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Takakuwa N - - 2005
Glucosylceramides were surveyed in crop tissues and by-products from their processing. Apple pulp contained the highest amount (0.94 mg g(-1)) of glucosylceramide and relatively less sterylglucoside, which is the major contaminant of partially purified glucosylceramide. Glucosylceramide from apple pulp was principally composed of 2-hydroxypalmitic acid as the fatty acid, 4-hydroxy-cis-8-sphingenine ...
Vianello Robert - - 2004
An efficient but reasonably accurate B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) computational procedure showed that pentasubstituted cyclopentadienes such as (CN)5C5H, (NO2)5C5H, and (NC)5C5H containing strongly electron-withdrawing groups are neutral organic superacids of unprecedented strength. The boldface denotes the atom attached to the cyclopentadiene framework. All of them exhibit prototropic tautomerism by forming somewhat more stable ...
Noci F - - 2005
Dietary inclusion of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich plant oils is one approach to improving the fatty acid profile of ruminant meat and meat products from a human health perspective. Whole crop wheat silages represent a possible alternative forage to grass silage for beef production, however, they may adversely impact the ...
Funk G-C - - 2004
Alterations of electrolytes and albumin cause metabolic acid-base disorders. It is unclear, however, to what degree these plasma components affect the overall metabolic acid-base state in the course of critical illness. We performed serial analyses of the metabolic acid-base state in 30 critically ill patients over the course of 1 ...
Li Qingyang - - 2004
Dipicolinic acid (DPA, 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid) is a substance uniquely present in bacterial spores such as that from anthrax (B. anthracis). It is known that DPA can be detected by the long-lived fluorescence of its terbium chelate; the best limit of detection (LOD) reported thus far using a large benchtop gated ...
Giebisch Gerhard - - 2004
This essay looks at the historical significance of two APS classic papers that are freely available online: Pitts RF and Alexander RS. The nature of the renal tubular mechanism for acidifying the urine. Am J Physiol 144: 239-254, 1945 (http://ajplegacy.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/144/2/239). Pitts RF and Lotspeich WD. Bicarbonate and the renal regulation ...
Hong J Y - - 2004
This study was conducted to develop a serum-free, defined medium for IVM of pig oocytes. Modified North Carolina State University (mNCSU)-23 media with or without supplementation with both epidermal growth factor (EGF) and gonadotrophin were used as base media. In separate experiments, each base medium was supplemented with porcine follicular ...
Bernhoft Aksel - - 2004
The in vitro effect of combinations of the Penicillium mycotoxins citrinin (CIT), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT), penicillic acid (PIA) and roquefortine C (RQC) on mitogen induced lymphocyte proliferation was determined using purified lymphocytes from six piglets. Dose-response curves for each mycotoxin and mycotoxin combinations were generated. ...
Wall Susan M - - 2004
Slc26a4 (Pds, pendrin) is an anion transporter expressed in the apical region of type B and non-A, non-B intercalated cells of the distal nephron. It is upregulated by aldosterone analogues and is critical in the development of mineralocorticoid-induced hypertension. Thus, Slc26a4 expression and its role in blood pressure and fluid ...
Chen Xin - - 2004
Equilibrium gas-phase acidities of the six isomeric cyclohexanediols were measured in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Although all six cyclohexanediols have the same functional groups and similar structures, the acidities vary over 11 kcal/mol. This large difference is due mostly to the balance between hydrogen bonding and ...
Keblys Modestas - - 2004
The in vitro effect of each of the Penicillium mycotoxins citrinin (CIT), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT), penicillic acid (PIA) and roquefortine C (RQC) on mitogen induced lymphocyte proliferation was determined using purified lymphocytes from 6 piglets. Dose response curves for each mycotoxin were generated and the ...
Dou Hongwei - - 2004
The endolymph in the endolymphatic sac (ES) is acidic (pH 6.6-7). Maintaining this acidic lumen is believed to be important for the normal function of the ES. The acid-base regulation mechanisms of the ES are unknown. Here we investigated the expression patterns of acid-base regulators, including vacuolar (v)H+-ATPase (proton pump), ...
Vidali Matteo - - 2004
The identification of the epitopes recognized by autoantibodies against cytochrome P450s (CYPs) associated with drug-induced hepatotoxicity is difficult because of their conformational nature. In the present investigation, we used a novel approach based on the analysis of the whole molecule antigenic capacity following single amino acid substitutions to identify the ...
Vehkamäki Hanna - - 2004
Liquid drop model based equilibrium thermodynamics predicts that in the presence of even small ammonia concentrations practically all the atmospheric sulfuric acid molecules are bound to tiny, stable ammonium-bisulfate clusters. Hitherto sulfuric acid has been believed to form hydrates with water. Thermodynamic theory predicts correctly the hydrate formation observed experimentally. ...
Morgan Thomas J - - 2005
Stewart's quantitative physical chemical approach enables us to understand the acid-base properties of intravenous fluids. In Stewart's analysis, the three independent acid-base variables are partial CO2 tension, the total concentration of nonvolatile weak acid (ATOT), and the strong ion difference (SID). Raising and lowering ATOT while holding SID constant cause ...
Story D A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To review the term hyperchloraemic acidosis. DATA SOURCES: Articles and reviews from peer reviewed journals on acid-base physiology. SUMMARY OF REVIEW: The concept of hyperchloraemic acidosis is well established in medicine and regularly taught to medical students. Unfortunately, it is yet another medical misnomer. Hyperchloraemic acidosis is only likely ...
Mortier Siska - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF) affects the peritoneum, but precise causative factors are incompletely understood. We examined the effects of standard and new PDF on peritoneal function and structure. METHODS: Female Wistar rats received twice daily intraperitoneal infusions of a standard lactate-buffered 3.86% glucose PDF at pH ...
Jackson Donald C - - 2004
An important functional advantage of hypoxic hypometabolism is that it blunts the acid-base consequences of hypoxia. Hypoxia can lead to anaerobiosis and metabolic acidosis and, in animals that are apneic, to respiratory acidosis. A fall in blood and tissue pH is a major limiting factor in hypoxic tolerance and a ...
Jones T H - - 2004
A detailed comparative analysis of the exocrine chemistry of nine Bruneian Camponotus species in the cylindricus complex is reported. Workers of these species are known to have hypertrophied mandibular glands and release their glandular contents suicidally from the head by rupturing the intersegmental membrane of the gaster. All of the ...
Packard Gary C - - 2004
Many physiologists believe that hatchling painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) provide a remarkable, and possibly unique, example of 'natural freeze-tolerance' in an amniotic vertebrate. However, the concept of natural freeze-tolerance in neonatal painted turtles is based on results from laboratory studies that were not placed in an appropriate ecological context, so ...
Schiff Nicolas - - 2004
The aim of the present study was to classify the different alloys commonly used to make orthodontic wire according to their corrosion resistance in different media. The four materials analysed were titanium-based alloys: TMA, TiNb, NiTi and CuNiTi, which were tested in three fluoride mouthwashes: Elmex, Meridol and Acorea as ...
Takatori Toshihito - - 2004
To prepare the sustained release suppositories, solid fats such as polyglycerol ester of fatty acids (PGEFs) or beeswax were utilized with a fatty suppository base, Witepsol H15. PGEFs such as decaglycerol heptabehenate (HB750) and hexaglycerol pentastearate (PS500), and beeswax have relatively high melting points. The addition of PGEFs or beeswax ...
Dao Vi-Thuy - - 2004
Optical Schiff's bases of gossypol were prepared with chiral gossypol and ethylamine. As has been similarly observed among the gossypol enantiomers, the (-)-gossypol ethylimine was more active than either the (+)-gossypol ethylimine or the racemic gossypol ethylimine against KB and MCF7 cells. Gossypolone was also observed to be more toxic ...
Szabó A - - 2004
The experiment was carried out to investigate, whether in vivo transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) affects the fatty acid composition and antioxidant status of rabbit Longissimus dorsi muscle. Altogether 20 Pannon White meat type rabbits were divided into two groups, from which one was routinely exposed to TENS treatment with ...
Lydersen Espen - - 2004
Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) is the parameter most commonly used as chemical indicator for fish response to acidification. Empirical relationships between fish status of surface waters and ANC have been documented earlier. ANC is commonly calculated as the difference between base cations ([BC]=[Ca2+]+[Mg2+]+[N+]+[K+]) and strong acid anions ([SAA]=[SO4(2)-]+[NO3-]+[Cl-]). This is ...
Mather Laurence E - - 2004
BACKGROUND: By changing physicochemical properties such as effective lipophilicity, changes in blood pH could alter the distribution, elimination, and effects of weakly ionizing drugs. The authors examined the outcome of imposed acid-base derangement on cardiovascular effects and myocardial and whole body pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine, a weak base, and thiopental, a ...
Renwick Andrew G - - 2004
The safety assessment of high intake levels of individual amino acids cannot be based on data from nutritional studies with proteins. Routine toxicity tests designed to investigate a wide range of possible effects should be undertaken for hazard identification and characterization using studies selected to mirror the predicted pattern and ...
Ni Rong - - 2004
The fluorescence energy transfer between anthracene (donor) and 5-p-[[4-(10'15'20'-triphenyl-5'-porphinato) phenyloxyl]-1-butyloxyl] phenyl-10,15,20-triphenyl-porphyrin (DTPP as acceptor) and an optical fiber sensor for the determination of picric acid based on this theory were studied. Because the emission spectrum of anthracene was largely overlapped with the absorption spectrum of the DTPP, the phenomenon of ...
Gatinel Damien - - 2004
PURPOSE: To determine the theoretical relationships between the changes in corneal paraxial power, asphericity, and the corresponding Zernike polynomial expansion after conventional and customized excimer laser correction of hyperopia. METHODS: The initial corneal profile was modeled as a conic section of apical radius of curvature R1 and asphericity Q1. The ...
Baek Bok Haeng - - 2004
The concentrations of inorganic aerosol components in the fine particulate matter (PM(fine)< or =2.5 microm) consisted of primarily ammonium, sodium, sulfate, nitrate, and chloride are related to the transfer time scale between gas to particle phase, which is a function of the ambient temperature, relative humidity, and their gas phase ...
Story David A - - 2004
The history of assessing the acid-base equilibrium and associated disorders is intertwined with the evolution of the definition of an acid. In the 1950s clinical chemists combined the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and the Bronsted-Lowry definition of an acid to produce the current bicarbonate ion-centred approach to metabolic acid-base disorders. Stewart repackaged ...
Mak Wing Cheung - - 2004
Phytase (EC 3.1.3.26) and phytic acid (myo-inositol hexaphosphate) play an important environmental role in poultry industry and have a health aspect in food industry. Novel biosensors have been developed for simple, one step quantitative phytic acid and phytase detection. A system based on the sequentially acting enzyme phytase and pyruvate ...
Story David A - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: For 20 years, an alternative view of the universe has been available for acid-base physiology. The Stewart approach emphasizes mathematically independent and dependent variables. With the Stewart approach bicarbonate and hydrogen ions are dependent variables that represent the effects rather than the causes of acid-base derangements. Neither ...
Quigley Raymond - - 2004
Maintaining acid base balance presents a considerable challenge to the growing neonate. The infant must ingest protein for growth and development. The metabolism of sulfur containing amino acids leads to the production of protons that must be secreted by the kidney. In addition, the formation of hydroxyapatite for the mineralization ...
Sakiyan Iffet - - 2004
The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of five different amino acid Schiff bases derived from the reaction of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with glycine, L-alanine L-phenylalanine, L-histidine, L-tryptophane and the manganese(III) complexes of these bases were investigated. Structures of the Schiff bases were proven by 1H-NMR. In vitro activities against some Gram-positive ...
Willemen Hendra M - - 2004
Small-angle neutron scattering measurements were performed on some cholic acid-based gel systems in order to gain detailed information about the network structure. The presence of thin fibers with a radius of about 10-20 A was found for various gelators. Two types of interaction between different sorts of fibers were demonstrated, ...
Leblanc Martine - - 2004
The approach to acid-base balance based on the concept of strong ions, initially proposed by Stewart, is briefly overviewed. The anion gap and the strong anion gap are both discussed. Comments are made on the strong ion difference of fluids administered to patients and their impact on acid-base status will ...
Reber Kristina M - - 2004
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Although the pathogenesis of NEC is unclear, prevention strategies have been developed based on clinical observations and epidemiologic and experimental data. Most current strategies have centered on feeding practices (eg, institution of feeds, advancement of feeds, ...
Bellver José - - 2004
BACKGROUND: To study the relationship between antepartum computerized cardiotocography (cCTG) and the evolution of intrapartum fetal acid-base balance in a low-risk population. METHODS: Forty-nine healthy fetuses were prospectively followed up by antepartum cCTG (Oxford System 8002), fetal scalp blood sampling at the onset of the active phase of dilatation (3 ...
Whittier William L - - 2004
Acid-base problem solving has been an integral part of medical practice in recent generations. Diseases discovered in the last 30-plus years, for example, Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome, D-lactic acidosis, and bulimia nervosa, can be diagnosed according to characteristic acid-base findings. Accuracy in acid-base problem solving is a direct result ...
Jeh H S - - 2004
Biodegradable hydrophilic polymers poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and polyethylene oxide-co-lactic acid (PELA) were used to encapsulate a small hydrophilic prodrug (PROLI/NO) as a strategy to deliver nitric oxide (NO) by inhalation. The microparticles were prepared using double emulsion and solvent evaporation, followed by freeze-drying. The NO release kinetics were characterized by ...
Su Xiao-Li - - 2004
A piezoelectric immunosensor was developed for rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7. It was based on the immobilization of affinity-purified antibodies onto a monolayer of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA), a long-chain carboxylic acid-terminating alkanethiol, self-assembled on an AT-cut quartz crystal's Au electrode surface with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester as a reactive intermediate. ...
Hosch Markus - - 2004
Ureagenesis in the liver consumes up to 1,000 mmol of HCO3-/day in humans as a result of 2NH4+ + 2HCO3- --> urea + CO2 + 3H2O. Whether the liver contributes to the regulation of acid-base equilibrium by controlling the rate of ureagenesis and, therefore, HCO3- consumption in response to changes ...
Vives M - - 2004
The nucleoside 2'-deoxyzebularine (K) was incorporated into the self-complementary dodecamer 5'-CGTACGKGTACG-3' by solid-phase 2-cyanoethylphosphoramidite chemistry using dimethoxytrityl (DMT) as the 5'-hydroxyl protecting group. Standard synthesis cycles using trichloroacetic acid and short ammonia treatment (50 degrees C for 30 min) were found to be the optimal conditions to obtain the desired ...
Dai Jing-Yu - - 2004
Based on a modified Leenheer DOM fractionation scheme, fractionation of DOM from the paddy soil was conducted by using XAD-8 resin into hydrophobic bases (HOB), hydrophobic acids(HOA), acid-insoluble matter (AIM), hydrophobic neutrals (HON) and hydrophilic matter (HIM). In total carbon content of DOM, 35.32% were the HIM and only 0.73% ...
Osther P J - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: In previous studies of the renal response to acute NH4Cl acidosis no correlation was found between systemic acid-base status and the traditionally used quantity, renal net acid excretion (NAE). If NAE is to be considered a physiologically meaningful quantity then this is surprising, as the extracellular acid-base status would ...
Almeida Jesús F - - 2003
The irradiation with UV light of a number of 1,2-diaryl-1-tosylstilbenes, in the presence of base, leads to the corresponding phenanthrenes and heterocyclic analogues. These results are consistent with a mechanism involving the base-induced elimination of p-toluenesulfinic acid from an intermediate 9-tosyl-4a,4b-dihydrophenanthrene, formed by photochemical cyclization of the starting 1,2-diaryl-1-tosylstilbenes. [reaction: ...
Gunnerson Kyle J - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Disorders of acid-base and electrolytes are commonly seen in critically ill patients. The presence of these disorders typically signals the development of an underlying pathology. These disturbances can be severe and are often associated with worse outcome. Indeed, metabolic acidosis is one of the ways we quantify ...
Bansode R R - - 2003
The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of using pecan and almond shell-based granular activated carbons (GACs) in the adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of health concern and known toxic compounds (such as bromo-dichloromethane, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloromethane, chloroform, and 1,1-dichloromethane) compared to the adsorption efficiency ...
Srivastava Gaurav K - - 2003
A versatile method for the solid-phase synthesis of 2-aminoquinazoline-based derivatives, 3-substituted-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-amines and imidazoquinazolines, has been developed. They were obtained by treating the amino group of polymer-linked amino acids with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde followed by reduction of the nitro group to an amine. Cyclization of the resulting immobilized intermediates with cyanogen bromide followed ...
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