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Results 401 - 450 of 2280
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Olah Z - - 2007
AIM: Presented experimental work was aimed to examine a pharmacokinetic efficiency of 0.5% Timolol mixtures with 4 free amino acids, present in conjunctival sac: lysine, arginine, glycine or taurine on the IOP physiological values in rabbits. METHODS: The experimental work was performed on 5 female rabbits of the New Zealand ...
Häussinger Dieter - - 2007
Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the human body and can be synthesized by almost all tissues by the glutamine synthetase (GS)-catalyzed amidation of glutamate. Hepatocytes have access to extracellular glutamine by the concentrative uptake via members of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transport systems N and A. ...
Parlesak Alexandr - - 2007
Enteral arginine supplementation in the critically ill has become a matter of controversy. In this study, we investigated effects of the addition of 0.4 and 1.2 mmol/L arginine in a coculture model on markers of inflammation, enterocyte layer integrity, and amino acid transport. In this model, a monolayer of intestinal ...
Jalan R - - 2007
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common neuropsychiatric complication of liver disease affecting about 20-30% patients with cirrhosis. HE may only affect quality of life (e.g. impairments in attention; coordination; driving ability), but in some patients this progresses to coma and death; defining mortality in those with acute liver failure. HE ...
Chen Chen-Yin - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Hyperammonemia caused by ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency can be properly managed by continuous arteriovenous hemodiafiltration (CAVHDF). Removal of amino acids (AA) during CAVHDF has not been thoroughly investigated. AA losses in patients with urea cycle defects due to ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency treated by CAVHDF were analyzed. METHODS: Twelve neonates ...
Lerma-García María J - - 2007
Amino acid profiles, established by direct infusion mass spectrometry, have been used to classify vegetable oils according to their botanical origin. The proteins present in hazelnut, sunflower, corn, soybean, olive, avocado, peanut and grapeseed oils were precipitated with acetone, and the residue was hydrolyzed in acid medium, diluted in a ...
van de Poll Marcel C G - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The liver plays a central role in amino acid metabolism. However, because of limited accessibility of the portal vein, human data on this subject are scarce. OBJECTIVE: We studied hepatic amino acid metabolism in noncirrhotic fasting patients undergoing liver surgery. DESIGN: Twenty patients undergoing hepatectomy for colorectal metastases in ...
Sadiq Fouzia - - 2007
The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the predominant pathway for myofibrillar proteolysis but a previous study in C2C12 myotubes only observed alterations in lysosome-dependent proteolysis in response to complete starvation of amino acids or leucine from the media. Here, we determined the interaction between insulin and amino acids in the regulation of ...
Parimi Prabhu S - - 2007
Glutamine is a non-essential amino acid that can be synthesized de novo from glutamate. This synthesis can be increased by intravenous infusion of carbon precursors (alpha-ketoglutarate or amino acids) in adults and in infants. The metabolism of glutamine is highly compartmentalized between the splanchnic tissues and the periphery, so that ...
Donatelli Francesco - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The infusion of dextrose in patients receiving epidural and light general anesthesia or general anesthesia alone failed to achieve a positive protein balance. We sought to verify the hypothesis that nutritional supplementation with i.v. amino acids induced a greater protein balance in patients receiving epidural blockade compared with those ...
Scott James H - - 2006
Stable carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)C) were determined for alanine, proline, phenylalanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartate (aspartic acid and asparagine), glutamate (glutamic acid and glutamine), lysine, serine, glycine, and threonine from metabolically diverse microorganisms. The microorganisms examined included fermenting bacteria, organotrophic, chemolithotrophic, phototrophic, methylotrophic, methanogenic, acetogenic, acetotrophic, and naturally occurring cryptoendolithic ...
Iglesias M Teresa - - 2006
This study was carried out to establish the changes in the free amino acid contents of floral honeys, honeydew honeys, and blend honeys during storage at room temperature and to test the capacity of the amino acids to distinguish the origin of the honeys after storage. For this purpose, 54 ...
Hutson Susan M - - 2006
BCAAs (branched-chain amino acids) are indispensable (essential) amino acids that are required for body protein synthesis. Indispensable amino acids cannot be synthesized by the body and must be acquired from the diet. The BCAA leucine provides hormone-like signals to tissues such as skeletal muscle, indicating overall nutrient sufficiency. BCAA metabolism ...
Lyubetskaya A V - - 2006
A program implementing a flux model of Escherichia coli metabolism was used to analyze the effects of the addition of amino acids (tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, histidine, lysine, threonine, cysteine, methionine, arginine, proline) to minimal medium or media lacking nitrogen, carbon, or both. The overall response of the ...
Jonasson R - - 2007
The aim of this study was to examine blood concentrations of amino acids, glucose and lactate in association with experimental swine dysentery. Ten pigs (approximately 23kg) were orally inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Eight animals developed muco-haemorrhagic diarrhoea with impaired general appearance, changes in white blood cell counts and increased levels ...
Kurmayer Rainer - - 2006
Microcystins (MCs) are toxic heptapeptides that are produced by filamentous cyanobacteria Planktothrix rubescens and Planktothrix agardhii via nonribosomal peptide synthesis. MCs share a common structure cyclo (-D-Alanine(1)-L-X(2)- D-erythro-beta-iso-aspartic acid(3)-L-Z(4)-Adda(5)-D-Glutamate(6)- N-methyl-dehydroalanine(7)) where X(2) and Z(2) are variable L-amino acids in positions 2, 4 of the molecule. Part of the mcyB gene ...
Niquet C - - 2007
Glutamine is one of the most abundant free amino acid found in raw food. In this study, the contribution of free glutamine to nonenzymatic browning and fluorescence was investigated using an aqueous model system with methylglyoxal. The results indicated that glutamine contributed to the Maillard reaction via two pathways. First, ...
Dutta Udayan - - 2007
Glyoxylate is a 2 carbon aldo acid that is formed in hepatic tissue from glycolate. Once formed, the molecule can be converted to glycine by alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGAT). In defects of AGAT, glyoxylate is transformed to oxalate, resulting in high levels of oxalate in the body. The objective of this ...
Schwender Jörg - - 2006
The metabolism of developing plant seeds is directed toward transforming primary assimilatory products (sugars and amino acids) into seed storage compounds. To understand the role of mitochondria in this metabolism, metabolic fluxes were determined in developing embryos of Brassica napus. After labeling with [1,2-(13)C2]glucose + [U-(13)C6]glucose, [U-(13)C3]alanine, [U-(13)C5]glutamine, [(15)N]alanine, (amino)-[(15)N]glutamine, ...
Pavon Jorge Alex JA Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2128, - - 2006
Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TrpH) catalyze the aromatic hydroxylation of phenylalanine and tryptophan, forming tyrosine and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively. The reactions of PheH and TrpH have been investigated with [4-(2)H]-, [3,5-(2)H(2)]-, and (2)H(5)-phenylalanine as substrates. All (D)k(cat) values are normal with Delta117PheH, the catalytic core of rat phenylalanine hydroxylase, ...
Raoof Jahan-Bakhsh - - 2006
A carbon paste electrode (CPE) chemically modified with 1-[4-(ferrocenyl ethynyl)phenyl]-1-ethanone (4-FEPEMCPE) was employed to study the electrocatalytic oxidation of L-cysteine using cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and double potential step chronoamperometry as diagnostic techniques. The diffusion coefficient (D = 7.863 x 10(-6) cm2 s(-1)) of L-cysteine was also estimated using ...
Donatelli Francesco - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Net loss of body protein is a prominent feature of the catabolic response to surgical tissue trauma. Epidural analgesia with hypocaloric dextrose has been demonstrated to attenuate leucine oxidation but was unable to make protein balance positive. The current study was set to determine whether an infusion of amino ...
Bellinghieri Guido - - 2006
L-Arginine is an essential amino acid for infants and growing children, as well as for pregnant women. This amino acid is a substrate for at least 5 enzymes identified in mammals, including arginase, arginine-glycine transaminase, kyotorphine synthase, nitric oxide synthase, and arginine decarboxylase. L-arginine is essential for the synthesis of ...
Iresjö Britt-Marie - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Previous work has demonstrated a relationship between arterial amino acid concentrations and uptake of amino acids across peripheral tissues in healthy volunteers, as well as in chronically and acutely ill patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether different amino acid profiles in commercially available amino ...
Lukiw Walter J - - 2006
1. In addition to his many fine contributions in furthering our understanding of the neurochemical action of ecosanoids, catchelomines, steroids, anandamines, cannabinoids, endorphins, and the many modifications made to these neural factors, twenty years ago Julius Axelrod published a noteworthy paper concerning the nature of neuropeptides and their potential for ...
van de Poll Marcel C G - - 2006
The adequacy range of dietary requirements of specific amino acids in disease states is difficult to determine. In health, several techniques are available allowing rather precise quantification of requirements based on growth of the organism, rises in plasma concentration, or increases in the oxidation of marker amino acids during incremental ...
Faure Magali - - 2006
During the anabolic response associated with inflammation, mucin synthesis and colonic protection may be compromised by the limited availability of specific amino acids. We therefore determined the effect of dietary amino acid supplementation on the microbiota, mucin status, and mucosal damage in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated rats. From 8 d ...
Ball Ronald O - - 2006
Sulfur amino acid metabolism has been receiving increased attention because of the link to chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and diabetes. In addition, the role of cysteine and optimal intakes for physiological substrates such as glutathione are currently of considerable interest in human health. Although the dietary ...
Wraith J - - 2006
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are believed to protect a variety of marine organisms against the negative effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, their role in protecting developing intertidal encapsulated embryos remains untested. In the present study, we focused on the UV protective role of natural concentrations of MAAs for two ...
Boon Greet - - 2006
Molecular quantum similarity is evaluated for enantiomers in the case of molecules showing conformational flexibility, using our earlier proposed Boltzmann weighted similarity index. The conformers of the enantiomers of the amino acids alanine, asparagine, cysteine, leucine, serine, and valine were examined. Next to studying global indices, the evaluation of local ...
Häberle Johannes - - 2006
Glutamine synthetase (GS) is ubiquitously expressed in human tissues, being involved in ammonia detoxification and interorgan nitrogen flux. Inherited systemic deficiency of glutamine based on a defect of glutamine synthetase was recently described in two newborns with an early fatal course of disease. Glutamine was largely absent in their serum, ...
Mok Elise - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Glutamine has been shown to acutely decrease whole-body protein degradation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). OBJECTIVE: To improve nutritional support in DMD, we tested whether oral supplementation with glutamine for 10 d decreased whole-body protein degradation significantly more than did an isonitrogenous amino acid control mixture. DESIGN: Twenty-six boys ...
Hsu Jean W-C - - 2006
Leucine tracer has been widely used for examining whole-body protein turnover in humans, but has not been evaluated as an indicator to be used in the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. The goal of this study was to determine whether the L-[1-(13C)]leucine isotope is an acceptable indicator by comparing ...
Harada Eimei - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of male patients with ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency during adolescence or in adulthood has now been recognized. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic factors that affect the prognosis of life, to explore a basis for therapeutic strategy. METHODS: In 10 patients, nine of ...
Azevedo R A - - 2006
Aspartate is the common precursor of the essential amino acids lysine, threonine, methionine and isoleucine in higher plants. In addition, aspartate may also be converted to asparagine, in a potentially competing reaction. The latest information on the properties of the enzymes involved in the pathways and the genes that encode ...
Al Mardini Hanan - - 2006
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is controversial. We have therefore studied the effect of induced hyperammonaemia in man. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 108 g of an amino acid mixture was given orally to 18 cirrhotics and 11 control subjects and changes in blood ammonia, EEG and plasma amino acids ...
Panizzutti Rogério - - 2006
Free D-amino acids are implicated in several biological functions. This study examined the presence of D-alanine in Leishmania amazonensis. Measuring chiral amino acid content by high-performance liquid chromatography we detected a significant amount of free D-alanine in promastigotes of these parasites. D-alanine accounts for 8.9% of total free alanine and ...
Aryal Santosh - - 2006
This work reports the electrolyte induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles directly conjugated to amino acid by chemical reduction in aqueous solution. The study was focused on three different classes of amino acids depending on the nature of alpha substituent, viz. l-cysteine, l-leucine, and l-asparagine. The band broadening and the red ...
Tatara Marcin R - - 2006
Skeletal disorders in rapidly growing poultry are commonplace. This study was performed to investigate the effect of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) administration during the last 7 weeks of life on structural properties, mineralization, and mechanical endurance of skeleton in turkeys at slaughter. Healthy HB Medium Bronze female turkeys were randomly assigned ...
Biolo Gianni - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Patients with cancer are characterized by decreased muscle protein synthesis and glutamine availability that contribute to an impaired immune response. These abnormalities worsen after surgical stress. We tested the hypothesis that pharmacologic doses of branched-chain amino acids would improve the early metabolic response after major cancer surgery. METHODS: By ...
Nagata Yoko - - 2006
Free neutral D-amino acids have previously been detected in human plasma, usually accounting for less than 2% of the total free amino acid concentration (D-amino acid ratio) [Nagata, Y., Masui, R., Akino, T., 1992a. The presence of free D-serine, D-alanine and D-proline in human plasma. Experientia 48, 986-988. Nagata, Y., ...
Ohtani Masaru - - 2006
This review discusses some of the beneficial effects of a dietary amino acid supplement on muscle function, fatigue, and recovery in exercising athletes. The supplement, a mixture of amino acids that included the branched-chain amino acids, arginine and glutamine, was studied chronically at several daily dose levels for extended periods ...
Morris Sidney M SM Jr Department of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. - - 2006
Arginine, a semiessential or conditionally essential amino acid in humans, is one of the most metabolically versatile amino acids and serves as a precursor for the synthesis of urea, nitric oxide, polyamines, proline, glutamate, creatine, and agmatine. Arginine is metabolized through a complex and highly regulated set of pathways that ...
Tian Fei - - 2006
Possible protein/amino acid interactions and the physical states of amino acids after freeze-drying have been studied using isoperibol calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Good linear correlations (R(2) = 0.99) between the enthalpies of solution and the percentage of antibody in all physical mixtures, as well as unchanging melting temperatures ...
Bonaduce Ilaria - - 2006
The proteinaceous content of garlic (Allium sativum) was characterised according to its amino acid composition by using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical procedure. The procedure was tested on fresh and aged garlic samples as well as on reference gilding specimens prepared according to old recipes. The proteinaceous pattern showed ...
Fan Xiaorong - - 2006
The size of tissue amino acid pools in plants may indicate nitrogen status and provide a signal that can regulate nitrate uptake and assimilation. The effects of treating barley roots with glutamine have been examined, first to identify the transport system for the uptake of the amino acid and then ...
Kinsel Gary R - - 2006
The equilibrium nature of a plume of laser desorbed material is explored through the application of a simple equilibrium model to the ion signals observed in 355 nm laser desorption/ionization mass spectra of mixtures of the MALDI matrix alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (alphaCHCA) with the amino acids glycine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, and ...
De Bandt Jean-Pascal - - 2006
Various experimental studies conducted in the 1970s demonstrated, at least in the physiological situation, the anabolic and/or anticatabolic properties of branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, isoleucine) or their ketoacid derivatives. This led to several clinical studies in the late 1970s and early 1980s that aimed to evaluate the potential benefits ...
Huynh Ngan Ngoc - - 2006
1. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a fundamental role in the vasculature because of its diverse influence in vascular protection, including its well-reported antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic and vasodilator effects. In many vascular disease states, NO production is reduced as a result of endothelial dysfunction, in part caused by a decrease in ...
Liu Shu-Lai - - 2006
Penicillin G acylase, from Kluyvera citrophila, was used in kinetic resolution of DL-tert-leucine. N-phenylacetylated-DL-tert-leucine, chemically synthesized from DL-tert-leucine, was enantioselctively hydrolyzed by penicillin G acylase to obtain L-tert-leucine, D-tert-leucine was prepared by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the remaining substrate. The total yields of D-tert-leucine and L-tert-leucine are 80.6% and 83.1%, respectively. ...
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