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Morris Sidney M SM - - 2007
Arginine has multiple metabolic fates and thus is one of the most versatile amino acids. Not only is it metabolically interconvertible with the amino acids proline and glutamate, but it also serves as a precursor for synthesis of protein, nitric oxide, creatine, polyamines, agmatine, and urea. These processes do not ...
Huang Yi-Fang - - 2007
This study examined the regulation of glutamine synthetase protein levels, in response to changes in external glutamine concentration, in mouse C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Glutamine, at concentrations as low as 0.25 mmol/L, downregulated endogenous and exogenous (plasmid encoded) glutamine synthetase with maximal effect at 2 mmol/L. Glutamine appears to act ...
Pinotti Laura Marina - - 2007
Aiming at to enhance the production of penicillin G acylase (PGA) by Bacillus megaterium, we have performed flasks experiments using different medium composition. Using 51 g/L of casein hydrolyzed with Alcalase and 2.7 g/L of phenylacetic acid (PhAc), the following carbon substrates were tested, individually and combined: glucose, glycerol, and ...
Sandstrom P - - 2008
Patients in the early phase of acute pancreatitis (AP) have reduced serum levels of arginine and citrulline. This may be of patho-biological importance, since arginine is the substrate for nitric oxide, which in turn is involved in normal pancreatic physiology and in the inflammatory process. Serum amino acid spectrum was ...
Raffi J - - 2008
To better understand the composite character of irradiated alanine ESR spectra, a comparative study of few simple amino acids is performed in order to identify the different radio-induced radicals and their proportions. A dedicated spin-trapping method coupled with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is developed and carried out on irradiated ...
Saguir Fabiana M - - 2007
The aims of this work were to improve a basal synthetic medium (BM) for the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum strains and to establish their amino-acid requirements. Amino-acid use was analyzed in the most nutritionally demanding bacterium. First, the improved BM (L. plantarum synthetic medium [LPSM]) was created by increasing some ...
Takenaka Naomi - - 2007
At present, molecular bases of spectral tuning in rhodopsin-like (RH2) pigments are not well understood. Here, we have constructed the RH2 pigments of nocturnal Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) and diurnal American chameleon (Anolis carolinensis) as well as chimeras between them. The RH2 pigments of the gecko and chameleon reconstituted with ...
Cleal Jane K JK DOHaD Division, University of Southampton, Southampton, - - 2007
Fetal growth is dependent on both the quantity and relative composition of amino acids delivered to the fetal circulation, and impaired placental amino acid supply is associated with restricted fetal growth. Amino acid exchangers can alter the composition, but not the quantity, of amino acids in the intra- and extracellular ...
Brunton Janet A - - 2007
Recent studies using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique in TPN-fed piglets and infants have been instrumental in defining parenteral amino acid requirements. None of the commercial products in use are ideal when assessed against these new data. Our objectives were to determine whether the oxidation of an indicator ...
Palova S - - 2007
We evaluated and measured by high performance liquid chromatography the plasma amino acid levels in 11 female patients with anorexia nervosa during a period of significant loss of body weight, compared with 11 healthy age-matched controls. Total amino acid and total branched-chain amino acid levels were similar in both groups, ...
Low Mei Yin - - 2007
The use of glycine to limit acrylamide formation during the heating of a potato model system was also found to alter the relative proportions of alkylpyrazines. The addition of glycine increased the quantities of several alkylpyrazines, and labeling studies using [2-13C]glycine showed that those alkylpyrazines which increased in the presence ...
Krug Alexander W - - 2007
D-Serine selectively causes necrosis of S(3) segments of proximal tubules in rats. This leads to aminoaciduria and glucosuria. Coinjection of the nonmetabolizable amino acid alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) prevents the tubulopathy. D-serine is selectively reabsorbed in S(3), thereby gaining access to peroxisomal D-amino acid oxidase (D-AAO). D-AAO-mediated metabolism produces reactive oxygen ...
Casado Francisco Javier - - 2007
The occurrence of d-amino acids in commercial ripe olives, a well-known sterilized alkali-treated product, was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with precolumn automatic derivatization. Absolute amounts of D-amino acids were in total 18.6-38.2 mg/100 g edible portion. The major D-amino acids were D-aspartic acid, D-glutamic acid, D-serine, and D-leucine. ...
Ishikawa Masago - - 2007
Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, play significant roles in numerous physiological events in mammals. As the effects of amino acids on melanogenesis have yet to be demonstrated, the present study was conducted to identify whether amino acids, in particular alanine, glycine, isoleucine and leucine, influence melanogenesis in B16F0 ...
Nilsson Mikael - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Milk protein, in particular the whey fraction, has been shown to display insulinotrophic properties in healthy persons and persons with type 2 diabetes. In parallel to the hyperinsulinemia, a pronounced postprandial rise of certain amino acids and of glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide (GIP) was observed in plasma. OBJECTIVE: The objective ...
Mohammadi Hamid Shahbaz - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Amino acid dehydrogenases (L-amino acid: oxidoreductase deaminating; EC 1.4.1.X) are members of the wider superfamily of oxidoreductases that catalyze the reversible oxidative deamination of an amino acid to its keto acid and ammonia with the concomitant reduction of either NAD+, NADP+ or FAD. These enzymes have been received much ...
Gray Susan - - 2007
In the postabsorptive state, certain tissues, including the brain, require glucose as the sole source of energy. After an overnight fast, hepatic glycogen stores are depleted, and gluconeogenesis becomes essential for preventing life-threatening hypoglycemia. Mice with a targeted deletion of KLF15, a member of the Krüppel-like family of transcription factors, ...
Hsu Jean W C - - 2007
Phenylalanine is nutritionally classified as an indispensable amino acid and can be converted to tyrosine by phenylalanine hydroxylation. The initial goal of the present study was to determine the aromatic amino acid (phenylalanine plus tyrosine) requirements in healthy children fed a diet without tyrosine by using the indicator amino acid ...
Do─čan Alev - - 2007
The acid-base equilibria of several amino acids, namely glycine, l-alanine, l-valine, l-leucine, l-phenylalanine, l-serine, l-methionine, and l-isoleucine, have been characterized in terms of microscopic protonation constants and tautomeric ratios. In this study, the microscopic protonation constants and tautomeric ratios of eight amino acids in different ethanol-water mixtures have been determined. ...
Fujita Tetsuji - - 2007
Although glutamine is an important fuel for the intestinal epithelium, the metabolic fate of glutamine extracted by the human intestine remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between glutamine extraction and the release of other amino acids by the human intestine. In 21 patients undergoing ...
Takahashi Hideo - - 2007
Rokumi-gan (TJ-87) has beneficial effects on renal diseases, including pollakisuria, dysuria and edema. We previously reported that its long-term administration clinically improved serum protein concentration and edema in renal failure. In this study, we focused on amino acid/protein contents in Rokumi-gan as one of its effectors. Commercially prepared Rokumi-gan contained ...
Strnadová Kristina Anna - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Dried blood filter cards, collected for newborn screening, are often stored for long periods of time. They may be suitable for the retrospective diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism, but no data are currently available on the long-term stability of amino acids and acylcarnitine species. METHODS: We analyzed amino ...
Csapó J - - 2008
The influence of the operation conditions (temperature and residence time) of a thermic treatment on the total amount (free and protein-bound) of amino acid enantiomers of dry fullfat soya was investigated. Total amino acid content was determined using conventional ion-exchange amino acid analysis of total hydrolysates and chiral amino acid ...
Nakamura Kaworu - - 2007
The hemolymph pattern of free amino acids was examined in the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana (Great Salt Lake origin). After one-month acclimation to 35 or 60 ppt salinity at 27 degrees C, the animals were transferred to 10, 35 or 60 ppt salinities to continue acclimation for 3 days without ...
Martínez-Gómez Ana Isabel - - 2007
Two recombinant reaction systems for the production of optically pure D-amino acids from different D,L-5-monosubstituted hydantoins were constructed. Each system contained three enzymes, two of which were D-hydantoinase and D-carbamoylase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens BQL9. The third enzyme was hydantoin racemase 1 for the first system and hydantoin racemase 2 for ...
Olah Z - - 2007
AIM: Presented experimental work was aimed to examine a pharmacokinetic efficiency of 0.5% Timolol mixtures with 4 free amino acids, present in conjunctival sac: lysine, arginine, glycine or taurine on the IOP physiological values in rabbits. METHODS: The experimental work was performed on 5 female rabbits of the New Zealand ...
Häussinger Dieter - - 2007
Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the human body and can be synthesized by almost all tissues by the glutamine synthetase (GS)-catalyzed amidation of glutamate. Hepatocytes have access to extracellular glutamine by the concentrative uptake via members of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transport systems N and A. ...
Parlesak Alexandr - - 2007
Enteral arginine supplementation in the critically ill has become a matter of controversy. In this study, we investigated effects of the addition of 0.4 and 1.2 mmol/L arginine in a coculture model on markers of inflammation, enterocyte layer integrity, and amino acid transport. In this model, a monolayer of intestinal ...
Jalan R - - 2007
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common neuropsychiatric complication of liver disease affecting about 20-30% patients with cirrhosis. HE may only affect quality of life (e.g. impairments in attention; coordination; driving ability), but in some patients this progresses to coma and death; defining mortality in those with acute liver failure. HE ...
Chen Chen-Yin - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Hyperammonemia caused by ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency can be properly managed by continuous arteriovenous hemodiafiltration (CAVHDF). Removal of amino acids (AA) during CAVHDF has not been thoroughly investigated. AA losses in patients with urea cycle defects due to ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency treated by CAVHDF were analyzed. METHODS: Twelve neonates ...
Lerma-García María J - - 2007
Amino acid profiles, established by direct infusion mass spectrometry, have been used to classify vegetable oils according to their botanical origin. The proteins present in hazelnut, sunflower, corn, soybean, olive, avocado, peanut and grapeseed oils were precipitated with acetone, and the residue was hydrolyzed in acid medium, diluted in a ...
van de Poll Marcel C G - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The liver plays a central role in amino acid metabolism. However, because of limited accessibility of the portal vein, human data on this subject are scarce. OBJECTIVE: We studied hepatic amino acid metabolism in noncirrhotic fasting patients undergoing liver surgery. DESIGN: Twenty patients undergoing hepatectomy for colorectal metastases in ...
Sadiq Fouzia - - 2007
The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the predominant pathway for myofibrillar proteolysis but a previous study in C2C12 myotubes only observed alterations in lysosome-dependent proteolysis in response to complete starvation of amino acids or leucine from the media. Here, we determined the interaction between insulin and amino acids in the regulation of ...
Parimi Prabhu S - - 2007
Glutamine is a non-essential amino acid that can be synthesized de novo from glutamate. This synthesis can be increased by intravenous infusion of carbon precursors (alpha-ketoglutarate or amino acids) in adults and in infants. The metabolism of glutamine is highly compartmentalized between the splanchnic tissues and the periphery, so that ...
Donatelli Francesco - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The infusion of dextrose in patients receiving epidural and light general anesthesia or general anesthesia alone failed to achieve a positive protein balance. We sought to verify the hypothesis that nutritional supplementation with i.v. amino acids induced a greater protein balance in patients receiving epidural blockade compared with those ...
Scott James H - - 2006
Stable carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)C) were determined for alanine, proline, phenylalanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartate (aspartic acid and asparagine), glutamate (glutamic acid and glutamine), lysine, serine, glycine, and threonine from metabolically diverse microorganisms. The microorganisms examined included fermenting bacteria, organotrophic, chemolithotrophic, phototrophic, methylotrophic, methanogenic, acetogenic, acetotrophic, and naturally occurring cryptoendolithic ...
Iglesias M Teresa - - 2006
This study was carried out to establish the changes in the free amino acid contents of floral honeys, honeydew honeys, and blend honeys during storage at room temperature and to test the capacity of the amino acids to distinguish the origin of the honeys after storage. For this purpose, 54 ...
Hutson Susan M - - 2006
BCAAs (branched-chain amino acids) are indispensable (essential) amino acids that are required for body protein synthesis. Indispensable amino acids cannot be synthesized by the body and must be acquired from the diet. The BCAA leucine provides hormone-like signals to tissues such as skeletal muscle, indicating overall nutrient sufficiency. BCAA metabolism ...
Lyubetskaya A V - - 2006
A program implementing a flux model of Escherichia coli metabolism was used to analyze the effects of the addition of amino acids (tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, histidine, lysine, threonine, cysteine, methionine, arginine, proline) to minimal medium or media lacking nitrogen, carbon, or both. The overall response of the ...
Jonasson R - - 2007
The aim of this study was to examine blood concentrations of amino acids, glucose and lactate in association with experimental swine dysentery. Ten pigs (approximately 23kg) were orally inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Eight animals developed muco-haemorrhagic diarrhoea with impaired general appearance, changes in white blood cell counts and increased levels ...
Kurmayer Rainer - - 2006
Microcystins (MCs) are toxic heptapeptides that are produced by filamentous cyanobacteria Planktothrix rubescens and Planktothrix agardhii via nonribosomal peptide synthesis. MCs share a common structure cyclo (-D-Alanine(1)-L-X(2)- D-erythro-beta-iso-aspartic acid(3)-L-Z(4)-Adda(5)-D-Glutamate(6)- N-methyl-dehydroalanine(7)) where X(2) and Z(2) are variable L-amino acids in positions 2, 4 of the molecule. Part of the mcyB gene ...
Niquet C - - 2007
Glutamine is one of the most abundant free amino acid found in raw food. In this study, the contribution of free glutamine to nonenzymatic browning and fluorescence was investigated using an aqueous model system with methylglyoxal. The results indicated that glutamine contributed to the Maillard reaction via two pathways. First, ...
Dutta Udayan - - 2007
Glyoxylate is a 2 carbon aldo acid that is formed in hepatic tissue from glycolate. Once formed, the molecule can be converted to glycine by alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGAT). In defects of AGAT, glyoxylate is transformed to oxalate, resulting in high levels of oxalate in the body. The objective of this ...
Schwender Jörg - - 2006
The metabolism of developing plant seeds is directed toward transforming primary assimilatory products (sugars and amino acids) into seed storage compounds. To understand the role of mitochondria in this metabolism, metabolic fluxes were determined in developing embryos of Brassica napus. After labeling with [1,2-(13)C2]glucose + [U-(13)C6]glucose, [U-(13)C3]alanine, [U-(13)C5]glutamine, [(15)N]alanine, (amino)-[(15)N]glutamine, ...
Pavon Jorge Alex - - 2006
Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TrpH) catalyze the aromatic hydroxylation of phenylalanine and tryptophan, forming tyrosine and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively. The reactions of PheH and TrpH have been investigated with [4-(2)H]-, [3,5-(2)H(2)]-, and (2)H(5)-phenylalanine as substrates. All (D)k(cat) values are normal with Delta117PheH, the catalytic core of rat phenylalanine hydroxylase, ...
Raoof Jahan-Bakhsh - - 2006
A carbon paste electrode (CPE) chemically modified with 1-[4-(ferrocenyl ethynyl)phenyl]-1-ethanone (4-FEPEMCPE) was employed to study the electrocatalytic oxidation of L-cysteine using cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and double potential step chronoamperometry as diagnostic techniques. The diffusion coefficient (D = 7.863 x 10(-6) cm2 s(-1)) of L-cysteine was also estimated using ...
Donatelli Francesco - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Net loss of body protein is a prominent feature of the catabolic response to surgical tissue trauma. Epidural analgesia with hypocaloric dextrose has been demonstrated to attenuate leucine oxidation but was unable to make protein balance positive. The current study was set to determine whether an infusion of amino ...
Bellinghieri Guido - - 2006
L-Arginine is an essential amino acid for infants and growing children, as well as for pregnant women. This amino acid is a substrate for at least 5 enzymes identified in mammals, including arginase, arginine-glycine transaminase, kyotorphine synthase, nitric oxide synthase, and arginine decarboxylase. L-arginine is essential for the synthesis of ...
Iresjö Britt-Marie - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Previous work has demonstrated a relationship between arterial amino acid concentrations and uptake of amino acids across peripheral tissues in healthy volunteers, as well as in chronically and acutely ill patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether different amino acid profiles in commercially available amino ...
Lukiw Walter J - - 2006
1. In addition to his many fine contributions in furthering our understanding of the neurochemical action of ecosanoids, catchelomines, steroids, anandamines, cannabinoids, endorphins, and the many modifications made to these neural factors, twenty years ago Julius Axelrod published a noteworthy paper concerning the nature of neuropeptides and their potential for ...
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