Search Results
Results 51 - 100 of 2268
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Kominami Yoko - - 2013
An 84-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of blood in the stool. He had previously undergone a subtotal colectomy and ileostomy with a mucous fistula of the sigmoid colon because of a large bowel hemorrhage of unknown origin. Five years later, a minor hemorrhage developed in the remnant ...
Russell Wendy R - - 2013
The influence of the microbial-mammalian metabolic axis is becoming increasingly important for human health. Bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates (CHOs) and proteins produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and a range of other metabolites including those from aromatic amino acid (AAA) fermentation. SCFA influence host health as energy sources and via multiple ...
Stětinová Věra - - 2013
The object of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) (i) EcN lipopolysaccharide (EcN LPS) and (ii) bacteria-free supernatant of EcN suspension (EcN supernatant) on in vitro transepithelial transport of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA), the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory drug in inflammatory ...
Zentek J - - 2013
Organic short and medium chain fatty acids are used in diets for piglets because they have an impact on the digestive processes and the intestinal microbiota. In this study, 48 pens (2 piglets/pen) were assigned randomly to 4 diets, without additive (control), with organic acids (OA; 0.416% fumaric and 0.328% ...
Yeap Yan Yan - - 2013
To evaluate the potential for the acidic intestinal unstirred water layer (UWL) to induce drug supersaturation and enhance drug absorption from intestinal mixed micelles, via the promotion of fatty acid absorption. Using a single-pass rat jejunal perfusion model, the absorptive-flux of cinnarizine and (3)H-oleic acid from oleic acid-containing intestinal mixed ...
Sorensen Lone Schmidt - - 2013
Background: The purpose of the study was to examine whether a preoperative supplement with ω-3 fatty acids (FAs) leads to their incorporation into colonic tissue in patients scheduled for colorectal cancer surgery. This would be of interest because ω-3 FAs have potential beneficial (local) immunological effects that might benefit these ...
Piton Gaël - - 2013
OBJECTIVES:: Small bowel dysfunction in critically ill patients is frequent, underdiagnosed, and associated with poor prognosis. Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein is a marker of enterocyte damage, and plasma citrulline concentration is a marker of functional enterocyte mass. Primary objective was to identify factors associated with intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in ...
Mishiro Tsuyoshi - - 2013
Butyric acid, a short-chain fatty acid and one of the main metabolites of intestinal microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, has been shown to have an important role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, while it also has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro and ...
Kumar Jeyan S JS Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA, - - 2013
Niacin (vitamin B3; nicotinic acid) plays an important role in maintaining redox state of cells and is obtained from endogenous and exogenous sources. The latter source has generally been assumed to be the dietary niacin, but another exogenous source that has been ignored is the niacin that is produced by ...
Lee Ja-Young - - 2013
Bile acid composition in the colon is determined by bile acid flow in the intestines, the population of bile acid-converting bacteria, and the properties of the responsible bacterial enzymes. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is regarded as a chemopreventive beneficial bile acid due to its low hydrophobicity. However, it is a minor ...
Ou Junhai J Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, - - 2013
Epidemiologic studies have suggested that most cases of sporadic colon cancer can be attributed to diet. The recognition that colonic microbiota have a major influence on colonic health suggests that they might mediate colonic carcinogenesis. To examine the hypothesis that the influence of diet on colon cancer risk is mediated ...
Allsopp Philip - - 2013
Linear Inulin type fructan (ITF) prebiotics have a putative role in the prevention of colorectal cancer, whereas relatively little is known about branched fructans. This study aims to investigate the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of branched fructans derived from Agave angustifolia Haw, using the Simulator of Human Intestinal ...
Rosa Natalia Nicole - - 2013
This work aimed to elucidate the effect of wheat aleurone integrity on its fermentability, i.e. the formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and microbial phenolic metabolites, in an in vitro model using human faecal microbiota as an inoculum. The structure of aleurone was modified by mechanical (dry grinding) or enzymatic ...
Boutaghane Naima - - 2013
From the n-BuOH extract of the aerial parts of Genista ulicina, six triterpene saponins, 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-olean-12-ene-3β,27,28,30-tetraol, 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-olean-12-ene-3β,27,28,29-tetraol, 3,29-di-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-olean-12-ene-3β,27,28,29-tetraol, 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-olean-12-ene-3β,28,29-triol-27-oic acid, 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-olean-12-ene-3β,27,28-triol-29-oic acid, and 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-14-H-27-nor-olean-12-ene-3β,28,29-triol, were isolated together with eight known triterpene saponins and six flavonoids. Their structures were established mainly by means of spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D-NMR as well as ...
Paris N E - - 2013
Infection with the intestinal protozoa Eimeria causes destruction of intestinal epithelia, resulting in reduced feed efficiency and BW gain. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Eimeria maxima infection on the expression of 20 digestive enzymes as well as macro- and micronutrient transporters in the intestine. ...
Shrivastava P K - - 2013
Present manuscript describes the sustained and targeted delivery of 5-aminosalicylic acid to the distal ileum and proximal colon, using dextran (40 kDa) as a carrier for targeting 5-aminosalicylic acid at the colonic site by attaching p-aminobenzoic acid and benzoic acid as linkers. Prepared conjugate were characterized by UV, HPLC, FT-IR, ...
Shin Andrea A Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research (C.E.N.T.E.R.), College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, - - 2013
There is an unclear relationship among bowel symptoms, excretion of unconjugated fecal bile acid (UBA), and colonic transit in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We measured total and main individual UBA in fecal samples of patients with IBS and assessed relationships among stool frequency or consistency, fecal UBA (total and individual), ...
Pearl Daniel S - - 2013
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) arachidonic acid (AA, n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, n-3) are precursors of eicosanoids and other lipid mediators which have critical roles in inflammation. The mediators formed from the different PUFA have different potencies. We hypothesised that metabolic changes associated with colonic mucosal ...
Liberti Daniele - - 2013
In lower eukaryotes, the glyoxylate cycle allows cells to utilize two-carbon compounds when simple sugars are not available. In filamentous fungi, glyoxylate metabolism is coupled with β-oxidation of fatty acids, and both are localized to ubiquitous eukaryotic organelles called peroxisomes. Acetyl coezyme A (Acetyl-CoA) produced during β-oxidation is transported via ...
Chaikham Pittaya - - 2013
The effect of encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5 along with pasteurized longan juice on the colon microbiota was investigated by applying a dynamic model of the human gastrointestinal tract. Encapsulated L. acidophilus LA5 in pasteurized longan juice or sole encapsulated L. acidophilus LA5 exhibited the efficiency of colonizing the colon and ...
Zacarias-Soto Magali - - 2013
Studies aimed to assess the digestive physiology of marine fish larvae under culture conditions are important to further understand the functional characteristics and digestive capacities of the developing larvae. Most studies to date concentrate on intestinal lumen digestion and little attention to the absorption process. Thus, the objectives of this ...
Kelly Orlaith B OB Department of Molecular Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, - - 2013
Dihydroxy bile acids, such as chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), are well known to promote colonic fluid and electrolyte secretion, thereby causing diarrhoea associated with bile acid malabsorption. However, CDCA is rapidly metabolised by colonic bacteria to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), the effects of which on epithelial transport are poorly characterised. Here, we ...
Okuno Masashi - - 2013
Aim: In previous animal studies, we confirmed that linoleic acid (LNA) enhanced colon carcinogenesis, whereas eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) had protective effects in azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis. In regard to the protective effects of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on colorectal cancer however, evidence from epidemiological studies is inconsistent. In the ...
Turk Harmony F HF Program in Integrative Nutrition and Complex Diseases, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, - - 2013
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling is required for optimal intestinal wound healing. Since n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), alter EGFR signaling and suppress downstream activation of key signaling pathways, we hypothesized that DHA would be detrimental to the process of intestinal wound healing. Using a ...
Santos A S - - 2013
The potential use of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBFA) and purine bases (PB) as microbial markers in the equine hindgut was studied. For this purpose, feed particles adherent bacteria (solid associated bacteria, SAB) and planktonic bacteria (liquid associated bacteria, PAB) were isolated from total cecum and colon contents of ...
Singh Anurag Kumar AK Department of Gastroenterology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, - - 2013
Duodenal epithelial cells need efficient defence strategies during gastric acidification of the lumen, while colonic mucosa counteracts damage by pathogens by building up a bacteria-free adherent mucus layer. Transport of HCO3(-) is considered crucial for duodenal defence against acid as well as for mucus release and expansion, but the transport ...
Corpe Christopher P CP Molecular and Clinical Nutrition Section, Digestive Diseases Branch, Intramural Research Program, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1372, - - 2013
Intestinal vitamin C (Asc) absorption was believed to be mediated by the Na(+)-dependent ascorbic acid transporter SVCT1. However, Asc transport across the intestines of SVCT1 knock-out mice is normal indicating that alternative ascorbic acid transport mechanisms exist. To investigate these mechanisms, rodents were gavaged with Asc or its oxidized form ...
Russell Wendy R - - 2013
SCOPE: Plant secondary metabolites, such as phenolic acids are commonly associated with benefits for human health. Two of the most abundant phenylpropanoid-derived compounds detected in human faecal samples are phenylacetic acid (PAA) and 4-hydroxylphenylacetic acid (4-hydroxyPAA). Although they have the potential to be derived from diets rich in plant-based foods, ...
Tang Yan - - 2013
The bifunctional mesoporous zirconium phosphonates (ZrBFs) were synthesized through surfactant-assisted co-condensation of ZrCl(4) with two different phosphonic acids, both 1-phosphomethylproline (H(3)PMP) and 1,4-bis(phosphomethyl)piperazine (BPMP), in a one-pot procedure. The l-proline group of H(3)PMP and piperazine group of BPMP in the frameworks endow ZrBFs with pH-controllable release function and high cell ...
Li Yan Y Monell Chemical Senses Center, 3500 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2013
Sweet taste receptor subunits and α-gustducin found in enteroendocrine cells of the small intestine have been implicated in release of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in response to glucose and noncaloric sweeteners. α-Gustducin has also been found in colon, although its function there ...
Henning Susanne M SM Center for Human Nutrition, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. - - 2013
Tea polyphenols are metabolized by the colonic microflora yielding phenolic metabolites, which may contribute to the health benefits of tea. We determined the serum and urine concentrations of phenolic acids, hippuric acid, and polyhydroxyphenyl-γ-valerolactones during green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) administration. The effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and ...
Davila Anne-Marie - - 2013
Alimentary and endogenous proteins are mixed in the small intestinal lumen with the microbiota. Although experimental evidences suggest that the intestinal microbiota is able to incorporate and degrade some of the available amino acids, it appears that the microbiota is also able to synthesize amino acids raising the view that ...
Mani Venkatesh - - 2013
Intestinal derived endotoxin and the subsequent endotoxemia can be considered major predisposing factors for diseases such as atherosclerosis, sepsis, obesity and diabetes. Dietary fat has been shown to increase postprandial endotoxemia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of different dietary oils on intestinal endotoxin ...
Fabian Carol J - - 2013
Omega-3 fatty acids (FA) are polyunsaturated essential FA with anti-inflammatory properties. The most potent are the marine-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which counteract the pro-inflammatory omega-6 FA. Americans take in an average of only 100 mg of EPA plus DHA per day resulting in a low omega-3:omega-6 ...
Richardson Anthony J - - 2013
The products of protein breakdown in the human colon are considered to be detrimental to gut health. Amino acid catabolism leads to the formation of sulfides, phenolic compounds and amines, which are inflammatory and/or precursors to the formation of carcinogens, including N-nitroso compounds. The aim of this study was to ...
Weir Tiffany L - - 2013
In this study we used stool profiling to identify intestinal bacteria and metabolites that are differentially represented in humans with colorectal cancer (CRC) compared to healthy controls to identify how microbial functions may influence CRC development. Stool samples were collected from healthy adults (n = 10) and colorectal cancer patients (n = 11) prior ...
Sun Yvonne - - 2013
The human gut microbiota is inextricably linked to health and disease. One important function of the commensal organisms living in the intestine is to provide colonization resistance against invading enteric pathogens. Because of the complex nature of the interaction between the microbiota and its host, multiple mechanisms likely contribute to ...
Francis Michael B - - 2013
Infections caused by Clostridium difficile have increased steadily over the past several years. While studies on C. difficile virulence and physiology have been hindered, in the past, by lack of genetic approaches and suitable animal models, newly developed technologies and animal models allow these processes to be studied in detail. ...
Cheng Jingui - - 2013
Butanoic acid plays a significant role in the maintenance of mucosal health and is the preferred energy substrate for the cells in the colon. Here, butanoic acid was selectively conjugated to the secondary hydroxyl group of β -cyclodextrin through ester bond using sodium hydride as the deprotonation reagent. The preliminary ...
Sun L N - - 2013
Many developmental genes play important roles in regeneration. Here, we cloned the two developmental genes, Wnt6 and Hox6, from Apostichopus japonicus by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Wnt6 full-length cDNA is 1140 bp long with a 1029-bp open reading frame encoding 342 amino acids. ...
Engevik Melinda A MA Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, - - 2013
Background: The mechanisms bacteria use to proliferate and alter the normal bacterial composition remain unknown. The ability to link changes in the intestinal micro-environment, such as ion composition and pH, to bacterial proliferation is clinically advantageous for diseases that involve an altered gut microbiota, such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease, obesity ...
Vimr Eric R ER Laboratory of Sialobiology, Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802, - - 2013
Sialic acids are structurally diverse nine-carbon ketosugars found mostly in humans and other animals as the terminal units on carbohydrate chains linked to proteins or lipids. The sialic acids function in cell-cell and cell-molecule interactions necessary for organismic development and homeostasis. They not only pose a barrier to microorganisms inhabiting ...
Hu Jie-Lun - - 2013
Physiological properties of homogenized and non-homogenized polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L., including antioxidant capacity and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, were compared in this study. High pressure homogenization decreased particle size of the polysaccharide, and changed the surface topography from large flake-like structure to smaller porous chips. ...
Bender Aaron - - 2012
Unlike the digestive systems of vertebrate animals, the lumen of the alimentary canal of C. elegans is unsegmented and weakly acidic (pH ~ 4.4), with ultradian fluctuations to pH > 6 every 45 to 50 seconds. To probe the dynamics of this acidity, we synthesized novel acid-activated fluorophores termed Kansas ...
Martínez-Moya Patricia - - 2012
The denomination of inflammatory bowel disease comprises a group of chronic inflammatory diseases of the digestive tract, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease being the most important conditions. Bile acids may play a role both in etiology and pharmacology of this disease. Thus, although deoxycholic acid is regarded as a proinflammatory ...
Chaikham Pittaya - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Fruit drinks containing probiotics are gaining interest in the global marketplace. For example, longan juice, containing carbohydrate and various bioactive components, is a potentially health-promoting beverage as well as probiotic carrier for human consumption. In this study, high-pressure and thermal processes were applied to eliminate competitive micro-organisms in longan ...
Dehghan Mohamed Hassan G MH Y.B. Chavan College of Pharmacy, Dr. Rafiq Zakaria Campus, Rauza Bagh, Aurangabad, MS, - - 2013
Lactulose is used as a triggering substance in a unique colon-specific delivery technology called CODESTM. Colonic microflora degrades lactulose and forms short-chain fatty acids to activate the CODESTM system. However, lactulose has been reported to cause a Maillard-type reaction with substances containing primary or secondary amino groups that may produce ...
Zhou X L - - 2012
This study was conducted to the determine fermentation characteristics of soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) in an in vitro system. Digesta collected from the colon of Huanjiang mini-pigs was used as inoculums, and SBOS (0.2 g per 10 mL fermentation broth) was used as substrate during the in vitro fermentation. The inoculum ...
Lizardo R - - 2012
Digestive microflora is partly responsible for physiological gut conditions. Measurements of redox potential (Eh) and pH of digesta may give a basis for understanding microbial activity and dynamics of fermentation. However, few studies have assessed the Eh of the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Twenty-four pigs of 30 kg BW were ...
Wu Tongzhi - - 2012
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), secreted by enteroendocrine L-cellslocated most densely in the colon and rectum, are of fundamental importance in blood glucose and appetite regulation. In animal models, colonic administration of bile acids can stimulate GLP-1 and PYY by TGR5 receptor activation. We evaluated the effects of ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >