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Results 201 - 250 of 2268
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Sharp Carwyn P M - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether short-term amino acid supplementation could maintain a short-term net anabolic hormonal profile and decrease muscle cell damage during a period of high-intensity resistance training (overreaching), thereby enhancing recovery and decreasing the risk of injury and illness. Eight previously resistance trained males ...
AlHusban Farhan - - 2010
Despite recent advances in the formulation of lyophilised rapid disintegrating tablets (RDTs), the inclusion of matrix supporting/disintegration enhancing agents has been limited to the use of saccharides and polyols. In this study, the feasibility of using amino acids as matrix forming agents in lyophilised RDTs was investigated. Twelve amino acids ...
Couturier Jérémy - - 2010
Nitrogen (N) availability in the forest soil is extremely low and N economy has a special importance in woody plants that are able to cope with seasonal periods of growth and development over many years. Here we report on the analysis of amino acid pools and expression of key genes ...
Jojima Toru - - 2010
Corynebacterium glutamicum was genetically engineered to produce L-alanine from sugar under oxygen deprivation. The genes associated with production of organic acids in C. glutamicum were inactivated and the alanine dehydrogenase gene (alaD) from Lysinibacillus sphaericus was overexpressed to direct carbon flux from organic acids to alanine. Although the alaD-expressing strain ...
Bartek Tobias - - 2010
Cofactor recycling is known to be crucial for amino acid synthesis. Hence, cofactor supply was now analyzed for L-valine to identify new targets for an improvement of production. The central carbon metabolism was analyzed by stoichiometric modeling to estimate the influence of cofactors and to quantify the theoretical yield of ...
Khumalo Nonhlanhla P - - 2010
BACKGROUND: 'Relaxers' are used by more than two thirds of African females to straighten hair, with easy grooming and increased length often cited as reasons. A recent study reported relaxed hair lengths much shorter than expected, suggesting increased fragility; the potential for scalp inflammation and scarring alopecia remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: ...
Co?ffier Mo?se - - 2010
The pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) is multifactorial and involves interactions of gut luminal content with mucosal barrier and especially immune cells. Malnutrition is a frequent issue during IBD flares, especially in Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and nutritional support is frequently used to treat malnutrition but also in an ...
Sturmey R G - - 2010
The ratio of male/female embryos may be modified by environmental factors such as maternal diet in vivo and the composition of embryo culture media in vitro. We have used amino acid profiling, a noninvasive marker of developmental potential to compare the effect of sex on the metabolism of bovine blastocysts ...
Joshi Vijay - - 2010
Pathways regulating threonine, methionine and isoleucine metabolism are very efficiently interconnected in plants. As both threonine and methionine serve as substrates for isoleucine synthesis, their synthesis and catabolism under different developmental and environmental conditions also influence isoleucine availability. Together, methionine gamma-lyase and threonine deaminase maintain the isoleucine equilibrium in plants ...
Bae Doo Ri - - 2010
A new chromogenic chemosensor based on lysine-functionalized silver nanoparticles 1 was prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform Raman, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The color changes of nanoparticles 1 in the absence and the presence of metal ion were observed upon addition of various amino acids and ...
Dobson Gary - - 2010
Phytochemical diversity was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in tubers of genotypes belonging to groups Andigena, Phureja, Stenotomum, and Tuberosum of the potato, Solanum tuberosum. Polar extracts (mainly amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols) and nonpolar extracts (mainly fatty acids, fatty alcohols, and sterols) were examined. There was ...
Flynn Nick E - - 2010
Humans are exposed much more often to exogenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae (a baker's yeast) than exogenous Candida albicans (a highly infectious yeast) but suffer no apparent complications from S. cerevisiae. We hypothesize that variations in characteristics between these two species may be due, in part, to differences in glycine metabolism. In ...
Bertazzini Michele - - 2010
Dual choice feeding tests were performed to determine a preference of forager honeybees for specific amino acids. Artificial nectar containing proline was preferred over those containing only sugars. Nectar containing alanine was preferred on the first day, but preference was no longer significant thereafter. On the contrary, a negative response ...
Elshorbagy Amany K - - 2010
Dietary methionine restriction in Fischer-344 rats favorably influences visceral fat mass, insulin sensitivity, metabolic parameters, and longevity. However, little is known about the effects of methionine restriction on serum methionine and its downstream sulfur amino acids. We investigated the serum sulfur amino acid profile of male Fischer-344 rats fed a ...
Tai E S - - 2010
Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with obesity, but can also develop in individuals with normal body weight. We employed comprehensive profiling methods to identify metabolic events associated with IR, while controlling for obesity. We selected 263 non-obese (BMI approximately 24 kg/m2) Asian-Indian and Chinese men from a large cross-sectional study ...
Kristensson Adam - - 2010
In this work we investigated the ability of a series of amino acids to act as cloud condensation nuclei using a static thermal gradient diffusion type cloud condensation nucleus counter. Particles of pure dry l-glycine, glycyl-glycine, l-serine, l-methionine, l-glutamic acid, l-aspartic acid, and l-tyrosine were studied as well as internally ...
Strauss Kevin A - - 2010
Branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency results in complex and volatile metabolic derangements that threaten brain development. Treatment for classical maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) should address this underlying physiology while also protecting children from nutrient deficiencies. Based on a 20-year experience managing 79 patients, we designed a study formula to (1) ...
Yancey Paul H - - 2010
Most marine invertebrates and algae are osmoconformers whose cells accumulate organic osmolytes that provide half or more of cellular osmotic pressure. These solutes are primarily free amino acids and glycine betaine in most invertebrates and small carbohydrates and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in many algae. Corals with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) have ...
Tanaka Ryuichiro - - 2010
A correlation between the quantitative changes in L-methionine analogs, the ratio of D-serine/L-serine during the pupal stage, and metamorphosis was observed. The glycoside appearing at low blood sugar values during the pupal stage was isolated and characterized as D-glucosyl-L-tyrosine. (1)H-NMR indicated the appearance and increase of this glycoside, and Mirrorcle ...
Berg Ronan Mg - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: Alterations in circulating large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), leading to a decrease in the plasma ratio between branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAA/AAA ratio), may be involved in sepsis-associated encephalopathy. We hypothesised that a decrease in the BCAA/AAA ratio occurs along with a net cerebral influx of the neurotoxic ...
Badawy Abdulla A-B - - 2010
Current formulations for acute tryptophan (Trp) or tyrosine (Tyr) plus phenylalanine (Phe) depletion and loading cause undesirable decreases in ratios of Trp or Tyr + Phe to competing amino acids (CAA), thus undermining the specificities of these tests. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) cause these unintended decreases, and lowering their content ...
Badawy Abdulla A-B - - 2010
The acute tryptophan or tyrosine plus phenylalanine depletion and loading tests are powerful tools for studying the roles of serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline in normal subjects and those with behavioural disorders. The current amino acid formulations for these tests, however, are associated with undesirable decreases in ratios of tryptophan or ...
Hammarqvist Folke - - 2010
The aim of the study was to explore if changes in muscle and plasma amino acid concentrations developed during growth and differed from levels seen in adults. The gradient and concentrations of free amino acids in muscle and plasma were investigated in relation to age in metabolic healthy children. Plasma ...
Theerdhala Sriharsha - - 2010
Materials obtained by the synergistic combination of nanotechnology and biomedicine are an important source of drug delivery and other health care related applications. The anchoring of amino acids onto the surface of nano-sized magnetite is one such example. Herein, we report on the binding of a semi-essential amino acid, L-arginine, ...
Wu Chen-Chi - - 2010
The non-protein amino acid beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA) enhances Arabidopsis resistance to microbial pathogens and abiotic stresses through potentiation of the Arabidopsis defence responses. In this study, it is shown that BABA induces the stress-induced morphogenic response (SIMR). SIMR is observed in plants exposed to sub-lethal stress conditions. Anthocyanin, a known ...
Andersson Ulf - - 2009
Ximelagatran was developed for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic conditions. However, in long-term clinical trials with ximelagatran, the liver injury marker, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increased in some patients. Analysis of plasma samples from 134 patients was carried out using proteomic and metabolomic platforms, with the aim of finding predictive ...
Kakazu Eiji - - 2009
An imbalance of plasma amino acids is observed in patients with advanced cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the extracellular amino acid imbalance on the function of myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) in patients with advanced cirrhosis. We made a serum-free culture medium consistent with ...
Husain Afzal - - 2010
The genome sequence of the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica suggests that amino acid catabolism plays an important role in energy metabolism. In the present study, we described kinetic and regulatory properties of catabolic l-threonine and l-serine dehydratase (TD) from E. histolytica. TD catalyses the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent dehydrative deamination of ...
Schroeder Amy C - - 2010
Aspartate kinase (AK) and homoserine dehydrogenase (HSD) function as key regulatory enzymes at branch points in the aspartate amino acid pathway and are feedback-inhibited by threonine. In plants the biochemical features of AK and bifunctional AK-HSD enzymes have been characterized, but the molecular properties of the monofunctional HSD remain unexamined. ...
Lo Hsueh-Hsia - - 2009
L-Homophenylalanine (L-HPA) and N(6)-protected-2-oxo-6-amino-hexanoic acid (N(6)-protected-OAHA) can be used as building blocks for the manufacture of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. To synthesize L-HPA and N(6)-protected-OAHA simultaneously from 2-oxo-4-phenylbutanoic acid (OPBA) and N(6)-protected-L-lysine, several variants of Escherichia coli aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) were developed by site-directed mutagenesis and their catalytic activities were investigated. ...
Yan Bei - - 2009
The traditional Chinese medicine concepts of "Xinxueyuzuzheng (heart blood stasis obstruction pattern)" and "Qiyinliangxuzheng (qi and yin deficiency pattern)" for myocardial ischemia rat models were constructed in the present study. Endogenous metabolites in rat plasma were analyzed using the GC/TOF-MS-based metabonomic method. Significant metabolic differences were observed between the control ...
Izeirovski Sejmir - - 2009
Isolated anterior midguts of larval Aedes aegypti were bathed in aerated mosquito saline containing serotonin (0.2 micromol L(-1)) and perfused with NaCl (100 mmol L(-1)). The lumen negative transepithelial voltage (V(te)) was measured and luminal alkalinization was determined through the color change of luminal m-cresol purple from yellow to purple ...
Xin Dingcheng - - 2010
PURPOSE: A cell-targeted prodrug with good self-assembly properties in aqueous solution was prepared for the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel, offering great potential for further investigation. METHODS: We synthesized hyaluronic acid (HA) with a specific targeting property as a carrier to conjugate with paclitaxel by inserting different amino acids as spacers, including ...
Koutsidis Georgios - - 2009
Acrylamide and pyrazine formation, as influenced by the incorporation of different amino acids, was investigated in sealed low-moisture asparagine-glucose model systems. Added amino acids, with the exception of glycine and cysteine and at an equimolar concentration to asparagine, increased the rate of acrylamide formation. The strong correlation between the unsubstituted ...
Oba Yuichi - - 2009
Coelenterazine is an imidazopyrazinone compound (3,7-dihydroimidazopyrazin-3-one structure) that is widely distributed in marine organisms and used as a luciferin for various bioluminescence reactions. We have used electrospray ionization-ion trap-mass spectrometry to investigate whether the deep-sea luminous copepod Metridia pacifica is able to synthesize coelenterazine. By feeding experiments using deuterium labeled ...
Deng Wei-Wei - - 2010
The theanine content of the leaves of 27 species or varieties of Theaceae plants was investigated. Theanine was present in 21 species or varieties, but in much lower amounts (<0.2 mumol/g fresh weight) than the quantity detected in Camellia sinensis var. sinensis. The major free amino acids in leaves of ...
Scholl-Bürgi Sabine - - 2010
The objective of the study is to analyze plasma amino acid concentrations in propionic acidemia (PA) for the purpose of elucidating possible correlations between propionyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency and distinct amino acid behavior. Plasma concentrations of 19 amino acids were measured in 240 random samples from 11 patients (6 families) with ...
Noguchi Yasushi - - 2009
To identify metabolic pathways involved in hepatic lipoapoptosis, metabolic flux analysis using [U-(13)C(5)]glutamine as an isotopic tracer was applied to quantify phenotypic changes in H4IIEC3 hepatoma cells treated with either palmitate alone (PA-cells) or both palmitate and oleate in combination (PA/OA-cells). Our results indicate that palmitate inhibited glycolysis and lactate ...
Rosas-Romero Zaidy G - - 2010
Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) mantle muscle was cooked simulating industrial procedures (95 degrees C x 25 min, 1.2:5 muscle:water ratio). The effluent produced was analyzed for chemical and biochemical oxygen demands (COD and BOD(5), respectively), proximate analysis, flavor-related compounds (free amino acids, nucleotides and carbohydrates) and SDS-PAGE. The COD and ...
Kumano Shun - - 2009
The motor protein prestin in cochlear outer hair cells is a member of the solute carrier 26 family, but among the proteins of that family, only prestin can confer the cells with nonlinear capacitance (NLC) and motility. In the present study, to clarify contributions of unique amino acids of prestin, ...
Shah A K M A - - 2009
Migaki-nishin is a Japanese term that refers to dried herring fillets. It is widely consumed in Japan due to its characteristic flavor enhancing properties. This study was conducted to investigate the changes in chemical and sensory properties of migaki-nishin during drying. Chemical analyses showed that extractive nitrogen and amount of ...
Lahnsteiner F - - 2009
The present study investigated (1) the free amino acid (FAA) composition in semen of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and carp Cyprinus carpio, (2) enzyme systems involved in amino acid metabolism and (3) the effect of amino acids on sperm viability under in vitro storage conditions. In the seminal plasma of ...
Tricas Timothy C - - 2009
Sharks and rays are highly sensitive to chemical stimuli in their natural environment but several hypotheses predict that hammerhead sharks, with their expanded head and enlarged olfactory epithelium, have particularly acute olfactory systems. We used the electro-olfactogram (EOG) technique to compare the relative response of the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna ...
Satterfield M Carey - - 2010
The intrauterine milieu is a complex mixture of substances originating from serum and endometrium that support blastocyst growth and development. The present study identified alterations in glucose and amino acids in response to an early rise in progesterone (P4), which accelerates blastocyst growth and development. Bred ewes received daily injections ...
Lalueza-Fox Carles - - 2009
The bitter taste perception (associated with the ability or inability to taste phenylthiocarbamide) is mediated by the TAS2R38 gene. Most of the variation in this gene is explained by three common amino-acid polymorphisms at positions 49 (encoding proline or alanine), 262 (alanine or valine) and 296 (valine or isoleucine) that ...
Lee Eun Jin - - 2009
This study was conducted to characterize shortday onions of 3 pungency levels with regard to the composition of flavor related compounds. A total of 9 onion breeding lines/cultivars were selected, per each of low, medium, and high pungency level, with pyruvic acid contents of 1.9 to 2.8, 4.8 to 5.4, ...
Mohapatra Sridev - - 2010
The polyamine metabolic pathway is intricately connected to metabolism of several amino acids. While ornithine and arginine are direct precursors of putrescine, they themselves are synthesized from glutamate in multiple steps involving several enzymes. Additionally, glutamate is an amino group donor for several other amino acids and acts as a ...
Ali M A - - 2009
To assess the effect of nickel on six canola cultivars a series of experiments were conducted. On the basis of shoot dry weight cvs. Shiralee and Range found to be nickel tolerant, Dunkeld and Ester as nickel sensitive, while the remaining cultivars intermediate. Nickel accumulation in shoots was lower in ...
Chen Kuan-Chou - - 2009
Psidium guajava L. is a valuable farm fruit plant having many medicinal uses. Previously its budding leaves (PE) were shown to contain huge amounts of soluble polyphenolics (SP) including (in mg/g) gallic acid (348), catechin (102), epicatechin (60), rutin (100), quercetin (102), and rutin (100) and to exhibit potent anticancer ...
Serganov Alexander - - 2009
Riboswitches specifically control expression of genes predominantly involved in biosynthesis, catabolism and transport of various cellular metabolites in organisms from all three kingdoms of life. Among many classes of identified riboswitches, two riboswitches respond to amino acids lysine and glycine to date. Though these riboswitches recognize small compounds, they both ...
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