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Results 201 - 250 of 2296
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Mathioudakis D - - 2011
For the first time the immunonutritional role of pyruvate on neutrophils (PMN), free α-keto and amino acid profiles, important reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced [superoxide anion (O(2) (-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))] as well as released myeloperoxidase (MPO) acitivity has been investigated. Exogenous pyruvate significantly increased PMN pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate, asparagine, glutamine, ...
Shen Fei - - 2010
Chinese rice wine is abundant in amino acids. The possibility of quantitative detection of 16 free amino acids (aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, and arginine) in Chinese rice wine by Fourier transform near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was investigated for ...
Ayo Begoña - - 2010
This study investigated the generation of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) by the bacterivorous flagellate Rhynchomonas nasuta when feeding on abundant prey. Specifically, it examined whether this flagellate protist exhibits a chemosensory response towards those amino acids. The concentrations of glycine and the L- and D-enantiomers of glutamate, serine, threonine, ...
Nawrath Thorben - - 2010
The biosynthesis of the volatiles 2,5- and 2,6-diisopropylpyrazine (2 and 3, resp.) released by the myxobacteria Nannocystis exedens subsp. cinnabarina (Na c29) and Chondromyces crocatus (strains Cm c2 and Cm c5) was studied. Isotopically labeled precursors and proposed pathway intermediates were fed to agar plate cultures of the myxobacteria. Subsequently, ...
van Spronsen Francjan J - - 2010
Phenylketonuria is the most prevalent inherited defect in amino acid metabolism. Owing to mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, the essential amino acid phenylalanine cannot be hydroxylated to tyrosine and blood and tissue concentrations of phenylalanine increase. Untreated, phenylketonuria causes severe mental retardation, epilepsy and behavioral problems. ...
Farran M T - - 2010
An experiment was conducted to determine TME and amino acid digestibility of several dehulled extruded safflower meals. Finely ground partially dehulled extruded (ESM), partially dehulled solvent-extracted (SESM), extensively cleaned dehulled and extruded safflower meal (CSM), or soybean meal 44 (SBM 44) was intubated to 9 fasted mature roosters with 40 ...
Sengupta Sejuti - - 2010
Tailoring tissue engineering strategies to match patient- and tissue-specific bone regeneration needs offers to improve clinical outcomes. As a step toward this goal, osteogenic outcomes and metabolic parameters were assessed when varying inputs into the bone formation process. Silk protein scaffolds seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells in osteogenic differentiation ...
Kodba Zdenka Cencič - - 2010
The investigation presented here aims to compare the fatty acid composition of red blood cells of patients with different disease states and to test the hypothesis that the changes in fatty acid profiles derived from erythrocyte phospholipids might be relevant to various diseases. The study sample consisted of 342 blood ...
Culka A - - 2010
Raman spectra of 13 amino acids: L-alanine, β-alanine, L-asparagine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-glutamine, glycine, L-methionine, L-proline, L-serine, L-threonine, L-tryptophan and L-tyrosine were acquired outdoors using two portable Raman instruments from the Ahura and Delta Nu manufacturers, both with 785 nm laser excitation. Both instruments provide quality Raman spectra with ...
Romero Jonathan - - 2010
Secondary deuterium isotope effects (IE) on the acidity (pK(a)) of glycine were measured by ¹³C NMR titration. It was found that deuteration decreases the pK(a) by 0.034 ± 0.002. The experimental data are supported by theoretical calculations, which, in turn, allowed to relate the acidity decrease to the lowering of ...
Simoh Sanimah - - 2010
Metabolome analysis by 1-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR) coupled with multivariate data analysis was carried out in Brassica rapa plants transformed with a gene encoding bacterial isochorismate synthase (ICS). Partial least square-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) on selected signals suggested that the resonances that were dominant in the transgenic plants ...
Li Changhong - - 2010
The mechanism of insulin dysregulation in children with hyperinsulinism associated with inactivating mutations of short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) was examined in mice with a knock-out of the hadh gene (hadh(-/-)). The hadh(-/-) mice had reduced levels of plasma glucose and elevated plasma insulin levels, similar to children with SCHAD deficiency. ...
Selvarasu Suresh - - 2010
We present an integrated framework for characterizing fed-batch cultures of mouse hybridoma cells producing monoclonal antibody (mAb). This framework systematically combines data preprocessing, elemental balancing and statistical analysis technique. Initially, specific rates of cell growth, glucose/amino acid consumptions and mAb/metabolite productions were calculated via curve fitting using logistic equations, with ...
Kim Bong-Gyu - - 2010
O-Methyltransferase (OMT) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) to hydroxyl groups of methyl acceptors. Two OMTs, PaOMT2 and PaOMT3, from Picea abies showed 93.5% identity at the amino acid level. However, PaOMT3 catalyzed the reaction more efficiently than PaOMT2 with several phenolic compounds, including quercetin ...
Chen Ching-Hsien - - 2010
Acidosis is a common stress in solid tumours and is also a major determinant of tumour growth, metabolism, and metastasis. During cellular stress, heat shock proteins play an important role in actin cytoskeleton stability. HLJ1, a member of the DnaJ-like heat shock protein 40, has been characterised as a tumour ...
Singh Prashant - - 2010
The priming agent beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA) enhances Arabidopsis resistance to microbial pathogens and abiotic stresses through potentiation of the Arabidopsis defense responses. We have previously shown that BABA provokes a stress-induced morphogenic response, reduces vegetative growth and induces accumulation of anthocyanin. It was also found that L-Glutamine restores all tested ...
Rubio L A - - 2010
The aim of the study was to determine if differences in the molecular size of two protein sources affect in vivo intestinal absorption rates of amino acids under normal feeding conditions. Accordingly, the portal absorption rate of amino acids was studied in rats fed semi-synthetic diets containing native casein (NC) ...
Liu Chi-Hsien - - 2010
Non-viral gene carriers have been extensively investigated as alternatives to viral vectors for therapeutic gene delivery. Many cationic lipid carriers including liposomes, emulsions, and solid lipid nanoparticles are used to transfer plasmid DNA. Stable nanoemulsions were prepared and modified by conjugating fatty acids with cationic amino acids including lysine, arginine, ...
Ferreira da Silva F - - 2010
The first detailed study of electron attachment to amino acid clusters is reported. The amino acids chosen for investigation were glycine, alanine, and serine. Clusters of these amino acids were formed inside helium nanodroplets, which provide a convenient low temperature (0.37 K) environment for growing noncovalent clusters. When subjected to ...
Ralph David M - - 2010
In epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and ischemic stroke, toxic levels of zinc released from neurons contribute to the brain damage associated with these disorders. Zinc causes oxidative stress by increasing the generation of reactive oxygen species and by inhibiting glutathione reductase (GR). This study investigated whether naturally occurring amino acids ...
Han Jeong Woo - - 2010
Density functional theory calculations have been used to study the adsorption of glycine, alanine, serine, cysteine, aspartic acid and asparagine on the hydroxylated (10 1 0) surface of alpha-quartz. We found measurable energy differences between the two enantiomers of serine, aspartic acid and asparagine in their most stable states on ...
Park Jin Hwan - - 2010
The L-aspartate family amino acids (AFAAs), L-threonine, L-lysine, L-methionine and L-isoleucine have recently been of much interest due to their wide spectrum of applications including food additives, components of cosmetics and therapeutic agents, and animal feed additives. Among them, L-threonine, L-lysine and L-methionine are three major amino acids produced currently ...
Meierhenrich Uwe J - - 2010
Amino acids that pass the RNA machinery in living organisms occur in L-configuration. The question on the evolutionary origin of this biomolecular asymmetry remains unanswered to this day. Amino acids were detected in artificially produced interstellar ices, and L-enantiomer-enriched amino acids were identified in CM-type meteorites. This hints at a ...
Wilson Fiona A FA Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, United States Department of Agriculture/Agriculture Research Service Children's Nutrition Research Center, Houston, TX, 77030, - - 2011
Leucine is unique among the amino acids in its ability to promote protein synthesis by activating translation initiation via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Previously, we showed that leucine infusion acutely stimulates protein synthesis in fast-twitch glycolytic muscle of neonatal pigs but this response cannot be maintained unless ...
Tseng Chien-Ming - - 2010
The theoretical prediction of H atom elimination on the excited state of phenol, imidazole and indole, the respective chromophores for the amino acids tyrosine, histidine and tryptophan, and the confirmation of theoretical prediction by experimental observations have a great impact on the explanation of photostability of amino acids upon irradiation ...
Sallam Ahmed - - 2010
The numerous physiological functions of the nonessential amino acid L-aspartate, the semi-essential amino acid L-arginine, and the essential amino acid L-lysine, made them attractive for a wide range of nutritional and/or therapeutic applications. Furthermore, the administration of these amino acids as mixtures or as dipeptides for higher bioavailability is scientifically ...
Hamana Morihiro - - 2010
In order to decipher the amino acid (AA) balance in the dairy cattle with left displaced abomasum (LDA), blood samples were obtained from thirty LDA and 12 healthy control cattle. Plasma from LDA cattle exhibited significantly higher free fatty acid and β-hydroxybutyrate, lower glucogenic AA, such as methionine, alanine and ...
Inoue Ritsuko - - 2010
Amphibians are capable of smelling both volatile and water-soluble (e.g., amino acids) odorants. Adult Japanese newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster, live mostly in water, except during hibernation, but sometimes on land. To examine olfactory responses of the newts to adaptation to a short-term stay on land (land adaptation), we measured the magnitude ...
Sharp Carwyn P M - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether short-term amino acid supplementation could maintain a short-term net anabolic hormonal profile and decrease muscle cell damage during a period of high-intensity resistance training (overreaching), thereby enhancing recovery and decreasing the risk of injury and illness. Eight previously resistance trained males ...
AlHusban Farhan - - 2010
Despite recent advances in the formulation of lyophilised rapid disintegrating tablets (RDTs), the inclusion of matrix supporting/disintegration enhancing agents has been limited to the use of saccharides and polyols. In this study, the feasibility of using amino acids as matrix forming agents in lyophilised RDTs was investigated. Twelve amino acids ...
Couturier Jérémy - - 2010
Nitrogen (N) availability in the forest soil is extremely low and N economy has a special importance in woody plants that are able to cope with seasonal periods of growth and development over many years. Here we report on the analysis of amino acid pools and expression of key genes ...
Jojima Toru - - 2010
Corynebacterium glutamicum was genetically engineered to produce L-alanine from sugar under oxygen deprivation. The genes associated with production of organic acids in C. glutamicum were inactivated and the alanine dehydrogenase gene (alaD) from Lysinibacillus sphaericus was overexpressed to direct carbon flux from organic acids to alanine. Although the alaD-expressing strain ...
Bartek Tobias - - 2010
Cofactor recycling is known to be crucial for amino acid synthesis. Hence, cofactor supply was now analyzed for L-valine to identify new targets for an improvement of production. The central carbon metabolism was analyzed by stoichiometric modeling to estimate the influence of cofactors and to quantify the theoretical yield of ...
Khumalo Nonhlanhla P - - 2010
BACKGROUND: 'Relaxers' are used by more than two thirds of African females to straighten hair, with easy grooming and increased length often cited as reasons. A recent study reported relaxed hair lengths much shorter than expected, suggesting increased fragility; the potential for scalp inflammation and scarring alopecia remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: ...
Co?ffier Mo?se - - 2010
The pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) is multifactorial and involves interactions of gut luminal content with mucosal barrier and especially immune cells. Malnutrition is a frequent issue during IBD flares, especially in Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and nutritional support is frequently used to treat malnutrition but also in an ...
Sturmey R G - - 2010
The ratio of male/female embryos may be modified by environmental factors such as maternal diet in vivo and the composition of embryo culture media in vitro. We have used amino acid profiling, a noninvasive marker of developmental potential to compare the effect of sex on the metabolism of bovine blastocysts ...
Joshi Vijay - - 2010
Pathways regulating threonine, methionine and isoleucine metabolism are very efficiently interconnected in plants. As both threonine and methionine serve as substrates for isoleucine synthesis, their synthesis and catabolism under different developmental and environmental conditions also influence isoleucine availability. Together, methionine gamma-lyase and threonine deaminase maintain the isoleucine equilibrium in plants ...
Bae Doo Ri - - 2010
A new chromogenic chemosensor based on lysine-functionalized silver nanoparticles 1 was prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform Raman, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The color changes of nanoparticles 1 in the absence and the presence of metal ion were observed upon addition of various amino acids and ...
Dobson Gary - - 2010
Phytochemical diversity was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in tubers of genotypes belonging to groups Andigena, Phureja, Stenotomum, and Tuberosum of the potato, Solanum tuberosum. Polar extracts (mainly amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols) and nonpolar extracts (mainly fatty acids, fatty alcohols, and sterols) were examined. There was ...
Flynn Nick E - - 2010
Humans are exposed much more often to exogenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae (a baker's yeast) than exogenous Candida albicans (a highly infectious yeast) but suffer no apparent complications from S. cerevisiae. We hypothesize that variations in characteristics between these two species may be due, in part, to differences in glycine metabolism. In ...
Bertazzini Michele - - 2010
Dual choice feeding tests were performed to determine a preference of forager honeybees for specific amino acids. Artificial nectar containing proline was preferred over those containing only sugars. Nectar containing alanine was preferred on the first day, but preference was no longer significant thereafter. On the contrary, a negative response ...
Elshorbagy Amany K - - 2010
Dietary methionine restriction in Fischer-344 rats favorably influences visceral fat mass, insulin sensitivity, metabolic parameters, and longevity. However, little is known about the effects of methionine restriction on serum methionine and its downstream sulfur amino acids. We investigated the serum sulfur amino acid profile of male Fischer-344 rats fed a ...
Tai E S - - 2010
Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with obesity, but can also develop in individuals with normal body weight. We employed comprehensive profiling methods to identify metabolic events associated with IR, while controlling for obesity. We selected 263 non-obese (BMI approximately 24 kg/m2) Asian-Indian and Chinese men from a large cross-sectional study ...
Kristensson Adam - - 2010
In this work we investigated the ability of a series of amino acids to act as cloud condensation nuclei using a static thermal gradient diffusion type cloud condensation nucleus counter. Particles of pure dry l-glycine, glycyl-glycine, l-serine, l-methionine, l-glutamic acid, l-aspartic acid, and l-tyrosine were studied as well as internally ...
Strauss Kevin A - - 2010
Branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency results in complex and volatile metabolic derangements that threaten brain development. Treatment for classical maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) should address this underlying physiology while also protecting children from nutrient deficiencies. Based on a 20-year experience managing 79 patients, we designed a study formula to (1) ...
Yancey Paul H - - 2010
Most marine invertebrates and algae are osmoconformers whose cells accumulate organic osmolytes that provide half or more of cellular osmotic pressure. These solutes are primarily free amino acids and glycine betaine in most invertebrates and small carbohydrates and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in many algae. Corals with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) have ...
Tanaka Ryuichiro - - 2010
A correlation between the quantitative changes in L-methionine analogs, the ratio of D-serine/L-serine during the pupal stage, and metamorphosis was observed. The glycoside appearing at low blood sugar values during the pupal stage was isolated and characterized as D-glucosyl-L-tyrosine. (1)H-NMR indicated the appearance and increase of this glycoside, and Mirrorcle ...
Berg Ronan Mg - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: Alterations in circulating large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), leading to a decrease in the plasma ratio between branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAA/AAA ratio), may be involved in sepsis-associated encephalopathy. We hypothesised that a decrease in the BCAA/AAA ratio occurs along with a net cerebral influx of the neurotoxic ...
Badawy Abdulla A-B AA University of Wales Institute Cardiff (UWIC), Wales, - - 2010
Current formulations for acute tryptophan (Trp) or tyrosine (Tyr) plus phenylalanine (Phe) depletion and loading cause undesirable decreases in ratios of Trp or Tyr + Phe to competing amino acids (CAA), thus undermining the specificities of these tests. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) cause these unintended decreases, and lowering their content ...
Badawy Abdulla A-B AA University of Wales Institute Cardiff (UWIC), Wales, - - 2010
The acute tryptophan or tyrosine plus phenylalanine depletion and loading tests are powerful tools for studying the roles of serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline in normal subjects and those with behavioural disorders. The current amino acid formulations for these tests, however, are associated with undesirable decreases in ratios of tryptophan or ...
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