Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 2268
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Agostini Francesco - - 2008
Glutamine synthesis and utilization are strictly linked to energy metabolism and physical activity. To investigate the interaction between bed rest and moderate energy restriction on whole body glutamine kinetics in healthy volunteers, we performed a four-period study in which each subject randomly underwent a bed rest or ambulatory 14 day ...
Berg Agneta - - 2008
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Exogenous intravenous glutamine supplementation to head trauma patients leaves intracerebral glutamate concentration unaffected. The effect of an exogenous supply upon glutamine and glutamate exchange across the brain has still not been characterised. METHODS: A prospective randomised cross-over study, where i.v. glutamine dipeptide was compared with placebo. Arterio-venous ...
Komano Torai - - 2009
To elucidate the mechanism by which dietary amino acids suppress the D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced hepatitis, we examined the involvement of Kupffer cells, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and apoptosis in the mechanism. In experiment 1, the rats were fed with 10% L-glutamine or 5% glycine diet injected with D-GalN with or without ...
Pirkov Ivan - - 2008
The methionine salvage pathway is universally used to regenerate methionine from 5'-methylthioadenosine, a byproduct of certain reactions involving S-adenosylmethionine. We identified and verified the genes encoding the enzymes of all steps in this cycle in a commonly used eukaryotic model system: the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The genes encoding 5'-methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomerase ...
Fukada Shin-ichiro - - 2008
Rats were fed diets supplemented with 1% L-methionine with and without 2.5% various amino acids for 7 d to determine what amino acids other than glycine, serine, and cystine can suppress methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. L-Glutamic acid, L-histidine, and L-arginine significantly suppressed methionine-induced enhancement of plasma homocysteine concentrations, but the mechanisms underlying ...
Courtney-Martin Glenda - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Except for tyrosine, the amino acid requirements of human neonates receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) have not been experimentally derived. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to determine the total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) requirement (methionine in the absence of cysteine) of postsurgical, PN-fed human neonates by using the indicator amino acid ...
Park Ji Yeon - - 2008
The extraction of mackerel viscera using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) was performed under the conditions of temperature range from 35 to 45 degrees C, and constant pressure 25 MPa. The digestive enzyme activities were determined in comparison of untreated and treated SCO2 and solvent treatment. Activities were maintained with high ...
Rutherfurd Shane M - - 2008
During the processing of feedstuffs and foods, methionine can be oxidized to methionine sulfoxide and methionine sulfone, and cysteine can be oxidized to cysteic acid. Methionine sulfone and cysteic acid are nutritionally unavailable, but methionine sulfoxide can be utilized, at least to some degree. The degree of utilization depends on ...
Aki Tomoko - - 2008
Gabexate mesilate (GM), a serine protease inhibitor, often causes severe vascular injury. We previously reported that GM induced necrotic cell death via injury of the cell membrane in porcine aorta endothelial cells (PAECs). In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of amino acids against this GM-induced cell injury ...
Oliveira Andreia P - - 2008
The free amino acid profile of 18 samples of tronchuda cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC) leaves, harvested at three different months, was determined by HPLC/UV-vis. The tronchuda cabbage leaves total free amino acid content varied from 3.3 to 14.4 g/kg fresh weight. Generally, arginine was the major ...
Olde Damink Steven W M - - 2008
BACKGROUND/AIMS: An upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleed in cirrhotic patients has been hypothesised to induce catabolism due to the absence of the essential branched chain amino acid (BCAA) isoleucine and an abundance of the BCAA leucine in haemoglobin. We tested whether an upper GI bleed produces hypoisoleucinemia via BCAA antagonism and ...
Farre Eva M - - 2008
The expression of a heterologous invertase in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) in either the cytosol or apoplast leads to a decrease in total sucrose content and to an increase in glucose. Depending on the targeting of the enzyme different changes in phenotype and metabolism of the tubers occur: the cytosolic ...
Lockwood S - - 2008
This study assessed the effects of amino acid additives, aspartic acid, leucine, lysine, and methionine, on the pasting and thermal characteristics of white- and orange-fleshed Beauregard sweet potato starches. A rapid visco analyzer 3D was used to determine pasting properties. In comparing pasting characteristics, starch from orange-fleshed sweet potato was ...
Pranzatelli M R MR Department of Neurology, Division of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois, USA. - - 2008
To evaluate the possible role of central free amino compounds in pediatric opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS), 21 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amino compounds were measured by an amino acid analyzer or mass spectroscopy in 74 anesthetized children, 54 with OMS and 20 age-matched neurological controls. In OMS, only phosphoethanolamine was increased compared ...
MacLachlan James N - - 2008
Amino acid infusate (Primene) and insulin euglycemic (insulin + 10% dextrose) clamp techniques were used in the ovine fetus near term and the impact on the incidence of low-voltage and high-voltage electrocortical (ECOG) activities was determined. Fetal sheep were studied over a 2-hour control period and a subsequent 6-hour experimental ...
Imanari M - - 2008
1. The effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) on taste-active components, especially free glutamate (Glu), in meat were investigated. 2. Broiler chickens (28 d old) were given varied dietary BCAA levels for 10 d before marketing. Dietary BCAA content ratios were ...
Girela Eloy - - 2008
We studied free amino acids in vitreous humor and cerebrospinal fluid from 58 cadavers in the course of routine medicolegal autopsies in the city of Granada. The main objective was to establish whether free amino acids contents in these fluids were related with the cause of death, postmortem interval, and ...
Hu Yongjun - - 2008
The aliphatic amino acids glycine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine are thermally placed into the gas phase and expanded into a vacuum system for access by time of flight mass spectroscopy and infrared (IR) spectroscopy in the energy range of 2500-4000 cm(-1) (CH, NH, OH, and stretching vibrations). The isolated neutral ...
Lusebrink Inka - - 2008
The rove beetles of the genus Stenus Latreille synthesize the alkaloid stenusine in their pygidial glands, which are located in the last three segments of their abdomen. It is proposed that stenusine is derived from the two amino acids, L-lysine and L-isoleucine. Feeding S. bimaculatus beetles with deuterium-labeled amino acids ...
Gattolin Stefano - - 2008
We have used high-sensitivity capillary electrophoresis coupled to a laser-induced fluorescence detection method to quantify 16 amino acids in wheat (Triticum aestivum) sieve tube (ST) samples as small as 2 nL collected by severing the stylets of feeding aphids. The sensitivity of the method was sufficient to determine a quantitative ...
Dai Ruihua - - 2009
A Microcystis aeruginosa which produced high content of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) but no microcystin-RR (MC-RR) was isolated from Dianchi Lake in China. In the molecular structure of MC-LR, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, leucine, alanine and arginine are the constitutional components which are abundant in natural water. In this paper, effects of ...
Ban Kechen - - 2008
Early enteral nutrition supplemented with glutamine, arginine, omega-3 fatty acids, and nucleotides has been shown to decrease infection complications in critically injured patients. Concern has been raised, however, that under conditions of hyperinflammation, these diets may be injurious through the induction of inducible NO synthase by enteral arginine. In a ...
Shao Andrew - - 2008
Taurine, glutamine and arginine are examples of amino acids which have become increasingly popular as ingredients in dietary supplements and functional foods and beverages. Animal and human clinical research suggests that oral supplementation of these amino acids provides additional health and/or performance benefits beyond those observed from normal intake of ...
Suenaga R - - 2008
Recently, we observed that central administration of L-arginine attenuated stress responses in neonatal chicks, but the contribution of nitric oxide (NO) to this response was minimal. The sedative and hypnotic effects of L-arginine may be due to L-arginine itself and/or its metabolites, excluding NO. To clarify the mechanism, the effect ...
Saguir F M - - 2008
AIMS: To investigate amino acid and dipeptide utilization by Lactobacillus plantarum N4 isolated from orange peel, in a nutritionally depleted medium based on MRS (Mann, Rogosa, Sharpe). METHODS AND RESULTS: In MRS with 0.1 g l(-1) of meat extract and without peptone and yeast extract, growth increased when essential and ...
Saavedra M - - 2008
Dietary amino acids imbalances have been described when fish larvae are fed rotifers, what may lead to a reduction in growth rate. The tube-feeding technique can be used to assess the effect of free amino acid short term supplementation. In this study supplementation of tryptophan, methionine and arginine were tested ...
Aravindan A - - 2008
A comparative study on the properties of L-alanine and LAAN crystals has been made and discussed. It may be concluded that the protonation of the amino group in the L-alanine molecule is the key factor in increasing the relative SHG efficiency of LAAN. The protonation is justified by the crystal ...
Wu Guoyao - - 2008
Citrulline is a product of arginine degradation by nitric oxide synthase and is a precursor for arginine synthesis in animal cells. After arginine is incorporated into proteins, it may undergo methylation to form N(G)-monomethylarginine, which may be converted to asymmetric dimethylarginine and symmetric dimethylarginine. The degradation of these methylated proteins ...
Santarpia Lidia - - 2008
Plasma citrulline is known to be a marker of absorptive enterocyte mass in humans. We evaluated whether citrulline and other blood amino acids are indicators of residual small intestinal length and therefore potential predictors of dependence on parenteral nutrition in the long term. We studied 25 patients with short bowel ...
Gussmann Joscha - - 2008
Supplementation of culture media with leucine, isoleucine, methionine, or phenylalanine was previously found to inhibit Chlamydia trachomatis growth in HEp-2 cells. Here, we investigated the long-term effects of these additives on C. trachomatis infection in the same cell model. Amino acid addition 30h post-infection (pi) effectively suppressed the generation of ...
Narimatsu Shizuo - - 2008
We examined the effects of the mutual substitution of amino acid residues at positions 216 and 219 between rat CYP2D1 and CYP2D2 on their microsomal contents and enzymatic functions using a yeast cell expression system and 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT) as a substrate. CYP2D1 has amino acid residues, leucine and valine, at ...
Rafii Mahroukh - - 2008
Phenylalanine hydroxylation is necessary for the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine and disposal of excess phenylalanine. Studies of in vivo regulation of phenylalanine hydroxylation suffer from the lack of a method to determine intrahepatocyte enrichment of phenylalanine and tyrosine. apoB-100, a hepatic export protein, is synthesized from intrahepatocyte amino acids. ...
DeBerardinis Ralph J - - 2007
Tumor cell proliferation requires rapid synthesis of macromolecules including lipids, proteins, and nucleotides. Many tumor cells exhibit rapid glucose consumption, with most of the glucose-derived carbon being secreted as lactate despite abundant oxygen availability (the Warburg effect). Here, we used 13C NMR spectroscopy to examine the metabolism of glioblastoma cells ...
Braun Peter R - - 2008
Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that strictly depend on host metabolites, such as nucleotides, lipids, and amino acids. Depletion of amino acids in cell culture media results in abnormal chlamydial development in vitro. Surprisingly, enrichment of certain amino acids also retards chlamydial growth. Our experiments revealed that the antichlamydial ...
Kakazu Eiji - - 2007
The functions of dendritic cells (DCs) are impaired in patients with liver cirrhosis. It is well-known that cirrhotic patients show decreased levels of plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). Although amino acids are associated with maintaining the cell structure and function in many organs, limited data are available regarding the role ...
Jones Oliver A H - - 2008
The biochemical response of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus to pyrene exposure was assessed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and pattern recognition techniques. Both analytical methods enabled the establishment of reproducible metabolic profiles. NMR analysis identified a total of 32 metabolites while GC-MS identified ...
Asechi M - - 2008
Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of L-serine was shown to have sedative and hypnotic effects on neonatal chicks under acute stressful conditions. To clarify the central mechanism of these effects of L-serine, two experiments were done. First, we focused on the glycogenic pathway in which L-serine is converted into pyruvate and finally ...
Deshpande Gautam - - 2007
A decrease in the serum ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) to aromatic amino acids (Fischer ratio) reflects the severity of hepatic encephalopathy, and clinical improvement by dietary augmentation with BCAAs has been demonstrated. As behavioral alteration results from changes in central neurotransmission, we investigated the role of BCAA administration ...
Parra Dolores - - 2007
This trial was designed to assess the effect of live probiotic consumption on leucine assimilation from fresh and pasteurised yoghurt in volunteers with different lactose digestibility. Thirty-three volunteers (mean age 32, s.d. 7 years) participated in this parallel single-blind study (16 of them with moderate lactose intolerance). Breath samples were ...
Cho In Hee - - 2007
The differences in the nonvolatile metabolites of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) according to different parts and heating times were analyzed by applying principal component analysis (PCA) to 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy data. The 1H NMR spectra and PCA enabled the differences of nonvolatile metabolites among mushroom samples to ...
Senger Ryan S - - 2007
Optimization of fed-batch feeding parameters was explored for a system with multiple mechanisms of product inactivation. In particular, two separate mechanisms of inactivation were identified for the recombinant tissue-type activator (r-tPA) protein. Dynamic inactivation models were written to describe particular r-tPA glycoform inactivation in the presence and absence of free-glucose. ...
Kaya Yalçin - - 2007
Changes in fatty acid and amino acid composition in hot smoked sturgeon (Huso huso, L. 1758) were studied. The sturgeon was smoked for 20 min at 30 degrees C, followed by 90 min at 50 degrees C and 40 min at 80 degrees C. The palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic ...
Jágr Michal - - 2007
Styrene 7,8-oxide (SO), a reactive metabolic intermediate of the industrial chemical styrene, binds covalently at nucleophilic amino acid residues of blood proteins in vivo and in vitro. In this study, SO adducts with cysteine, lysine, and histidine were synthesized, characterized, and then used as authentic standards to assign and quantitate ...
Del Moral Luis F García - - 2007
Amino acid composition is an important feature in determining the nutritional value of wheat grain for human and animal diets. Environmental conditions are known to influence protein quantity as well as grain production and, in turn, amino acid composition. In this study, grain yield, protein content, and amino acid composition ...
Onuki Hiroyuki - - 2007
Changes in amino acid metabolism during cell death of human myelogenous leukemic cell lines (HL-1, ML-1, KG-1) induced by contact with gold (Au), silver (Ag) or palladium (Pd) were investigated. All three leukemic cell lines consumed glutamine and serine at the highest rate (amounting to 50%-58% and 12%-16% of the ...
Sakagami Hiroshi - - 2007
There are very few studies on the interaction between dental alloys and oral tissues. The effect of direct contact with copper (Cu) on the cellular function of human gingival fibroblast (HGF) derived from the periodontal tissues was investigated. When HGF cells were inoculated onto a Cu plate, the viability of ...
Vermeulen Mechteld A R - - 2007
Glutamine and arginine are both used as nutritional supplements in critically ill patients. Although glutamine has been shown to be beneficial for the metabolically stressed patient, considerations about arginine supplementation are not unanimously determined. Our aim is to review the current knowledge on the possible interplay between glutamine and arginine ...
Tabata Kazuhiko - - 2007
In spite of its clinical and nutritional importance, l-alanyl-l-glutamine (Ala-Gln) has not been widely used due to the absence of an efficient manufacturing method. Here, we present a novel method for the fermentative production of Ala-Gln using an Escherichia coli strain expressing l-amino acid alpha-ligase (Lal), which catalyzes the formation ...
Rutherfurd Shane M - - 2007
Five feedstuffs were oxidized using performic acid, and these, along with their unoxidized counterparts, were acid hydrolyzed for multiple times (0-144 h) in degassed and vacuum-sealed glass tubes. The methionine sulfone, cysteic acid, methionine, and cysteine contents were determined for each hydrolysis time. Least-squares nonlinear regression of the sulfur amino ...
Shikano Naoto - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: The fact that d-amino acids have been found in various tissues and are involved in various functions is a clue to how to develop new imaging agents. We examined d-amino acid transport mechanisms in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells because CHO-K1 cells are widely used in biomedical studies and ...
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