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Boutaghane Naima - - 2013
From the n-BuOH extract of the aerial parts of Genista ulicina, six triterpene saponins, 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-olean-12-ene-3β,27,28,30-tetraol, 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-olean-12-ene-3β,27,28,29-tetraol, 3,29-di-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-olean-12-ene-3β,27,28,29-tetraol, 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-olean-12-ene-3β,28,29-triol-27-oic acid, 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-olean-12-ene-3β,27,28-triol-29-oic acid, and 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-14-H-27-nor-olean-12-ene-3β,28,29-triol, were isolated together with eight known triterpene saponins and six flavonoids. Their structures were established mainly by means of spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D-NMR as well as ...
Paris N E - - 2013
Infection with the intestinal protozoa Eimeria causes destruction of intestinal epithelia, resulting in reduced feed efficiency and BW gain. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Eimeria maxima infection on the expression of 20 digestive enzymes as well as macro- and micronutrient transporters in the intestine. ...
Shrivastava P K - - 2013
Present manuscript describes the sustained and targeted delivery of 5-aminosalicylic acid to the distal ileum and proximal colon, using dextran (40 kDa) as a carrier for targeting 5-aminosalicylic acid at the colonic site by attaching p-aminobenzoic acid and benzoic acid as linkers. Prepared conjugate were characterized by UV, HPLC, FT-IR, ...
Shin Andrea - - 2013
BACKGROUND: & Aims: There is an unclear relationship among bowel symptoms, excretion of unconjugated fecal bile acid (UBA), and colonic transit in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We measured total and main individual UBA in fecal samples of patients with IBS, and assessed relationships among stool frequency or consistency, fecal UBA ...
Pearl Daniel S - - 2013
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) arachidonic acid (AA, n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, n-3) are precursors of eicosanoids and other lipid mediators which have critical roles in inflammation. The mediators formed from the different PUFA have different potencies. We hypothesised that metabolic changes associated with colonic mucosal ...
Liberti Daniele - - 2013
In lower eukaryotes, the glyoxylate cycle allows cells to utilize two-carbon compounds when simple sugars are not available. In filamentous fungi, glyoxylate metabolism is coupled with β-oxidation of fatty acids, and both are localized to ubiquitous eukaryotic organelles called peroxisomes. Acetyl coezyme A (Acetyl-CoA) produced during β-oxidation is transported via ...
Chaikham Pittaya - - 2013
The effect of encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5 along with pasteurized longan juice on the colon microbiota was investigated by applying a dynamic model of the human gastrointestinal tract. Encapsulated L. acidophilus LA5 in pasteurized longan juice or sole encapsulated L. acidophilus LA5 exhibited the efficiency of colonizing the colon and ...
Zacarias-Soto Magali - - 2013
Studies aimed to assess the digestive physiology of marine fish larvae under culture conditions are important to further understand the functional characteristics and digestive capacities of the developing larvae. Most studies to date concentrate on intestinal lumen digestion and little attention to the absorption process. Thus, the objectives of this ...
Kelly Orlaith B - - 2013
Dihydroxy bile acids, such as chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), are well-known to promote colonic fluid and electrolyte secretion, thereby causing diarrhoea associated with bile acid malabsorption. However, CDCA is rapidly metabolised by colonic bacteria to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), the effects of which on epithelial transport are poorly characterised. Here, we investigated ...
Okuno Masashi - - 2013
Aim: In previous animal studies, we confirmed that linoleic acid (LNA) enhanced colon carcinogenesis, whereas eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) had protective effects in azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis. In regard to the protective effects of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on colorectal cancer however, evidence from epidemiological studies is inconsistent. In the ...
Turk Harmony F - - 2013
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling is required for optimal intestinal wound healing. Since n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), alter EGFR signaling and suppress downstream activation of key signaling pathways, we hypothesized that DHA would be detrimental to the process of intestinal wound healing. Using a ...
Santos A S - - 2013
The potential use of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBFA) and purine bases (PB) as microbial markers in the equine hindgut was studied. For this purpose, feed particles adherent bacteria (solid associated bacteria, SAB) and planktonic bacteria (liquid associated bacteria, PAB) were isolated from total cecum and colon contents of ...
Singh Anurag Kumar AK Department of Gastroenterology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, - - 2013
Duodenal epithelial cells need efficient defence strategies during gastric acidification of the lumen, while colonic mucosa counteracts damage by pathogens by building up a bacteria-free adherent mucus layer. Transport of HCO3(-) is considered crucial for duodenal defence against acid as well as for mucus release and expansion, but the transport ...
Corpe Christopher P CP Molecular and Clinical Nutrition Section, Digestive Diseases Branch, Intramural Research Program, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1372, - - 2013
Intestinal vitamin C (Asc) absorption was believed to be mediated by the Na(+)-dependent ascorbic acid transporter SVCT1. However, Asc transport across the intestines of SVCT1 knock-out mice is normal indicating that alternative ascorbic acid transport mechanisms exist. To investigate these mechanisms, rodents were gavaged with Asc or its oxidized form ...
Russell Wendy R - - 2013
SCOPE: Plant secondary metabolites, such as phenolic acids are commonly associated with benefits for human health. Two of the most abundant phenylpropanoid-derived compounds detected in human faecal samples are phenylacetic acid (PAA) and 4-hydroxylphenylacetic acid (4-hydroxyPAA). Although they have the potential to be derived from diets rich in plant-based foods, ...
Tang Yan - - 2013
The bifunctional mesoporous zirconium phosphonates (ZrBFs) were synthesized through surfactant-assisted co-condensation of ZrCl(4) with two different phosphonic acids, both 1-phosphomethylproline (H(3)PMP) and 1,4-bis(phosphomethyl)piperazine (BPMP), in a one-pot procedure. The l-proline group of H(3)PMP and piperazine group of BPMP in the frameworks endow ZrBFs with pH-controllable release function and high cell ...
Li Yan Y Monell Chemical Senses Center, 3500 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2013
Sweet taste receptor subunits and α-gustducin found in enteroendocrine cells of the small intestine have been implicated in release of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in response to glucose and noncaloric sweeteners. α-Gustducin has also been found in colon, although its function there ...
Henning Susanne M SM Center for Human Nutrition, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. - - 2013
Tea polyphenols are metabolized by the colonic microflora yielding phenolic metabolites, which may contribute to the health benefits of tea. We determined the serum and urine concentrations of phenolic acids, hippuric acid, and polyhydroxyphenyl-γ-valerolactones during green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) administration. The effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and ...
Davila Anne-Marie - - 2013
Alimentary and endogenous proteins are mixed in the small intestinal lumen with the microbiota. Although experimental evidences suggest that the intestinal microbiota is able to incorporate and degrade some of the available amino acids, it appears that the microbiota is also able to synthesize amino acids raising the view that ...
Mani Venkatesh - - 2013
Intestinal derived endotoxin and the subsequent endotoxemia can be considered major predisposing factors for diseases such as atherosclerosis, sepsis, obesity and diabetes. Dietary fat has been shown to increase postprandial endotoxemia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of different dietary oils on intestinal endotoxin ...
Fabian Carol J - - 2013
Omega-3 fatty acids (FA) are polyunsaturated essential FA with anti-inflammatory properties. The most potent are the marine-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which counteract the pro-inflammatory omega-6 FA. Americans take in an average of only 100 mg of EPA plus DHA per day resulting in a low omega-3:omega-6 ...
Vimr Eric R - - 2013
Sialic acids are structurally diverse nine-carbon ketosugars found mostly in humans and other animals as the terminal units on carbohydrate chains linked to proteins or lipids. The sialic acids function in cell-cell and cell-molecule interactions necessary for organismic development and homeostasis. They not only pose a barrier to microorganisms inhabiting ...
Richardson Anthony J - - 2013
The products of protein breakdown in the human colon are considered to be detrimental to gut health. Amino acid catabolism leads to the formation of sulfides, phenolic compounds and amines, which are inflammatory and/or precursors to the formation of carcinogens, including N-nitroso compounds. The aim of this study was to ...
Weir Tiffany L - - 2013
In this study we used stool profiling to identify intestinal bacteria and metabolites that are differentially represented in humans with colorectal cancer (CRC) compared to healthy controls to identify how microbial functions may influence CRC development. Stool samples were collected from healthy adults (nā€Š=ā€Š10) and colorectal cancer patients (nā€Š=ā€Š11) prior ...
Sun Yvonne - - 2013
The human gut microbiota is inextricably linked to health and disease. One important function of the commensal organisms living in the intestine is to provide colonization resistance against invading enteric pathogens. Because of the complex nature of the interaction between the microbiota and its host, multiple mechanisms likely contribute to ...
Francis Michael B - - 2013
Infections caused by Clostridium difficile have increased steadily over the past several years. While studies on C. difficile virulence and physiology have been hindered, in the past, by lack of genetic approaches and suitable animal models, newly developed technologies and animal models allow these processes to be studied in detail. ...
Cheng Jingui - - 2013
Butanoic acid plays a significant role in the maintenance of mucosal health and is the preferred energy substrate for the cells in the colon. Here, butanoic acid was selectively conjugated to the secondary hydroxyl group of β -cyclodextrin through ester bond using sodium hydride as the deprotonation reagent. The preliminary ...
Sun L N - - 2013
Many developmental genes play important roles in regeneration. Here, we cloned the two developmental genes, Wnt6 and Hox6, from Apostichopus japonicus by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Wnt6 full-length cDNA is 1140 bp long with a 1029-bp open reading frame encoding 342 amino acids. ...
Engevik Melinda A MA Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, - - 2013
Background: The mechanisms bacteria use to proliferate and alter the normal bacterial composition remain unknown. The ability to link changes in the intestinal micro-environment, such as ion composition and pH, to bacterial proliferation is clinically advantageous for diseases that involve an altered gut microbiota, such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease, obesity ...
Hu Jie-Lun - - 2013
Physiological properties of homogenized and non-homogenized polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L., including antioxidant capacity and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, were compared in this study. High pressure homogenization decreased particle size of the polysaccharide, and changed the surface topography from large flake-like structure to smaller porous chips. ...
Bender Aaron - - 2012
Unlike the digestive systems of vertebrate animals, the lumen of the alimentary canal of C. elegans is unsegmented and weakly acidic (pH ~ 4.4), with ultradian fluctuations to pH > 6 every 45 to 50 seconds. To probe the dynamics of this acidity, we synthesized novel acid-activated fluorophores termed Kansas ...
Martínez-Moya Patricia - - 2012
The denomination of inflammatory bowel disease comprises a group of chronic inflammatory diseases of the digestive tract, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease being the most important conditions. Bile acids may play a role both in etiology and pharmacology of this disease. Thus, although deoxycholic acid is regarded as a proinflammatory ...
Chaikham Pittaya - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Fruit drinks containing probiotics are gaining interest in the global marketplace. For example, longan juice, containing carbohydrate and various bioactive components, is a potentially health-promoting beverage as well as probiotic carrier for human consumption. In this study, high-pressure and thermal processes were applied to eliminate competitive micro-organisms in longan ...
Dehghan Mohamed Hassan G MH Y.B. Chavan College of Pharmacy, Dr. Rafiq Zakaria Campus, Rauza Bagh, Aurangabad, MS, - - 2013
Lactulose is used as a triggering substance in a unique colon-specific delivery technology called CODESTM. Colonic microflora degrades lactulose and forms short-chain fatty acids to activate the CODESTM system. However, lactulose has been reported to cause a Maillard-type reaction with substances containing primary or secondary amino groups that may produce ...
Zhou X L - - 2012
This study was conducted to the determine fermentation characteristics of soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) in an in vitro system. Digesta collected from the colon of Huanjiang mini-pigs was used as inoculums, and SBOS (0.2 g per 10 mL fermentation broth) was used as substrate during the in vitro fermentation. The inoculum ...
Lizardo R - - 2012
Digestive microflora is partly responsible for physiological gut conditions. Measurements of redox potential (Eh) and pH of digesta may give a basis for understanding microbial activity and dynamics of fermentation. However, few studies have assessed the Eh of the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Twenty-four pigs of 30 kg BW were ...
Wu Tongzhi - - 2012
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), secreted by enteroendocrine L-cellslocated most densely in the colon and rectum, are of fundamental importance in blood glucose and appetite regulation. In animal models, colonic administration of bile acids can stimulate GLP-1 and PYY by TGR5 receptor activation. We evaluated the effects of ...
Davila Anne-Marie - - 2012
Alimentary and endogenous proteins are mixed in the small intestinal lumen with the microbiota. Although experimental evidences suggest that the intestinal microbiota is able to incorporate and degrade some of the available amino acids, it appears that the microbiota is also able to synthesize amino acids raising the view that ...
Michiels Joris - - 2012
Piglets (n = 128) weaned at 21 days of age were used in a 35-day seeder model to evaluate the effects of dietary additives differing in active ingredients, chemical, and physical formulation, and dose on Salmonella colonization and shedding and intestinal microbial populations. Treatments were a negative control (basal diet), ...
Nyangale Edna P - - 2012
Microbial metabolism of proteins and amino acids by human gut bacteria generates a variety of compounds including phenol, indole, and sulfur compounds and branched chain fatty acids, many of which have been shown to elicit a toxic effect on the lumen. Bacterial fermentation of amino acids and proteins occurs mainly ...
Hu Jie-Lun - - 2012
Mice (20.0 ± 2.0 g, n = 48 per group) were given 30 days oral administration of polysaccharide from Plantago asiatica L. seeds at the dose of 0.4 g/kg body weight by gavage to investigate the effects of the polysaccharide on mouse colon. Results showed that the concentrations of total ...
Mastrodonato Maria - - 2012
The mucins of colonic murine mucus are highly O-glycosilated sulfosialoglycoproteins. We have characterized the sialylation pattern of oligosaccharide chains of colonic murine mucins by conventional histochemical methods and by lectin histochemistry combined with chemical pretreatments and sialidase digestion. Oligosaccharide chains are strongly sulphated, with an increase of sulfation from the ...
Sugasini D - - 2012
The present work was designed to prepare linseed oil (LSO) microemulsion and explore the possibility of enhancing the uptake and utilization of α-linolenic acid (ALA) present in LSO. The bioavailability of encapsulated LSO as against native oil was monitored in rats by measuring the uptake in vitro using the intestinal ...
Wada Masami - - 2012
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The intestinal symport system for moving nutrients across membranes via transporters, and is required for absorption of major nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, and bile acids (which are required for fat absorption). Most of these transporters are regulated by Na(+), but the standard diet does not ...
van Dorsten Ferdi A - - 2012
The colonic microbial degradation of a polyphenol-rich black tea extract (BTE) and red wine/grape juice extract (RWGE) was compared in a five-stage in vitro gastrointestinal model (TWINSHIME®). Microbial metabolism of BTE and RWGE polyphenols in the TWINSHIME was studied subsequently in a single dose and a continuous dose experiment. A ...
Marquez Ruiz Juan F - - 2012
Budesodine is a synthetic glurocorticoid that undergoes substantial first pass metabolism, limiting systemic exposure. Its use in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease would benefit from a targeting strategy that could lead to a local topical effect, improving safety and increasing anti-inflammatory efficacy. A two-step prodrug strategy involving azoreduction/cyclization that we ...
Nice Timothy J - - 2013
Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the major cause of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide but has no clear animal reservoir. HuNoV can persist after the resolution of symptoms, and this persistence may be essential for viral maintenance within the population. Many strains of the related murine norovirus (MNV) also persist, providing a ...
Martínez-Montaño Emmanuel - - 2012
The interaction between lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg) in the proximal intestinal region of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) was evaluated using the everted intestine method. This in vitro intestinal system has been shown to be an effective tool for studying the nutrient absorption without the need to handle the ...
Oku Shota - - 2012
Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 showed positive chemotactic responses toward 20 commonly-occurring l-amino acids. Genomic analysis revealed that P. fluorescens Pf0-1 possesses three genes (Pfl01_0124, Pfl01_0354, and Pfl01_4431) homologous to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 pctA gene, which has been identified as a chemotaxis sensory protein for amino acids. When Pf01_4431, Pfl01_0124, and ...
Varshosaz Jaleh - - 2012
Three layered pellets of budesonide were prepared for colon delivery by the extrusion-spheronization method. The coatings consisted of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) (as barrier layer), Eudragit E (as rate controlling layer) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose acetate succinate (HPMC AS) (as enteric layer). The rate controlling layer was further modified using various pore ...
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