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Results 351 - 400 of 2296
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Shao Andrew - - 2008
Taurine, glutamine and arginine are examples of amino acids which have become increasingly popular as ingredients in dietary supplements and functional foods and beverages. Animal and human clinical research suggests that oral supplementation of these amino acids provides additional health and/or performance benefits beyond those observed from normal intake of ...
Suenaga R - - 2008
Recently, we observed that central administration of L-arginine attenuated stress responses in neonatal chicks, but the contribution of nitric oxide (NO) to this response was minimal. The sedative and hypnotic effects of L-arginine may be due to L-arginine itself and/or its metabolites, excluding NO. To clarify the mechanism, the effect ...
Saguir F M - - 2008
AIMS: To investigate amino acid and dipeptide utilization by Lactobacillus plantarum N4 isolated from orange peel, in a nutritionally depleted medium based on MRS (Mann, Rogosa, Sharpe). METHODS AND RESULTS: In MRS with 0.1 g l(-1) of meat extract and without peptone and yeast extract, growth increased when essential and ...
Saavedra M - - 2008
Dietary amino acids imbalances have been described when fish larvae are fed rotifers, what may lead to a reduction in growth rate. The tube-feeding technique can be used to assess the effect of free amino acid short term supplementation. In this study supplementation of tryptophan, methionine and arginine were tested ...
Aravindan A - - 2008
A comparative study on the properties of L-alanine and LAAN crystals has been made and discussed. It may be concluded that the protonation of the amino group in the L-alanine molecule is the key factor in increasing the relative SHG efficiency of LAAN. The protonation is justified by the crystal ...
Wu Guoyao - - 2008
Citrulline is a product of arginine degradation by nitric oxide synthase and is a precursor for arginine synthesis in animal cells. After arginine is incorporated into proteins, it may undergo methylation to form N(G)-monomethylarginine, which may be converted to asymmetric dimethylarginine and symmetric dimethylarginine. The degradation of these methylated proteins ...
Santarpia Lidia - - 2008
Plasma citrulline is known to be a marker of absorptive enterocyte mass in humans. We evaluated whether citrulline and other blood amino acids are indicators of residual small intestinal length and therefore potential predictors of dependence on parenteral nutrition in the long term. We studied 25 patients with short bowel ...
Gussmann Joscha - - 2008
Supplementation of culture media with leucine, isoleucine, methionine, or phenylalanine was previously found to inhibit Chlamydia trachomatis growth in HEp-2 cells. Here, we investigated the long-term effects of these additives on C. trachomatis infection in the same cell model. Amino acid addition 30h post-infection (pi) effectively suppressed the generation of ...
Narimatsu Shizuo - - 2008
We examined the effects of the mutual substitution of amino acid residues at positions 216 and 219 between rat CYP2D1 and CYP2D2 on their microsomal contents and enzymatic functions using a yeast cell expression system and 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT) as a substrate. CYP2D1 has amino acid residues, leucine and valine, at ...
Rafii Mahroukh - - 2008
Phenylalanine hydroxylation is necessary for the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine and disposal of excess phenylalanine. Studies of in vivo regulation of phenylalanine hydroxylation suffer from the lack of a method to determine intrahepatocyte enrichment of phenylalanine and tyrosine. apoB-100, a hepatic export protein, is synthesized from intrahepatocyte amino acids. ...
DeBerardinis Ralph J - - 2007
Tumor cell proliferation requires rapid synthesis of macromolecules including lipids, proteins, and nucleotides. Many tumor cells exhibit rapid glucose consumption, with most of the glucose-derived carbon being secreted as lactate despite abundant oxygen availability (the Warburg effect). Here, we used 13C NMR spectroscopy to examine the metabolism of glioblastoma cells ...
Braun Peter R - - 2008
Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that strictly depend on host metabolites, such as nucleotides, lipids, and amino acids. Depletion of amino acids in cell culture media results in abnormal chlamydial development in vitro. Surprisingly, enrichment of certain amino acids also retards chlamydial growth. Our experiments revealed that the antichlamydial ...
Kakazu Eiji - - 2007
The functions of dendritic cells (DCs) are impaired in patients with liver cirrhosis. It is well-known that cirrhotic patients show decreased levels of plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). Although amino acids are associated with maintaining the cell structure and function in many organs, limited data are available regarding the role ...
Jones Oliver A H - - 2008
The biochemical response of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus to pyrene exposure was assessed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and pattern recognition techniques. Both analytical methods enabled the establishment of reproducible metabolic profiles. NMR analysis identified a total of 32 metabolites while GC-MS identified ...
Asechi M - - 2008
Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of L-serine was shown to have sedative and hypnotic effects on neonatal chicks under acute stressful conditions. To clarify the central mechanism of these effects of L-serine, two experiments were done. First, we focused on the glycogenic pathway in which L-serine is converted into pyruvate and finally ...
Deshpande Gautam - - 2007
A decrease in the serum ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) to aromatic amino acids (Fischer ratio) reflects the severity of hepatic encephalopathy, and clinical improvement by dietary augmentation with BCAAs has been demonstrated. As behavioral alteration results from changes in central neurotransmission, we investigated the role of BCAA administration ...
Parra Dolores - - 2007
This trial was designed to assess the effect of live probiotic consumption on leucine assimilation from fresh and pasteurised yoghurt in volunteers with different lactose digestibility. Thirty-three volunteers (mean age 32, s.d. 7 years) participated in this parallel single-blind study (16 of them with moderate lactose intolerance). Breath samples were ...
Cho In Hee - - 2007
The differences in the nonvolatile metabolites of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) according to different parts and heating times were analyzed by applying principal component analysis (PCA) to 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy data. The 1H NMR spectra and PCA enabled the differences of nonvolatile metabolites among mushroom samples to ...
Senger Ryan S - - 2007
Optimization of fed-batch feeding parameters was explored for a system with multiple mechanisms of product inactivation. In particular, two separate mechanisms of inactivation were identified for the recombinant tissue-type activator (r-tPA) protein. Dynamic inactivation models were written to describe particular r-tPA glycoform inactivation in the presence and absence of free-glucose. ...
Kaya Yalçin - - 2007
Changes in fatty acid and amino acid composition in hot smoked sturgeon (Huso huso, L. 1758) were studied. The sturgeon was smoked for 20 min at 30 degrees C, followed by 90 min at 50 degrees C and 40 min at 80 degrees C. The palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic ...
Jágr Michal - - 2007
Styrene 7,8-oxide (SO), a reactive metabolic intermediate of the industrial chemical styrene, binds covalently at nucleophilic amino acid residues of blood proteins in vivo and in vitro. In this study, SO adducts with cysteine, lysine, and histidine were synthesized, characterized, and then used as authentic standards to assign and quantitate ...
Del Moral Luis F García - - 2007
Amino acid composition is an important feature in determining the nutritional value of wheat grain for human and animal diets. Environmental conditions are known to influence protein quantity as well as grain production and, in turn, amino acid composition. In this study, grain yield, protein content, and amino acid composition ...
Onuki Hiroyuki - - 2007
Changes in amino acid metabolism during cell death of human myelogenous leukemic cell lines (HL-1, ML-1, KG-1) induced by contact with gold (Au), silver (Ag) or palladium (Pd) were investigated. All three leukemic cell lines consumed glutamine and serine at the highest rate (amounting to 50%-58% and 12%-16% of the ...
Sakagami Hiroshi - - 2007
There are very few studies on the interaction between dental alloys and oral tissues. The effect of direct contact with copper (Cu) on the cellular function of human gingival fibroblast (HGF) derived from the periodontal tissues was investigated. When HGF cells were inoculated onto a Cu plate, the viability of ...
Vermeulen Mechteld A R - - 2007
Glutamine and arginine are both used as nutritional supplements in critically ill patients. Although glutamine has been shown to be beneficial for the metabolically stressed patient, considerations about arginine supplementation are not unanimously determined. Our aim is to review the current knowledge on the possible interplay between glutamine and arginine ...
Tabata Kazuhiko - - 2007
In spite of its clinical and nutritional importance, l-alanyl-l-glutamine (Ala-Gln) has not been widely used due to the absence of an efficient manufacturing method. Here, we present a novel method for the fermentative production of Ala-Gln using an Escherichia coli strain expressing l-amino acid alpha-ligase (Lal), which catalyzes the formation ...
Rutherfurd Shane M - - 2007
Five feedstuffs were oxidized using performic acid, and these, along with their unoxidized counterparts, were acid hydrolyzed for multiple times (0-144 h) in degassed and vacuum-sealed glass tubes. The methionine sulfone, cysteic acid, methionine, and cysteine contents were determined for each hydrolysis time. Least-squares nonlinear regression of the sulfur amino ...
Shikano Naoto - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: The fact that d-amino acids have been found in various tissues and are involved in various functions is a clue to how to develop new imaging agents. We examined d-amino acid transport mechanisms in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells because CHO-K1 cells are widely used in biomedical studies and ...
Booth Paul J - - 2007
The determination for early cleavage-stage embryos of noninvasive morphologic and metabolic criteria that are predictive of blastocyst development and/or full-term viability remains an important research target. We describe the derivation of a logistic regression model that predicts the probability of porcine blastocyst formation in vitro. Pig zygotes, derived by in ...
Hong J - - 2007
The objective of this study was to determine the intrafollicular concentrations of free amino acids in pigs and to examine the effect of amino acids in a chemically defined maturation medium on oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization (IVF), and embryo development in vitro. Pooled follicular fluid aspirated separately from small ...
Delay E R - - 2007
T1R2/T1R3 heterodimers are selectively responsive to sweet substances whereas T1R1/T1R3 receptors are selective for umami substances, represented by monosodium glutamate (MSG), and for L-amino acids. If a single receptor is responsible for detection of umami and L-amino acids, then it would be predicted that MSG and L-amino acids elicit similar ...
Eilstein Joan - - 2007
2,5-Dimethyl- p-benzoquinonediimine was used as a model to study the reactivity of p-benzoquinonediimines, the first oxidation intermediates of allergenic p-amino aromatic compounds, toward lysine, as it has been suggested that this amino acid could play a key role in the induction mechanism of allergic contact dermatitis for a number of ...
Kendall Michaela - - 2007
Components of surfactant act as opsonins and enhance phagocytosis of bacteria; whether this process occurs with atmospheric fine particles has not been shown. We have studied the interactions of fine particles (urban PM(2.5)) and surfactant removed from normal human lungs by lavage, using a surface analysis technique. The aim was ...
Parkpoom Sitthai
Thesis (M.Sc.)--Chulalongkorn University, 2004
Alcázar A - - 2007
In this paper, the differentiation of green, black, Oolong, white, and Pu-erh teas has been carried out according to their free amino acid contents. Alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, isoleucine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, theanine, threonine, and tyrosine have been determined by liquid chromatography with derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde ...
Lange Mette - - 2007
Barley has for feeding purposes a shortage of essential amino acids, especially lysine, threonine, and methionine, and an excess of proline and glutamine. In the present study, we have introduced into barley an antisense construct against C-hordeins, the storage protein with the lowest nutritional quality. SDS-PAGE and reverse phase HPLC ...
Pencharz Paul B - - 2007
Dietary aromatic amino acids are needed to meet the requirements for phenylalanine and tyrosine for protein synthesis. The amounts needed for neurotransmitter synthesis and other biological processes are small and quantitatively negligible. The earlier nitrogen balance-based estimates were judged to be inadequate. Very recently, there have been 3 estimates published ...
Rutherfurd Shane M - - 2007
Lysine is an important indispensable amino acid, and describing the lysine content of a food or feedstuff provides useful information about nutritional value. However, when a food or feedstuff is subjected to heating the lysine present can be altered to nutritionally unavailable derivatives. These derivatives can revert back to lysine ...
Baker David H - - 2007
The focus of the 6th workshop is on lysine, arginine, and related amino acids. Functions, metabolic pathways, clinical uses, and upper tolerance intakes are emphasized in the articles that follow. Lysine is arguably the most deficient amino acid in the food supply of countries where poverty exists, and since the ...
Ball Ronald O - - 2007
Differences in lysine and arginine requirements among various species such as omnivores (humans, pigs, rats, dogs), carnivores (cats), herbivores (rabbits, horses), ruminants (cattle), poultry, and fish, are covered in detail in this article. Although lysine is classified as an indispensable amino acid across species, the classification of arginine as either ...
Saudubray Jean-Marie - - 2007
Inborn errors of lysine, arginine, and ornithine metabolism are very rare: only a few patients affected with these disorders have been carefully investigated, and very few reports on long-term outcome are available. These rare data make it difficult to define safety limits of these amino acids and useful biomarkers from ...
Huang Yi-Fang - - 2007
This study examined the regulation of glutamine synthetase protein levels, in response to changes in external glutamine concentration, in mouse C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Glutamine, at concentrations as low as 0.25 mmol/L, downregulated endogenous and exogenous (plasmid encoded) glutamine synthetase with maximal effect at 2 mmol/L. Glutamine appears to act ...
Pinotti Laura Marina - - 2007
Aiming at to enhance the production of penicillin G acylase (PGA) by Bacillus megaterium, we have performed flasks experiments using different medium composition. Using 51 g/L of casein hydrolyzed with Alcalase and 2.7 g/L of phenylacetic acid (PhAc), the following carbon substrates were tested, individually and combined: glucose, glycerol, and ...
Morris Sidney M SM Jr Department of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. - - 2007
Arginine has multiple metabolic fates and thus is one of the most versatile amino acids. Not only is it metabolically interconvertible with the amino acids proline and glutamate, but it also serves as a precursor for synthesis of protein, nitric oxide, creatine, polyamines, agmatine, and urea. These processes do not ...
Sandstrom P - - 2008
Patients in the early phase of acute pancreatitis (AP) have reduced serum levels of arginine and citrulline. This may be of patho-biological importance, since arginine is the substrate for nitric oxide, which in turn is involved in normal pancreatic physiology and in the inflammatory process. Serum amino acid spectrum was ...
Raffi J - - 2008
To better understand the composite character of irradiated alanine ESR spectra, a comparative study of few simple amino acids is performed in order to identify the different radio-induced radicals and their proportions. A dedicated spin-trapping method coupled with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is developed and carried out on irradiated ...
Saguir Fabiana M - - 2007
The aims of this work were to improve a basal synthetic medium (BM) for the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum strains and to establish their amino-acid requirements. Amino-acid use was analyzed in the most nutritionally demanding bacterium. First, the improved BM (L. plantarum synthetic medium [LPSM]) was created by increasing some ...
Takenaka Naomi N Department of Biology, Rollins Research Center, Emory University, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, - - 2007
At present, molecular bases of spectral tuning in rhodopsin-like (RH2) pigments are not well understood. Here, we have constructed the RH2 pigments of nocturnal Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) and diurnal American chameleon (Anolis carolinensis) as well as chimeras between them. The RH2 pigments of the gecko and chameleon reconstituted with ...
Cleal Jane K JK DOHaD Division, University of Southampton, Southampton, - - 2007
Fetal growth is dependent on both the quantity and relative composition of amino acids delivered to the fetal circulation, and impaired placental amino acid supply is associated with restricted fetal growth. Amino acid exchangers can alter the composition, but not the quantity, of amino acids in the intra- and extracellular ...
Brunton Janet A - - 2007
Recent studies using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique in TPN-fed piglets and infants have been instrumental in defining parenteral amino acid requirements. None of the commercial products in use are ideal when assessed against these new data. Our objectives were to determine whether the oxidation of an indicator ...
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