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Zhang Hao H Beijing Laboratory for Food Quality and Safety, and Key Laboratory of Functional Dairy, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, P. R. - - 2013
Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei LC01 (LC01) can tolerate intestinal stresses and has antioxidant activity. To evaluate the effect of the bacterium on human intestinal microflora, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human trial was carried out. Fifty-two healthy adult volunteers were randomized equally to two groups. One group consumed 12% (wt/vol) skimmed ...
Hatipoğlu Ahmet Rahmi AR Department of General Surgery, Trakya University Faculty of Medicine, Edirne, - - 2013
Bacterial Translocation is believed to be an important factor on mortality and morbidity in Obstructive Jaundiced. We investigated the probable or estimated positive effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid, which has antibacterial and regulatory effects on intestinal flora, together with glutamine on BT in an experimental obstructive jaundiced rat model. Animal experimentation. ...
Boomer Laura - - 2013
Background: Novel therapies are crucially needed for short bowel syndrome (SBS). One potential therapy is the production of tissue engineered intestine (TEI). The intestinal environment presents significant challenges to the selection of appropriate material for tissue engineering scaffolds. Our goal was to characterize different scaffold materials to downselect to that ...
Govinda Rajulu Gavara - - 2013
A series of new hydroxamic acid derivatives (6a-f) at C-3 position of fluoroquinolones were designed and synthesized through multistep synthesis. The design concept involved replacement of the 3-carboxylic acid in fluoquinolones with hydroxamic acid as an acid mimicking group. The synthetic work employed in this work provides a good example ...
Suneela Dhaneshwar - - 2013
Azo prodrugs of aminosalicylates viz: 5-aminosalicylic acid and 4-aminosalicylic acid were synthesised using phenols as colon- targeting carriers for management of inflammatory bowel disease. The structures were confirmed by spectral and elemental analysis. These azo- linked prodrugs showed increased hydrophilicity which prevented their absorption from the upper GIT thus delivering ...
Klaus Christina C Christina Klaus, Min Kyung Jeon, Elke Kaemmerer, Nikolaus Gassler, Institute of Pathology, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, - - 2013
The intestinal mucosa is characterized by a high complexity in terms of structure and functions and allows for a controlled demarcation towards the gut lumen. On the one hand it is responsible for pulping and selective absorption of alimentary substances ensuring the immunological tolerance, on the other hand it prevents ...
Camilleri Michael - - 2013
Study objectives were to: mine the complete exome to identify putative rare single nucleotide variants (SNVs) associated with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (IBS D) phenotype; assess genes that regulate bile acids in IBS-D; explore univariate associations of SNVs with symptom phenotype and quantitative traits in independent IBS cohort. Using principal component ...
Liu Xinxin - - 2013
Mucosal healing (MH) decreases the relapse risk in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, but the role of dietary supplementation in this process has been poorly investigated. Here, we investigated the effect of an amino acid mixture supplement on rat MH. Colitis was induced using 5% of dextran sodium sulfate for ...
Dhaneshwar Suneela - - 2013
Novel mutual prodrugs of biphenylacetic acid were designed as a promising gastro-protective alternative to fenbufen. Biphenyacetic acid was covalently linked with two non-essential amino acids (D-phenylalanine and glycine) possessing wound healing, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties. The prodrugs exhibited good stability in stomach homogenates while hydrolytic release of biphenylacetic acid was ...
Giuliani A - - 2013
An increased dietary intake of fat, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been related to an increased risk of breast, prostate and colon cancers. Patients with and without colon cancer were tested for differences in their fatty stores composition. The fatty acid levels were determined by gas-liquid chromatography in adipose ...
Król Jaroslaw E JE Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, - - 2014
Dental caries induced by Streptococcus mutans is one of the most prevalent chronic infectious diseases worldwide. The pathogenicity of S. mutans relies on the bacterium's ability to colonize tooth surfaces and survive a strongly acidic environment. We performed an ISS1 transposon mutagenesis to screen for acid-sensitive mutants of S. mutans ...
Pereira Junia M - - 2013
Clarithromycin (CLA) is an aminomacrolide antibiotic whose physical properties are fascinating and challenging. It has very poor solubility at neutral intestinal pH, but much better solubility under acidic conditions due to amine protonation. The improved solubility in an acid environment is confounded by the poor chemical stability of clarithromycin that ...
Rodríguez Valeria - - 2013
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on intestinal Ca(2+) absorption and to find out whether the inhibition of this process caused by NaDOC could be prevented by UDCA. Chicks were employed and divided into four groups: a) controls, b) treated with 10 ...
Jouët P - - 2013
The effects of bacterial fermentation on human colonic motor activity could be explained by colonic acidification or short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. We compared in healthy volunteers the colonic motor effects of intracolonic infusion of neutral or acidic saline solutions and then of neutral or acidic solutions containing an SCFA ...
Geuking Markus B - - 2013
Intestinal bacterial metabolites are an important communication tool between the host immune system and the commensal microbiota to establish mutualism. In a recent paper published in Science, Wendy Garrett and her colleagues report an exciting role of the three most abundant microbial-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), acetic acid, propionic acid ...
Porenta Shannon R SR University of Michigan, 1500 E. Medical Center Drive, Room 2150 Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5930. - - 2013
A Mediterranean diet increases intakes of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids and lowers intake of n-6 fatty acids. This can impact colon cancer risk as n-6 fatty acids are metabolized to proinflammatory eicosanoids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interactions of polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) ...
Gautam M K MK Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005, - - 2013
Azadirachta indica leaves indicated the presence of active principles with proven antioxidants, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, free radical scavenging and healing properties. In the present study we evaluated the healing effects of 50% ethanol extract of dried leaves of Azadirachta indica on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats. Azadirachta indica extract (500 ...
Ng Katharine M KM Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, - - 2013
The human intestine, colonized by a dense community of resident microbes, is a frequent target of bacterial pathogens. Undisturbed, this intestinal microbiota provides protection from bacterial infections. Conversely, disruption of the microbiota with oral antibiotics often precedes the emergence of several enteric pathogens. How pathogens capitalize upon the failure of ...
Ganapathy Vadivel - - 2013
The mutually beneficial relationship between colonic bacteria and the host has been recognized but the molecular aspects of the relationship remain poorly understood. Dietary fiber is critical to this relationship. The short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate and butyrate, generated by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber, serve as messengers between colonic ...
Wang Tony Y - - 2013
Dietary fat is one of the most important energy sources of all the nutrients. Fatty acids, stored as triacylglycerols (also called triglycerides) in the body, are an important reservoir of stored energy and derived primarily from animal fats and vegetable oils. Although the molecular mechanisms for the transport of water-insoluble ...
Reyes-Zurita Fernando J - - 2013
We report that a novel triterpenoid, (2a,3b)-2,3-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (maslinic acid), isolated from olive pomace from Olea europaea, triggers primarily the extrinsic and later the intrinsic apoptotic pathways in Caco-2 human colon-cancer cells. Apoptosis induced by maslinic acid was confirmed by FACS analysis using annexine-V FICT staining. This induction of apoptosis ...
Buttet Marjorie - - 2013
Today, it is well established that the development of obesity and associated diseases results, in part, from excessive lipid intake associated with a qualitative imbalance. Among the organs involved in lipid homeostasis, the small intestine is the least studied even though it determines lipid bioavailability and largely contributes to the ...
Kominami Yoko - - 2013
An 84-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of blood in the stool. He had previously undergone a subtotal colectomy and ileostomy with a mucous fistula of the sigmoid colon because of a large bowel hemorrhage of unknown origin. Five years later, a minor hemorrhage developed in the remnant ...
Russell Wendy R - - 2013
The influence of the microbial-mammalian metabolic axis is becoming increasingly important for human health. Bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates (CHOs) and proteins produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and a range of other metabolites including those from aromatic amino acid (AAA) fermentation. SCFA influence host health as energy sources and via multiple ...
Stětinová Věra - - 2013
The object of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) (i) EcN lipopolysaccharide (EcN LPS) and (ii) bacteria-free supernatant of EcN suspension (EcN supernatant) on in vitro transepithelial transport of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA), the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory drug in inflammatory ...
Zentek J - - 2013
Organic short and medium chain fatty acids are used in diets for piglets because they have an impact on the digestive processes and the intestinal microbiota. In this study, 48 pens (2 piglets/pen) were assigned randomly to 4 diets, without additive (control), with organic acids (OA; 0.416% fumaric and 0.328% ...
Yeap Yan Yan - - 2013
To evaluate the potential for the acidic intestinal unstirred water layer (UWL) to induce drug supersaturation and enhance drug absorption from intestinal mixed micelles, via the promotion of fatty acid absorption. Using a single-pass rat jejunal perfusion model, the absorptive-flux of cinnarizine and (3)H-oleic acid from oleic acid-containing intestinal mixed ...
Sorensen Lone Schmidt - - 2013
Background: The purpose of the study was to examine whether a preoperative supplement with ω-3 fatty acids (FAs) leads to their incorporation into colonic tissue in patients scheduled for colorectal cancer surgery. This would be of interest because ω-3 FAs have potential beneficial (local) immunological effects that might benefit these ...
Piton Gaël - - 2013
OBJECTIVES:: Small bowel dysfunction in critically ill patients is frequent, underdiagnosed, and associated with poor prognosis. Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein is a marker of enterocyte damage, and plasma citrulline concentration is a marker of functional enterocyte mass. Primary objective was to identify factors associated with intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in ...
Mishiro Tsuyoshi - - 2013
Butyric acid, a short-chain fatty acid and one of the main metabolites of intestinal microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, has been shown to have an important role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, while it also has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro and ...
Kumar Jeyan S JS Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA, - - 2013
Niacin (vitamin B3; nicotinic acid) plays an important role in maintaining redox state of cells and is obtained from endogenous and exogenous sources. The latter source has generally been assumed to be the dietary niacin, but another exogenous source that has been ignored is the niacin that is produced by ...
Lee Ja-Young JY Laboratory of Microbial Physiology, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8589, - - 2013
Bile acid composition in the colon is determined by bile acid flow in the intestines, the population of bile acid-converting bacteria, and the properties of the responsible bacterial enzymes. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is regarded as a chemopreventive beneficial bile acid due to its low hydrophobicity. However, it is a minor ...
Ou Junhai J Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, - - 2013
Epidemiologic studies have suggested that most cases of sporadic colon cancer can be attributed to diet. The recognition that colonic microbiota have a major influence on colonic health suggests that they might mediate colonic carcinogenesis. To examine the hypothesis that the influence of diet on colon cancer risk is mediated ...
Allsopp Philip - - 2013
Linear Inulin type fructan (ITF) prebiotics have a putative role in the prevention of colorectal cancer, whereas relatively little is known about branched fructans. This study aims to investigate the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of branched fructans derived from Agave angustifolia Haw, using the Simulator of Human Intestinal ...
Rosa Natalia Nicole - - 2013
This work aimed to elucidate the effect of wheat aleurone integrity on its fermentability, i.e. the formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and microbial phenolic metabolites, in an in vitro model using human faecal microbiota as an inoculum. The structure of aleurone was modified by mechanical (dry grinding) or enzymatic ...
Boutaghane Naima - - 2013
From the n-BuOH extract of the aerial parts of Genista ulicina, six triterpene saponins, 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-olean-12-ene-3β,27,28,30-tetraol, 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-olean-12-ene-3β,27,28,29-tetraol, 3,29-di-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-olean-12-ene-3β,27,28,29-tetraol, 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-olean-12-ene-3β,28,29-triol-27-oic acid, 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-olean-12-ene-3β,27,28-triol-29-oic acid, and 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-14-H-27-nor-olean-12-ene-3β,28,29-triol, were isolated together with eight known triterpene saponins and six flavonoids. Their structures were established mainly by means of spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D-NMR as well as ...
Paris N E - - 2013
Infection with the intestinal protozoa Eimeria causes destruction of intestinal epithelia, resulting in reduced feed efficiency and BW gain. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Eimeria maxima infection on the expression of 20 digestive enzymes as well as macro- and micronutrient transporters in the intestine. ...
Shrivastava P K - - 2013
Present manuscript describes the sustained and targeted delivery of 5-aminosalicylic acid to the distal ileum and proximal colon, using dextran (40 kDa) as a carrier for targeting 5-aminosalicylic acid at the colonic site by attaching p-aminobenzoic acid and benzoic acid as linkers. Prepared conjugate were characterized by UV, HPLC, FT-IR, ...
Shin Andrea A Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research (C.E.N.T.E.R.), College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, - - 2013
There is an unclear relationship among bowel symptoms, excretion of unconjugated fecal bile acid (UBA), and colonic transit in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We measured total and main individual UBA in fecal samples of patients with IBS and assessed relationships among stool frequency or consistency, fecal UBA (total and individual), ...
Pearl Daniel S - - 2013
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) arachidonic acid (AA, n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, n-3) are precursors of eicosanoids and other lipid mediators which have critical roles in inflammation. The mediators formed from the different PUFA have different potencies. We hypothesised that metabolic changes associated with colonic mucosal ...
Liberti Daniele - - 2013
In lower eukaryotes, the glyoxylate cycle allows cells to utilize two-carbon compounds when simple sugars are not available. In filamentous fungi, glyoxylate metabolism is coupled with β-oxidation of fatty acids, and both are localized to ubiquitous eukaryotic organelles called peroxisomes. Acetyl coezyme A (Acetyl-CoA) produced during β-oxidation is transported via ...
Chaikham Pittaya - - 2013
The effect of encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5 along with pasteurized longan juice on the colon microbiota was investigated by applying a dynamic model of the human gastrointestinal tract. Encapsulated L. acidophilus LA5 in pasteurized longan juice or sole encapsulated L. acidophilus LA5 exhibited the efficiency of colonizing the colon and ...
Zacarias-Soto Magali - - 2013
Studies aimed to assess the digestive physiology of marine fish larvae under culture conditions are important to further understand the functional characteristics and digestive capacities of the developing larvae. Most studies to date concentrate on intestinal lumen digestion and little attention to the absorption process. Thus, the objectives of this ...
Kelly Orlaith B OB Department of Molecular Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, - - 2013
Dihydroxy bile acids, such as chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), are well known to promote colonic fluid and electrolyte secretion, thereby causing diarrhoea associated with bile acid malabsorption. However, CDCA is rapidly metabolised by colonic bacteria to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), the effects of which on epithelial transport are poorly characterised. Here, we ...
Okuno Masashi - - 2013
Aim: In previous animal studies, we confirmed that linoleic acid (LNA) enhanced colon carcinogenesis, whereas eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) had protective effects in azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis. In regard to the protective effects of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on colorectal cancer however, evidence from epidemiological studies is inconsistent. In the ...
Turk Harmony F HF Program in Integrative Nutrition and Complex Diseases, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, - - 2013
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling is required for optimal intestinal wound healing. Since n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), alter EGFR signaling and suppress downstream activation of key signaling pathways, we hypothesized that DHA would be detrimental to the process of intestinal wound healing. Using a ...
Santos A S - - 2013
The potential use of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBFA) and purine bases (PB) as microbial markers in the equine hindgut was studied. For this purpose, feed particles adherent bacteria (solid associated bacteria, SAB) and planktonic bacteria (liquid associated bacteria, PAB) were isolated from total cecum and colon contents of ...
Singh Anurag Kumar AK Department of Gastroenterology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, - - 2013
Duodenal epithelial cells need efficient defence strategies during gastric acidification of the lumen, while colonic mucosa counteracts damage by pathogens by building up a bacteria-free adherent mucus layer. Transport of HCO3(-) is considered crucial for duodenal defence against acid as well as for mucus release and expansion, but the transport ...
Corpe Christopher P CP Molecular and Clinical Nutrition Section, Digestive Diseases Branch, Intramural Research Program, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1372, - - 2013
Intestinal vitamin C (Asc) absorption was believed to be mediated by the Na(+)-dependent ascorbic acid transporter SVCT1. However, Asc transport across the intestines of SVCT1 knock-out mice is normal indicating that alternative ascorbic acid transport mechanisms exist. To investigate these mechanisms, rodents were gavaged with Asc or its oxidized form ...
Russell Wendy R - - 2013
SCOPE: Plant secondary metabolites, such as phenolic acids are commonly associated with benefits for human health. Two of the most abundant phenylpropanoid-derived compounds detected in human faecal samples are phenylacetic acid (PAA) and 4-hydroxylphenylacetic acid (4-hydroxyPAA). Although they have the potential to be derived from diets rich in plant-based foods, ...
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