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Results 401 - 450 of 2256
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Lukiw Walter J - - 2006
1. In addition to his many fine contributions in furthering our understanding of the neurochemical action of ecosanoids, catchelomines, steroids, anandamines, cannabinoids, endorphins, and the many modifications made to these neural factors, twenty years ago Julius Axelrod published a noteworthy paper concerning the nature of neuropeptides and their potential for ...
van de Poll Marcel C G - - 2006
The adequacy range of dietary requirements of specific amino acids in disease states is difficult to determine. In health, several techniques are available allowing rather precise quantification of requirements based on growth of the organism, rises in plasma concentration, or increases in the oxidation of marker amino acids during incremental ...
Faure Magali - - 2006
During the anabolic response associated with inflammation, mucin synthesis and colonic protection may be compromised by the limited availability of specific amino acids. We therefore determined the effect of dietary amino acid supplementation on the microbiota, mucin status, and mucosal damage in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated rats. From 8 d ...
Ball Ronald O - - 2006
Sulfur amino acid metabolism has been receiving increased attention because of the link to chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and diabetes. In addition, the role of cysteine and optimal intakes for physiological substrates such as glutathione are currently of considerable interest in human health. Although the dietary ...
Wraith J - - 2006
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are believed to protect a variety of marine organisms against the negative effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, their role in protecting developing intertidal encapsulated embryos remains untested. In the present study, we focused on the UV protective role of natural concentrations of MAAs for two ...
Boon Greet - - 2006
Molecular quantum similarity is evaluated for enantiomers in the case of molecules showing conformational flexibility, using our earlier proposed Boltzmann weighted similarity index. The conformers of the enantiomers of the amino acids alanine, asparagine, cysteine, leucine, serine, and valine were examined. Next to studying global indices, the evaluation of local ...
Häberle Johannes - - 2006
Glutamine synthetase (GS) is ubiquitously expressed in human tissues, being involved in ammonia detoxification and interorgan nitrogen flux. Inherited systemic deficiency of glutamine based on a defect of glutamine synthetase was recently described in two newborns with an early fatal course of disease. Glutamine was largely absent in their serum, ...
Mok Elise - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Glutamine has been shown to acutely decrease whole-body protein degradation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). OBJECTIVE: To improve nutritional support in DMD, we tested whether oral supplementation with glutamine for 10 d decreased whole-body protein degradation significantly more than did an isonitrogenous amino acid control mixture. DESIGN: Twenty-six boys ...
Hsu Jean W-C - - 2006
Leucine tracer has been widely used for examining whole-body protein turnover in humans, but has not been evaluated as an indicator to be used in the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. The goal of this study was to determine whether the L-[1-(13C)]leucine isotope is an acceptable indicator by comparing ...
Harada Eimei - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of male patients with ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency during adolescence or in adulthood has now been recognized. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic factors that affect the prognosis of life, to explore a basis for therapeutic strategy. METHODS: In 10 patients, nine of ...
Azevedo R A - - 2006
Aspartate is the common precursor of the essential amino acids lysine, threonine, methionine and isoleucine in higher plants. In addition, aspartate may also be converted to asparagine, in a potentially competing reaction. The latest information on the properties of the enzymes involved in the pathways and the genes that encode ...
Al Mardini Hanan - - 2006
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is controversial. We have therefore studied the effect of induced hyperammonaemia in man. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 108 g of an amino acid mixture was given orally to 18 cirrhotics and 11 control subjects and changes in blood ammonia, EEG and plasma amino acids ...
Panizzutti Rogério - - 2006
Free D-amino acids are implicated in several biological functions. This study examined the presence of D-alanine in Leishmania amazonensis. Measuring chiral amino acid content by high-performance liquid chromatography we detected a significant amount of free D-alanine in promastigotes of these parasites. D-alanine accounts for 8.9% of total free alanine and ...
Aryal Santosh - - 2006
This work reports the electrolyte induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles directly conjugated to amino acid by chemical reduction in aqueous solution. The study was focused on three different classes of amino acids depending on the nature of alpha substituent, viz. l-cysteine, l-leucine, and l-asparagine. The band broadening and the red ...
Tatara Marcin R - - 2006
Skeletal disorders in rapidly growing poultry are commonplace. This study was performed to investigate the effect of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) administration during the last 7 weeks of life on structural properties, mineralization, and mechanical endurance of skeleton in turkeys at slaughter. Healthy HB Medium Bronze female turkeys were randomly assigned ...
Biolo Gianni - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Patients with cancer are characterized by decreased muscle protein synthesis and glutamine availability that contribute to an impaired immune response. These abnormalities worsen after surgical stress. We tested the hypothesis that pharmacologic doses of branched-chain amino acids would improve the early metabolic response after major cancer surgery. METHODS: By ...
Nagata Yoko - - 2006
Free neutral D-amino acids have previously been detected in human plasma, usually accounting for less than 2% of the total free amino acid concentration (D-amino acid ratio) [Nagata, Y., Masui, R., Akino, T., 1992a. The presence of free D-serine, D-alanine and D-proline in human plasma. Experientia 48, 986-988. Nagata, Y., ...
Ohtani Masaru - - 2006
This review discusses some of the beneficial effects of a dietary amino acid supplement on muscle function, fatigue, and recovery in exercising athletes. The supplement, a mixture of amino acids that included the branched-chain amino acids, arginine and glutamine, was studied chronically at several daily dose levels for extended periods ...
Morris Sidney M SM - - 2006
Arginine, a semiessential or conditionally essential amino acid in humans, is one of the most metabolically versatile amino acids and serves as a precursor for the synthesis of urea, nitric oxide, polyamines, proline, glutamate, creatine, and agmatine. Arginine is metabolized through a complex and highly regulated set of pathways that ...
Tian Fei - - 2006
Possible protein/amino acid interactions and the physical states of amino acids after freeze-drying have been studied using isoperibol calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Good linear correlations (R(2) = 0.99) between the enthalpies of solution and the percentage of antibody in all physical mixtures, as well as unchanging melting temperatures ...
Bonaduce Ilaria - - 2006
The proteinaceous content of garlic (Allium sativum) was characterised according to its amino acid composition by using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical procedure. The procedure was tested on fresh and aged garlic samples as well as on reference gilding specimens prepared according to old recipes. The proteinaceous pattern showed ...
Fan Xiaorong - - 2006
The size of tissue amino acid pools in plants may indicate nitrogen status and provide a signal that can regulate nitrate uptake and assimilation. The effects of treating barley roots with glutamine have been examined, first to identify the transport system for the uptake of the amino acid and then ...
Kinsel Gary R - - 2006
The equilibrium nature of a plume of laser desorbed material is explored through the application of a simple equilibrium model to the ion signals observed in 355 nm laser desorption/ionization mass spectra of mixtures of the MALDI matrix alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (alphaCHCA) with the amino acids glycine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, and ...
De Bandt Jean-Pascal - - 2006
Various experimental studies conducted in the 1970s demonstrated, at least in the physiological situation, the anabolic and/or anticatabolic properties of branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, isoleucine) or their ketoacid derivatives. This led to several clinical studies in the late 1970s and early 1980s that aimed to evaluate the potential benefits ...
Huynh Ngan Ngoc - - 2006
1. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a fundamental role in the vasculature because of its diverse influence in vascular protection, including its well-reported antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic and vasodilator effects. In many vascular disease states, NO production is reduced as a result of endothelial dysfunction, in part caused by a decrease in ...
Liu Shu-Lai - - 2006
Penicillin G acylase, from Kluyvera citrophila, was used in kinetic resolution of DL-tert-leucine. N-phenylacetylated-DL-tert-leucine, chemically synthesized from DL-tert-leucine, was enantioselctively hydrolyzed by penicillin G acylase to obtain L-tert-leucine, D-tert-leucine was prepared by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the remaining substrate. The total yields of D-tert-leucine and L-tert-leucine are 80.6% and 83.1%, respectively. ...
Kurpad Anura V - - 2006
There is now an expanding body of evidence to recommend, in the case of adult humans, the use of revised indispensable amino acid requirement values; these are approximately 2 to 3 times higher than the current international recommendations. The earlier methodologies for determining amino acid requirements, based on nitrogen balance, ...
González-Martín Inmaculada - - 2006
The amino acids alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, phenylalanine, valine, lysine, proline, and tyrosine present in feeds with different textures (blocks, tablets, granules and flour (meal) and used in different stages of animal feeding regimes (lactation, growth, maintenance, etc.) were analysed using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) technology together with ...
Kitchin Simon J - - 2005
Solid state dynamic properties have been investigated for the racemic (DL) and enantiomerically pure (L) crystalline forms of the amino acid serine [HO x CH2 x CH(NH3(+)) x CO2(-)] using 2H NMR line shape analysis and 2H NMR spin-lattice relaxation time measurements for samples of DL-serine and L-serine deuterated in ...
Moehn Soenke - - 2005
Standardized ileal ("true") digestibility is currently the best estimate of amino acid digestibility, but it does not measure bioavailability. Growth assays to determine amino acid bioavailability are expensive and laborious; thus, a rapid method is needed. Applying the principle of slope-ratio assay to the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method, ...
Fukami Jinichi - - 2005
A fast disintegrating compressed tablet was formulated using amino acids, such as L-lysine HCl, L-alanine, glycine and L-tyrosine as disintegration accelerator. The tablets having the hardness of about 4 kgf were prepared and the effect of amino acids on the wetting time and disintegration time in the oral cavity of ...
Parimi Prabhu S - - 2005
Glutamine has been proposed to be conditionally essential for premature infants, and the currently used parenteral nutrient mixtures do not contain glutamine. De novo glutamine synthesis (DGln) is linked to inflow of carbon into and out of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. We hypothesized that a higher supply of parenteral ...
Daniels H - - 2005
A comparative chemical analysis of the larval nectar secretions and hemolymph from three unspecifically and facultatively ant-attended lycaenid species (Polyommatus coridon, P. icarus, and Zizeeria knysna) was performed by using high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. Sucrose was the main sugar component in all three species. In half of the samples of ...
Prasad Subramanian - - 2006
We report the application of rotor-assisted population transfer (RAPT) to measure the quadrupolar coupling constant (C(q)) for spin 5/2 nuclei. Results from numerical simulations are presented on the magnitude of enhancement factor as a function of frequency offsets, i.e. the RAPT profile. Experimental O17 RAPT profile is traced for the ...
Booth Paul J - - 2005
Preimplantation embryos can consume and produce amino acids in a manner dependent upon the stage of development that may be predictive of subsequent viability. In order to examine these relationships in the pig, patterns of net depletion and appearance of amino acids by in vitro produced porcine preimplantation embryos were ...
Kadrofske Mark M - - 2006
Glutamine may be a conditionally essential amino acid in low-birth-weight (LBW) preterm neonates. Exogenously administered amino acids, by providing anaplerotic carbon into the tricarboxylic acid cycle, could result in greater cataplerotic efflux and glutamine de novo synthesis. The effect of dose and duration of amino acid infusion on glutamine and ...
Prod'homme Magali - - 2006
The present study was carried out to assess the effects of protease inhibitor (PI) therapy on basal whole body protein metabolism and its response to acute amino acid-glucose infusion in 14 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Patients treated with PIs (PI+, 7 patients) or without PIs (PI-, 7 patients) were ...
Valmaseda E M Martín de - - 2005
The biosynthesis and catabolism of lysine in Penicillium chrysogenum is of great interest because these pathways provide 2-aminoadipic acid, a precursor of the tripeptide delta-L-2-aminoadipyl-L-cysteinyl-D-valine that is an intermediate in penicillin biosynthesis. In vivo conversion of labelled L-lysine into two different intermediates was demonstrated by HPLC analysis of the intracellular ...
Zhang Ying - - 2005
The interaction between water and some of amino acids (glycine, L-glutamine, L-threonine, L-cysteine and L-serine) was studied by inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (IINS). The vibrational spectra of dry amino acids and amino acids with a water content (e.g., 1 mol water/1 mol amino acid) were recorded. Comparing the difference spectra ...
McDonald John H - - 2006
It has recently been claimed that certain amino acids have been increasing in frequency in all living organisms for most of the history of life on earth, while other amino acids have been decreasing in frequency. Three lines of evidence have been offered for this assertion, but each has a ...
Gurekian Christine N - - 2005
Amniotic fluid (AF) contains free amino acids that enter via transplacental and transmembranous routes from maternal sources; subsequently, the developing fetus "ingests" these amino acids early in gestation through unkeratinized skin and later through continuous AF swallowing. Our objectives were as follows: 1) to determine whether a restriction of maternal ...
Kutukova Ekaterina A - - 2005
Overexpression of the yeaS gene encoding a protein belonging to the RhtB transporter family conferred upon cells resistance to glycyl-l-leucine, leucine analogues, several amino acids and their analogues. yeaS overexpression promoted leucine and, to a lesser extent, methionine and histidine accumulation by the respective producing strains. Our results indicate that ...
Schultz Nadja - - 2006
Deproteinized sweet and sour cheese whey concentrates were investigated for their suitability as substrates for the production of single-cell protein with Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 6556 up to a 100-l scale. An important factor for gaining high cell concentrations was the use of the Crabtree-negative strain K. marxianus CBS 6556. Supplements ...
Curis E - - 2005
Citrulline (Cit, C6H13N3O3), which is a ubiquitous amino acid in mammals, is strongly related to arginine. Citrulline metabolism in mammals is divided into two fields: free citrulline and citrullinated proteins. Free citrulline metabolism involves three key enzymes: NO synthase (NOS) and ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT) which produce citrulline, and argininosuccinate synthetase ...
Naomoto Yoshio - - 2005
There is much interest in precise functions of amino acids on mammalian growth and development. Some of amino acids play important roles in the control of gene expression by controlling the initiation phase of mRNA translation. The signal induced by leucine or arginine may stimulate cell growth. On the other ...
Dabrowski Konrad - - 2005
The premise that a dietary dipeptide approach will improve the understanding of amino acid utilization in the fastest-growing vertebrate, the teleost fish, was tested by examining the muscle free amino acid (FAA) pool and enzyme activities, in concert with growth response, when dietary amino acids were provided in free, dipeptide ...
Velez Zélia - - 2005
The two olfactory epithelia of flatfish of the family Soleidae are essentially in contact with two distinct environments; the upper (right) side samples open water while the lower (left) side samples interstitial water. This study assessed whether there are differences in the responsiveness of the two epithelia by use of ...
Van Arsdell Scott W - - 2005
In biotin biosynthesis, DAPA aminotransferase encoded by the bioA gene catalyzes the formation of the intermediate 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid (DAPA) from 7-keto-8-aminopelargonic acid (KAPA). DAPA aminotransferases from Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, and Bacillus sphaericus use S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as the amino donor. Our observation that SAM is not an amino donor for ...
Fumarola Claudia - - 2005
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) mediates a signaling pathway that couples amino acid availability to S6 kinase (S6K) activation, translational initiation and cell growth rate, participating to a versatile checkpoint that inspects the energy status of the cell. The pathway is activated by branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), leucine being the ...
Witter K - - 2005
In this article, we report the identification of a new human leukocyte antigen-B allele in a sample that was tested in our routine typing for volunteer bone marrow donors. This novel allele officially designed B*5517 was found in a male donor of Bavarian Caucasoid origin (Laboratory code 150113). The search ...
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