches the colon, where the resident microbiota transforms it into several metabolites. C-QA conversion by the gut ...
De Weirdt R - - 2013
Lactobacillus reuteri is a commensal, beneficial gut microbe that colonises the intestinal mucus layer, where it makes close contact with the human host and may significantly affect human health. Here, we investigated the capacity of linoleic acid (LA), the most common polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in a Western-style diet, to ...
Zhang Hao H Beijing Laboratory for Food Quality and Safety, and Key Laboratory of Functional Dairy, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, P. R. - - 2013
Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei LC01 (LC01) can tolerate intestinal stresses and has antioxidant activity. To evaluate the effect of the bacterium on human intestinal microflora, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human trial was carried out. Fifty-two healthy adult volunteers were randomized equally to two groups. One group consumed 12% (wt/vol) skimmed ...
Boomer Laura - - 2013
Background: Novel therapies are crucially needed for short bowel syndrome (SBS). One potential therapy is the production of tissue engineered intestine (TEI). The intestinal environment presents significant challenges to the selection of appropriate material for tissue engineering scaffolds. Our goal was to characterize different scaffold materials to downselect to that ...
Govinda Rajulu Gavara - - 2013
A series of new hydroxamic acid derivatives (6a-f) at C-3 position of fluoroquinolones were designed and synthesized through multistep synthesis. The design concept involved replacement of the 3-carboxylic acid in fluoquinolones with hydroxamic acid as an acid mimicking group. The synthetic work employed in this work provides a good example ...
Suneela Dhaneshwar - - 2013
Azo prodrugs of aminosalicylates viz: 5-aminosalicylic acid and 4-aminosalicylic acid were synthesised using phenols as colon- targeting carriers for management of inflammatory bowel disease. The structures were confirmed by spectral and elemental analysis. These azo- linked prodrugs showed increased hydrophilicity which prevented their absorption from the upper GIT thus delivering ...
Klaus Christina - - 2013
The intestinal mucosa is characterized by a high complexity in terms of structure and functions and allows for a controlled demarcation towards the gut lumen. On the one hand it is responsible for pulping and selective absorption of alimentary substances ensuring the immunological tolerance, on the other hand it prevents ...
Gelsomino Giada - - 2013
The activity of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance related protein 1 (MRP1), two membrane transporters involved in multidrug resistance of colon cancer, is increased by high amounts of cholesterol in plasma membrane and detergent resistant membranes (DRMs). It has never been investigated whether omega 3 polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFAs), which ...
Camilleri Michael - - 2013
Study objectives were to: mine the complete exome to identify putative rare single nucleotide variants (SNVs) associated with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (IBS D) phenotype; assess genes that regulate bile acids in IBS-D; explore univariate associations of SNVs with symptom phenotype and quantitative traits in independent IBS cohort. Using principal component ...
Liu Xinxin - - 2013
Mucosal healing (MH) decreases the relapse risk in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, but the role of dietary supplementation in this process has been poorly investigated. Here, we investigated the effect of an amino acid mixture supplement on rat MH. Colitis was induced using 5% of dextran sodium sulfate for ...
Dhaneshwar Suneela - - 2013
Novel mutual prodrugs of biphenylacetic acid were designed as a promising gastro-protective alternative to fenbufen. Biphenyacetic acid was covalently linked with two non-essential amino acids (D-phenylalanine and glycine) possessing wound healing, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties. The prodrugs exhibited good stability in stomach homogenates while hydrolytic release of biphenylacetic acid was ...
Giuliani A - - 2013
An increased dietary intake of fat, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been related to an increased risk of breast, prostate and colon cancers. Patients with and without colon cancer were tested for differences in their fatty stores composition. The fatty acid levels were determined by gas-liquid chromatography in adipose ...
Król Jaroslaw E JE Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, - - 2014
Dental caries induced by Streptococcus mutans is one of the most prevalent chronic infectious diseases worldwide. The pathogenicity of S. mutans relies on the bacterium's ability to colonize tooth surfaces and survive a strongly acidic environment. We performed an ISS1 transposon mutagenesis to screen for acid-sensitive mutants of S. mutans ...
Pereira Junia M - - 2013
Clarithromycin (CLA) is an aminomacrolide antibiotic whose physical properties are fascinating and challenging. It has very poor solubility at neutral intestinal pH, but much better solubility under acidic conditions due to amine protonation. The improved solubility in an acid environment is confounded by the poor chemical stability of clarithromycin that ...
Rodríguez Valeria - - 2013
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on intestinal Ca(2+) absorption and to find out whether the inhibition of this process caused by NaDOC could be prevented by UDCA. Chicks were employed and divided into four groups: a) controls, b) treated with 10 ...
Jouët P - - 2013
The effects of bacterial fermentation on human colonic motor activity could be explained by colonic acidification or short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. We compared in healthy volunteers the colonic motor effects of intracolonic infusion of neutral or acidic saline solutions and then of neutral or acidic solutions containing an SCFA ...
Geuking Markus B - - 2013
Intestinal bacterial metabolites are an important communication tool between the host immune system and the commensal microbiota to establish mutualism. In a recent paper published in Science, Wendy Garrett and her colleagues report an exciting role of the three most abundant microbial-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), acetic acid, propionic acid ...
Porenta Shannon - - 2013
A Mediterranean diet increases intakes of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids and lowers intake of n-6 fatty acids. This can impact colon cancer risk since n-6 fatty acids are metabolized to pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interactions of polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase genes, ...
Gautam M K MK Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005, - - 2013
Azadirachta indica leaves indicated the presence of active principles with proven antioxidants, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, free radical scavenging and healing properties. In the present study we evaluated the healing effects of 50% ethanol extract of dried leaves of Azadirachta indica on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats. Azadirachta indica extract (500 ...
Ng Katharine M KM Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, - - 2013
The human intestine, colonized by a dense community of resident microbes, is a frequent target of bacterial pathogens. Undisturbed, this intestinal microbiota provides protection from bacterial infections. Conversely, disruption of the microbiota with oral antibiotics often precedes the emergence of several enteric pathogens. How pathogens capitalize upon the failure of ...
Ganapathy Vadivel - - 2013
The mutually beneficial relationship between colonic bacteria and the host has been recognized but the molecular aspects of the relationship remain poorly understood. Dietary fiber is critical to this relationship. The short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate and butyrate, generated by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber, serve as messengers between colonic ...
Wang Tony Y - - 2013
Dietary fat is one of the most important energy sources of all the nutrients. Fatty acids, stored as triacylglycerols (also called triglycerides) in the body, are an important reservoir of stored energy and derived primarily from animal fats and vegetable oils. Although the molecular mechanisms for the transport of water-insoluble ...
Reyes-Zurita Fernando J - - 2013
We report that a novel triterpenoid, (2a,3b)-2,3-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (maslinic acid), isolated from olive pomace from Olea europaea, triggers primarily the extrinsic and later the intrinsic apoptotic pathways in Caco-2 human colon-cancer cells. Apoptosis induced by maslinic acid was confirmed by FACS analysis using annexine-V FICT staining. This induction of apoptosis ...
Buttet Marjorie - - 2013
Today, it is well established that the development of obesity and associated diseases results, in part, from excessive lipid intake associated with a qualitative imbalance. Among the organs involved in lipid homeostasis, the small intestine is the least studied even though it determines lipid bioavailability and largely contributes to the ...
Kominami Yoko - - 2013
An 84-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of blood in the stool. He had previously undergone a subtotal colectomy and ileostomy with a mucous fistula of the sigmoid colon because of a large bowel hemorrhage of unknown origin. Five years later, a minor hemorrhage developed in the remnant ...
Russell Wendy R - - 2013
The influence of the microbial-mammalian metabolic axis is becoming increasingly important for human health. Bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates (CHOs) and proteins produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and a range of other metabolites including those from aromatic amino acid (AAA) fermentation. SCFA influence host health as energy sources and via multiple ...
Stětinová Věra - - 2013
The object of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) (i) EcN lipopolysaccharide (EcN LPS) and (ii) bacteria-free supernatant of EcN suspension (EcN supernatant) on in vitro transepithelial transport of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA), the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory drug in inflammatory ...
Zentek J - - 2013
Organic short and medium chain fatty acids are used in diets for piglets because they have an impact on the digestive processes and the intestinal microbiota. In this study, 48 pens (2 piglets/pen) were assigned randomly to 4 diets, without additive (control), with organic acids (OA; 0.416% fumaric and 0.328% ...
Yeap Yan Yan - - 2013
To evaluate the potential for the acidic intestinal unstirred water layer (UWL) to induce drug supersaturation and enhance drug absorption from intestinal mixed micelles, via the promotion of fatty acid absorption. Using a single-pass rat jejunal perfusion model, the absorptive-flux of cinnarizine and (3)H-oleic acid from oleic acid-containing intestinal mixed ...
Sorensen Lone Schmidt - - 2013
Background: The purpose of the study was to examine whether a preoperative supplement with ω-3 fatty acids (FAs) leads to their incorporation into colonic tissue in patients scheduled for colorectal cancer surgery. This would be of interest because ω-3 FAs have potential beneficial (local) immunological effects that might benefit these ...
Piton Gaël - - 2013
OBJECTIVES:: Small bowel dysfunction in critically ill patients is frequent, underdiagnosed, and associated with poor prognosis. Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein is a marker of enterocyte damage, and plasma citrulline concentration is a marker of functional enterocyte mass. Primary objective was to identify factors associated with intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in ...
Mishiro Tsuyoshi - - 2013
Butyric acid, a short-chain fatty acid and one of the main metabolites of intestinal microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, has been shown to have an important role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, while it also has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro and ...
Kumar Jeyan S - - 2013
Niacin (vitamin B3; nicotinic acid) plays an important role in maintaining redox state of cells, and is obtained from endogenous and exogenous sources. The latter source has generally been assumed to be the dietary niacin, but another exogenous source that has been ignored is the niacin that is produced by ...
Lee Ja-Young - - 2013
Bile acid composition in the colon is determined by bile acid flow in the intestines, the population of bile acid-converting bacteria, and the properties of the responsible bacterial enzymes. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is regarded as a chemopreventive beneficial bile acid due to its low hydrophobicity. However, it is a minor ...
Ou Junhai J Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, - - 2013
Epidemiologic studies have suggested that most cases of sporadic colon cancer can be attributed to diet. The recognition that colonic microbiota have a major influence on colonic health suggests that they might mediate colonic carcinogenesis. To examine the hypothesis that the influence of diet on colon cancer risk is mediated ...
Allsopp Philip - - 2013
Linear Inulin type fructan (ITF) prebiotics have a putative role in the prevention of colorectal cancer, whereas relatively little is known about branched fructans. This study aims to investigate the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of branched fructans derived from Agave angustifolia Haw, using the Simulator of Human Intestinal ...
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