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Results 301 - 350 of 2288
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Rutherfurd Shane M - - 2009
The accurate determination of the amino acid content is important. In the present study, a least-squares non-linear regression model of the amino acid content determined over multiple hydrolysis times was used to accurately determine the content of amino acids in five different feedstuffs. These values were compared with 24-h hydrolysis ...
Tripp H James - - 2009
The genome sequence of the marine bacterium 'Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique' and subsequent analyses have shown that while it has a genome as small as many obligate parasites, it nonetheless possesses a metabolic repertoire that allows it to grow as one of the most successful free-living cells in the ocean. An ...
Shah Svati H - - 2009
Integration of genetic and metabolic profiling holds promise for providing insight into human disease. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is strongly heritable, but the heritability of metabolomic profiles has not been evaluated in humans. We performed quantitative mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling in 117 individuals within eight multiplex families from the GENECARD ...
Michaux Catherine - - 2009
The complexation of five deprotonated anionic amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, L-Aspartic acid, and L-glutamine) with one water molecule, has been investigated using a MP2/63-11++G(d,p) approach fully accounting for the basis set superposition errors. For each amino acid, several energetic minima have been identified, and we provide spectroscopic information allowing ...
Doan Thanh Thi Ngoc - - 2008
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight (BB), which is one of the most devastating diseases of rice in most rice-growing countries. D-Alanine-D-alanine ligase A (DdlA), coded by the Xoo0352 gene, was expressed, purified and crystallized. DdlA is an enzyme that is involved in D-alanine metabolism and the biosynthesis ...
Palazzo Barbara - - 2009
Alanine, arginine and aspartic acid have been used as co-reagents during the synthesis of a biomimetic calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) for the synergistic coupling of synthesis and functionalization. The surface and bulk characterizations are consistent with a binding model in which the amino acid is preferentially bound to the CDHA nanocrystal ...
Stipanuk M H MH Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, 227 Savage Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. - - 2009
Cysteine catabolism in mammals is dependent upon cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), an enzyme that adds molecular oxygen to the sulfur of cysteine, converting the thiol to a sulfinic acid known as cysteinesulfinic acid (3-sulfinoalanine). CDO is one of the most highly regulated metabolic enzymes responding to diet that is known. It ...
Murakami Tatsuro - - 2009
The relationships between monoamine metabolism and forced swimming or antidepressants have been well studied, however information is lacking regarding amino acid metabolism under these conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of forced swimming and imipramine on amino acid concentrations in plasma, the cerebral ...
Kaya Yal??in - - 2008
Changes in fatty acid and amino acid composition in hot smoked sturgeon (Huso huso, L. 1758) were studied. The sturgeon was smoked for 20 min at 30 degrees C, followed by 90 min at 50 degrees C and 40 min at 80 degrees C. The palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic ...
Cowieson A J - - 2008
The effects of phytic acid and 2 sources of exogenous phytase (bacterial vs. fungal) on the flow of endogenous amino acids at the terminal ileum of broilers were assessed using the enzyme-hydrolyzed casein method. Phytic acid (as the sodium salt) was included in a purified diet at 8.5 and 14.5 ...
Saltzmann Kurt D - - 2008
Gall-forming insects induce host plants to form specialized structures (galls) that provide immature life stages of the insect access to host plant nutrients and protection from natural enemies. Feeding by larvae of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor Say) causes susceptible host wheat plants to produce a gall-like nutritive tissue that ...
Graf Rüdiger - - 2009
Skin keratinocytes are subjected to changing osmotic conditions and evolved counteracting mechanisms. Particularly, the expression of osmolyte transporters serves for the maintenance of cell volume in a hypertonic environment. In this study, we show that hyperosmotic stress significantly decreases the proliferation in HaCaT keratinocytes. Supplementation of the culture medium with ...
Roth Erich - - 2008
Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid of the human body. Besides its role as a constituent of proteins and its importance in amino acid transamination, glutamine has regulatory capacity in immune and cell modulation. Glutamine deprivation reduces proliferation of lymphocytes, influences expression of surface activation markers on lymphocytes ...
Bertolo Robert F - - 2008
The cellular metabolism of glutamine and proline are closely interrelated, because they can be interconverted with glutamate and ornithine via the mitochondrial pathway involving pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C). In adults, glutamine and proline are converted via P5C to citrulline in the gut, then citrulline is converted to arginine in the kidney. In ...
Kimura Takeshi - - 2008
Extensive discussion sessions were held at the end of each of the 2 d of the workshop. Through the course of the workshop, it became clear that there were different opinions on how to use uncertainty factors to obtain upper levels of intake from no observed adverse effect levels of ...
Liu Zhimin - - 2008
This work studied the self-assembling (crystallizing) behaviour of amino acids in the absence of solvent and additives (by sublimation and deposition in vacuum), instead of from aqueous solution. It is found that the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of side-chains can significantly affect the crystallization of amino acids in the absence of solvent. Crystal ...
Liu H-S - - 2008
The signal-intensity loss from anomalous J-modulation effects due to chemical-shift displacement was investigated on amino acid groups (alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine) at 3T by using point-resolved (1)H spectroscopy in patients with brain abscess and phantom experiments. With a larger chemical shift between methyl and methine resonances, alanine shows a ...
Manso Filho Hélio C - - 2009
In most mammalian species the developing fetus utilizes large amounts of glutamine derived both from the maternal circulation and synthesized de novo in the placenta. The present study was designed to determine the role of the placenta in glutamine synthesis in the horse. The placentae from eight Standardbred mares were ...
Fingerhut Ralph - - 2009
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by the deficiency of the branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase (BCOA-DH) complex. The worldwide incidence is approximately 1 in 185,000. MSUD is integrated in many "expanded" newborn screening (NBS) programs that use electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Elevated ...
Uyen Dinh Thanh - - 2008
To gain insight into the mechanism of malarial hemozoin formation and to explore various biological groups for screening novel antimalarial drugs, we examined the effects of amino acids on the formation of beta-hematin (BH), which is a synthetic heme crystal structurally identical to hemozoin, in vitro. Our results showed that ...
Agostini Francesco - - 2008
Glutamine synthesis and utilization are strictly linked to energy metabolism and physical activity. To investigate the interaction between bed rest and moderate energy restriction on whole body glutamine kinetics in healthy volunteers, we performed a four-period study in which each subject randomly underwent a bed rest or ambulatory 14 day ...
Berg Agneta - - 2008
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Exogenous intravenous glutamine supplementation to head trauma patients leaves intracerebral glutamate concentration unaffected. The effect of an exogenous supply upon glutamine and glutamate exchange across the brain has still not been characterised. METHODS: A prospective randomised cross-over study, where i.v. glutamine dipeptide was compared with placebo. Arterio-venous ...
Komano Torai - - 2009
To elucidate the mechanism by which dietary amino acids suppress the D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced hepatitis, we examined the involvement of Kupffer cells, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and apoptosis in the mechanism. In experiment 1, the rats were fed with 10% L-glutamine or 5% glycine diet injected with D-GalN with or without ...
Pirkov Ivan - - 2008
The methionine salvage pathway is universally used to regenerate methionine from 5'-methylthioadenosine, a byproduct of certain reactions involving S-adenosylmethionine. We identified and verified the genes encoding the enzymes of all steps in this cycle in a commonly used eukaryotic model system: the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The genes encoding 5'-methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomerase ...
Fukada Shin-ichiro - - 2008
Rats were fed diets supplemented with 1% L-methionine with and without 2.5% various amino acids for 7 d to determine what amino acids other than glycine, serine, and cystine can suppress methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. L-Glutamic acid, L-histidine, and L-arginine significantly suppressed methionine-induced enhancement of plasma homocysteine concentrations, but the mechanisms underlying ...
Courtney-Martin Glenda - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Except for tyrosine, the amino acid requirements of human neonates receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) have not been experimentally derived. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to determine the total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) requirement (methionine in the absence of cysteine) of postsurgical, PN-fed human neonates by using the indicator amino acid ...
Park Ji Yeon - - 2008
The extraction of mackerel viscera using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) was performed under the conditions of temperature range from 35 to 45 degrees C, and constant pressure 25 MPa. The digestive enzyme activities were determined in comparison of untreated and treated SCO2 and solvent treatment. Activities were maintained with high ...
Rutherfurd Shane M - - 2008
During the processing of feedstuffs and foods, methionine can be oxidized to methionine sulfoxide and methionine sulfone, and cysteine can be oxidized to cysteic acid. Methionine sulfone and cysteic acid are nutritionally unavailable, but methionine sulfoxide can be utilized, at least to some degree. The degree of utilization depends on ...
Aki Tomoko - - 2008
Gabexate mesilate (GM), a serine protease inhibitor, often causes severe vascular injury. We previously reported that GM induced necrotic cell death via injury of the cell membrane in porcine aorta endothelial cells (PAECs). In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of amino acids against this GM-induced cell injury ...
Oliveira Andreia P - - 2008
The free amino acid profile of 18 samples of tronchuda cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC) leaves, harvested at three different months, was determined by HPLC/UV-vis. The tronchuda cabbage leaves total free amino acid content varied from 3.3 to 14.4 g/kg fresh weight. Generally, arginine was the major ...
Olde Damink Steven W M - - 2008
BACKGROUND/AIMS: An upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleed in cirrhotic patients has been hypothesised to induce catabolism due to the absence of the essential branched chain amino acid (BCAA) isoleucine and an abundance of the BCAA leucine in haemoglobin. We tested whether an upper GI bleed produces hypoisoleucinemia via BCAA antagonism and ...
Farre Eva M - - 2008
The expression of a heterologous invertase in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) in either the cytosol or apoplast leads to a decrease in total sucrose content and to an increase in glucose. Depending on the targeting of the enzyme different changes in phenotype and metabolism of the tubers occur: the cytosolic ...
Lockwood S - - 2008
This study assessed the effects of amino acid additives, aspartic acid, leucine, lysine, and methionine, on the pasting and thermal characteristics of white- and orange-fleshed Beauregard sweet potato starches. A rapid visco analyzer 3D was used to determine pasting properties. In comparing pasting characteristics, starch from orange-fleshed sweet potato was ...
Pranzatelli M R MR Department of Neurology, Division of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois, USA. - - 2008
To evaluate the possible role of central free amino compounds in pediatric opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS), 21 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amino compounds were measured by an amino acid analyzer or mass spectroscopy in 74 anesthetized children, 54 with OMS and 20 age-matched neurological controls. In OMS, only phosphoethanolamine was increased compared ...
MacLachlan James N - - 2008
Amino acid infusate (Primene) and insulin euglycemic (insulin + 10% dextrose) clamp techniques were used in the ovine fetus near term and the impact on the incidence of low-voltage and high-voltage electrocortical (ECOG) activities was determined. Fetal sheep were studied over a 2-hour control period and a subsequent 6-hour experimental ...
Imanari M - - 2008
1. The effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) on taste-active components, especially free glutamate (Glu), in meat were investigated. 2. Broiler chickens (28 d old) were given varied dietary BCAA levels for 10 d before marketing. Dietary BCAA content ratios were ...
Girela Eloy - - 2008
We studied free amino acids in vitreous humor and cerebrospinal fluid from 58 cadavers in the course of routine medicolegal autopsies in the city of Granada. The main objective was to establish whether free amino acids contents in these fluids were related with the cause of death, postmortem interval, and ...
Hu Yongjun - - 2008
The aliphatic amino acids glycine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine are thermally placed into the gas phase and expanded into a vacuum system for access by time of flight mass spectroscopy and infrared (IR) spectroscopy in the energy range of 2500-4000 cm(-1) (CH, NH, OH, and stretching vibrations). The isolated neutral ...
Lusebrink Inka - - 2008
The rove beetles of the genus Stenus Latreille synthesize the alkaloid stenusine in their pygidial glands, which are located in the last three segments of their abdomen. It is proposed that stenusine is derived from the two amino acids, L-lysine and L-isoleucine. Feeding S. bimaculatus beetles with deuterium-labeled amino acids ...
Gattolin Stefano - - 2008
We have used high-sensitivity capillary electrophoresis coupled to a laser-induced fluorescence detection method to quantify 16 amino acids in wheat (Triticum aestivum) sieve tube (ST) samples as small as 2 nL collected by severing the stylets of feeding aphids. The sensitivity of the method was sufficient to determine a quantitative ...
Dai Ruihua - - 2009
A Microcystis aeruginosa which produced high content of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) but no microcystin-RR (MC-RR) was isolated from Dianchi Lake in China. In the molecular structure of MC-LR, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, leucine, alanine and arginine are the constitutional components which are abundant in natural water. In this paper, effects of ...
Ban Kechen - - 2008
Early enteral nutrition supplemented with glutamine, arginine, omega-3 fatty acids, and nucleotides has been shown to decrease infection complications in critically injured patients. Concern has been raised, however, that under conditions of hyperinflammation, these diets may be injurious through the induction of inducible NO synthase by enteral arginine. In a ...
Shao Andrew - - 2008
Taurine, glutamine and arginine are examples of amino acids which have become increasingly popular as ingredients in dietary supplements and functional foods and beverages. Animal and human clinical research suggests that oral supplementation of these amino acids provides additional health and/or performance benefits beyond those observed from normal intake of ...
Suenaga R - - 2008
Recently, we observed that central administration of L-arginine attenuated stress responses in neonatal chicks, but the contribution of nitric oxide (NO) to this response was minimal. The sedative and hypnotic effects of L-arginine may be due to L-arginine itself and/or its metabolites, excluding NO. To clarify the mechanism, the effect ...
Saguir F M - - 2008
AIMS: To investigate amino acid and dipeptide utilization by Lactobacillus plantarum N4 isolated from orange peel, in a nutritionally depleted medium based on MRS (Mann, Rogosa, Sharpe). METHODS AND RESULTS: In MRS with 0.1 g l(-1) of meat extract and without peptone and yeast extract, growth increased when essential and ...
Saavedra M - - 2008
Dietary amino acids imbalances have been described when fish larvae are fed rotifers, what may lead to a reduction in growth rate. The tube-feeding technique can be used to assess the effect of free amino acid short term supplementation. In this study supplementation of tryptophan, methionine and arginine were tested ...
Aravindan A - - 2008
A comparative study on the properties of L-alanine and LAAN crystals has been made and discussed. It may be concluded that the protonation of the amino group in the L-alanine molecule is the key factor in increasing the relative SHG efficiency of LAAN. The protonation is justified by the crystal ...
Wu Guoyao - - 2008
Citrulline is a product of arginine degradation by nitric oxide synthase and is a precursor for arginine synthesis in animal cells. After arginine is incorporated into proteins, it may undergo methylation to form N(G)-monomethylarginine, which may be converted to asymmetric dimethylarginine and symmetric dimethylarginine. The degradation of these methylated proteins ...
Santarpia Lidia - - 2008
Plasma citrulline is known to be a marker of absorptive enterocyte mass in humans. We evaluated whether citrulline and other blood amino acids are indicators of residual small intestinal length and therefore potential predictors of dependence on parenteral nutrition in the long term. We studied 25 patients with short bowel ...
Gussmann Joscha - - 2008
Supplementation of culture media with leucine, isoleucine, methionine, or phenylalanine was previously found to inhibit Chlamydia trachomatis growth in HEp-2 cells. Here, we investigated the long-term effects of these additives on C. trachomatis infection in the same cell model. Amino acid addition 30h post-infection (pi) effectively suppressed the generation of ...
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