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Sarriés M V - - 2009
Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from 60 Charolais crossbred heifers, aged for 14 days was used to investigate the effect of cooking on the content of PUFA and CLA fatty acids. Animals were offered a control diet of grass silage and concentrates (CO) or rations designed to enhance the concentration of ...
Lippert Bernhard - - 2008
Functional and crystallographic analyses of catalytically active RNA molecules ('ribozymes') have revealed a multitude of different routes by which nature accomplishes cleavage reactions of the RNA sugar-phosphate backbone. While there is agreement that these reactions involve general acid-base chemistry, the choice of 'acid' and of 'base' appears to be quite ...
Williams Thomas C R - - 2008
Steady-state labeling experiments with [1-(13)C]Glc were used to measure multiple metabolic fluxes through the pathways of central metabolism in a heterotrophic cell suspension culture of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The protocol was based on in silico modeling to establish the optimal labeled precursor, validation of the isotopic and metabolic steady state, ...
Kurihara Hitoshi - - 2008
We have developed a novel electrolytic system for Kolbe carbon-carbon coupling electrosynthesis based on the acid-base reaction between carboxylic acids as a substrate and solid-supported bases. On the basis of the electrolytic system, Kolbe electrolysis of various carboxylic acids was successfully carried out to provide the corresponding homocoupling products in ...
Esche V - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Four percent gelatine is an alkaline compound due to NH2 groups, whereas 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES130) has acidic features. We investigated whether these solutions lead to differences in acid-base balance in pigs during acidaemia and correction of pH. METHODS: Anaesthetized pigs were randomized to HES130 or ...
Liu Min - - 2008
1,N(6)-ethenoadenine (epsilonA) is a highly mutagenic lesion that is excised from human DNA by the enzyme alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG). In an effort to understand the intrinsic properties of 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine, we examined its gas phase acidity and proton affinity using quantum mechanical calculations and mass spectrometric experimental methods. We measure ...
Wang Yun - - 2008
Recent field studies suggest that dissolved MnIII should be ubiquitous at oxic/anoxic interfaces in all natural waters and may play important roles in biogeochemical redox processes. Here, we uncovered environmentally relevant synthetic phosphonate-based chelators that solubilize (hydr)oxide-bound MnIII via ligand-promoted dissolution at circum-neutral pHs and that their ability to release ...
Schneider Stefan - - 2008
Several imidazolium-based ionic liquid azides with saturated and unsaturated side chains were prepared, and their physical and structural properties were investigated. The reactivity of these new as well as some previously reported ionic liquid azides with strong oxidizers, N 2O 4 and inhibited, red-fuming-nitric acid (IRFNA), was studied.
Erman Mark B - - 2008
Alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are abundantly represented in nature; they are obtained from renewable sources and are irreplaceable synthons for commercial-scale production of other terpenes. In a well-known process practiced by Millennium Specialty Chemicals (MSC), hydrogenation of pinenes gives cis- and trans-pinanes, which are oxidized to hydroperoxides, whose reduction gives cis- ...
Junker Beth - - 2009
Corrosion in bioprocessing applications is described for a 25-year-old bioprocessing pilot plant facility. Various available stainless steel alloys differ greatly in properties owing to the impact of specific alloying elements and their concentrations. The alloy property evaluated was corrosion resistance as a function of composition under typical bioprocessing conditions such ...
Tian Zhixin - - 2008
Lithium monoxide anion (LiO(-)) has been generated in the gas phase and is found to be a stronger base than methyl anion (CH(3)(-)). This makes LiO(-) the strongest base currently known, and it will be a challenge to produce a singly charged or multiply charged anion that is more basic. ...
Weerapana Eranthie - - 2008
Insights into the proteome reactivity of electrophiles are crucial for designing activity-based probes for enzymes lacking cognate affinity labels. Here, we show that different classes of carbon electrophiles exhibit markedly distinct amino acid labeling profiles in proteomes, ranging from selective reactivity with cysteine to adducts with several amino acids. These ...
Bender Thorsten O - - 2008
Amino-acid-based peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids have been developed to improve the nutritional status of PD patients. As they may potentially exacerbate acidosis, an amino-acid-containing solution buffered with bicarbonate (Aminobic) has been proposed to effectively maintain acid-base balance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mesothelial biocompatibility profile of ...
Brown Andrew J - - 2008
Fluid therapy in the patient with vomiting and diarrhea is essential to correct hypovolemia, dehydration, acid-base imbalance, and serum electrolyte abnormalities. Prediction of acid-base or electrolyte disturbances is difficult; therefore, point of care testing is beneficial to optimize therapy. This article focuses on the pathophysiology and treatment of hypovolemia, dehydration, ...
Nielsen Jakob - - 2008
Lithium is used commonly to treat bipolar mood disorders. In addition to its primary therapeutic effects in the central nervous system lithium has a number of side effects in the kidney. The side effects include nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with polyuria, mild sodium wasting, and changes in acid/base balance. These functional ...
Hill Melissa P - - 2008
The active form of vitamin B6, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), is an important cofactor for numerous enzymes in amine and amino acid metabolism. Presented here is the first femtosecond transient absorption study of free PLP and two Schiff bases, PLP-valine and PLP-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), in solution. Photoexcitation of free PLP leads ...
Girisuta B - - 2008
A comprehensive experimental and modelling study on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of the water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) to optimise the yield of levulinic acid (LA) is reported (T=150-175 degrees CH2SO4 = 0.1-1M, water hyacinth intake=1-5wt%). At high acid concentrations (>0.5M), LA was the major organic acid whereas at low acid ...
Polak T - - 2008
The effects of gender and age on intramuscular fat (IMF) levels, cholesterol concentration, and fatty acid composition were investigated in the semitendinosus (ST) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles of feral red deer (Cervus elaphus). Six stags of >2years of age, four hinds of 1year, and six calves of 6months were ...
Talpur Farah N - - 2008
The present study was undertaken to assess the intramuscular fatty acid composition of different muscles taken from male Pateri (n=15) goats, reared on naturally grown grasses, leaves and pods of Acacia nilotica and crushed cereal, under traditional way of feeding. Goats were slaughtered with an average weight of 68±7kg and ...
Naka T - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Severe hepatic failure (SHF) commonly leads to major changes in acidbase balance status. However, the direct effects of liver failure per se on acid base balance are poorly understood because this condition is usually associated with acute renal failure (ARF). AIM: To assess the effect of SHF on acid-base ...
Morris C G - - 2008
The correct identification of the cause, and ideally the individual acid, responsible for metabolic acidosis in the critically ill ensures rational management. In Part 2 of this review, we examine the elevated (corrected) anion gap acidoses (lactic, ketones, uraemic and toxin ingestion) and contrast them with nonelevated conditions (bicarbonate wasting, ...
Williams Gavin J - - 2008
A comprehensive two-phase "hot spot" saturation mutagenesis strategy for the rapid evolution of glycosyltransferase (GT) specificity for nonnatural acceptors is described. Specifically, the application of a high-throughput screen (based on the fluorescent acceptor umbelliferone) was used to identify key amino acid hot spots that contribute to GT proficiency and/or promiscuity. ...
Malle Birgitte M - - 2008
1-Deoxymannojirimycin (8c) was synthesised from 2-amino-6-bromo-2,6-dideoxy-D-mannono-1,4-lactone (7) by intramolecular direct displacement of the C-6 bromine employing non-aqueous base treatment followed by reduction of the intermediate methyl ester. Likewise, using aqueous base at pH 12, ring closure took place by 5-exo attack on the 5,6-epoxide leading to 2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-L-gulonic acid (9b), which ...
Johansson K M - - 2008
We describe a fluidity and conductivity study as a function of composition in N-methylpyrrolidine-acetic acid mixtures. The simple 1 : 1 acid-base mixture appears to form an ionic liquid, but its degree of ionicity is quite low and such liquids are better thought of as poorly dissociated mixtures of acid ...
Antonini B - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Stewart's and Fencl's methods have recently been proposed to interpret acid-base disorders where traditional theory has proven inadequate. Our objectives were to evaluate: (1) the occurrence of acid-base disturbances in critically ill patients and their trend over the first 3 intensive care unit days, (2) whether Stewart's ...
Kundrat Matthew D - - 2008
The molar rotation of a solution of a natural alpha amino acid is changed in the positive direction by addition of a strong acid. Three decades ago, an attempt to rationalize this old rule, named for Clough, Lutz, and Jirgensons (CLJ), was made by assigning circular dichroism octants for overlapping ...
Gray N F - - 2008
A range of macroinvertebrate indices were compared to assess the most appropriate metric for the assessment of acid mine drainage (AMD) in a low alkalinity, highly erosional river in south-east Ireland. Differences were found in the ability of indices to discriminate AMD impact with the Brillouin, BMWP score, Margalef and ...
Gaddis Brandon D - - 2008
The structural features of an anthrax lethal factor inhibitor, N-oleoyldopamine (OLDA, 1) have been probed. The oleic acid moiety is critical, but, more interestingly, the presence of the double bond and its geometry were found to play an essential role. One compound, 5, was found to be an uncompetitive inhibitor ...
Murakami Kentaro - - 2008
Mild metabolic acidosis, which can be caused by diet, may adversely affect cardiometabolic risk factors, possibly by increasing cortisol production. Methodologies for estimating diet-induced acid-base load using dietary-intake information have been established. To our knowledge, however, the possible association between dietary acid-base load and cardiometabolic risk factors has not been ...
Cuiné Jean F - - 2008
Lipid-based formulations of danazol with varying quantities of included surfactant have been examined in vitro and in vivo. Formulations comprising fatty acid ester surfactants were readily hydrolysed during in vitro digestion, although Cremophor RH40 (CrRH) was less effectively hydrolysed than Cremophor EL (CrEL). Formulations comprising high quantities of digestible surfactant ...
Vormann Juergen - - 2008
The role of nutrition in human acid-base homeostasis has gained increasing attention in recent years. Although in healthy humans, homeostatic mechanisms and the kidneys' capacity to excrete acid equivalents can prevent strong diet-induced alterations in blood pH, even moderate increases in blood hydrogen ion levels as a result of unfavorable ...
Agatzini-Leonardou S - - 2008
Laboratory-scale research has focused on the recovery of titanium from red mud, which is obtained from bauxite during the Bayer process for alumina production. The leaching process is based on the extraction of this element with diluted sulfuric acid from red mud under atmospheric conditions and without using any preliminary ...
Kurtz Ira - - 2008
When approaching the analysis of disorders of acid-base balance, physical chemists, physiologists, and clinicians, tend to focus on different aspects of the relevant phenomenology. The physical chemist focuses on a quantitative understanding of proton hydration and aqueous proton transfer reactions that alter the acidity of a given solution. The physiologist ...
Qian Kuangnan - - 2008
We report a new method for rapid measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point (BP) distribution for petroleum crude and products. The technology is based on negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for selective ionization of petroleum acid and quantification of acid structures and molecular weight ...
Savelieva Irina - - 2008
Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects 1.5-2.0% of the population in the developed world. Projected data from population-based studies in the US indicate that the number of adults with AF will swell by 2.5-3.0-fold by 2050. Despite advances in pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies for rhythm or rate control in patients with AF, ...
Rolland Olivier - - 2008
The syntheses of a series of phosphonic acid-capped dendrimers is described. This collection is based on a unique set of dendritic structural parameters-cyclo(triphosphazene) core, benzylhydrazone branches and phosphonic acid surface-and was designed to study the influence of phosphonate (phosphonic acid) surface loading towards the activation of human monocytes ex vivo. ...
Sartain Felicity K - - 2008
Boronic acids have been used as receptors for the detection of diols and alpha-hydroxy acids. The incorporation of 3-acrylamide phenyl boronic acid (3-APB) into a hydrogel generates a suitably responsive and fully reversible holographic sensor for L-lactate. However, it was also found that the use of 3-APB resulted in the ...
Terrazas Montserrat - - 2008
The replacement of the pyrophosphate moiety of deoxynucleoside triphosphates by L-aspartic acid allows incorporation of natural deoxynucleosides into DNA using HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) as enzyme, while retaining the canonical base-pair selectivity. N-Methylation of the L-aspartic acid leaving group results in a reduced fidelity of incorporation.
Gentile A - - 2008
Background: Among the various metabolic disturbances occurring in calves affected by neonatal diarrhea or ruminal acidosis, acidemia constitutes an important condition requiring specific therapy. Although various attempts have been made to estimate the degree of metabolic acidosis on the basis of clinical signs alone, some doubts have been raised regarding ...
Hu J Y - - 2008
The interactions of complex organic matters in reclaimed water were studied for the rejection mechanisms for organics removal by nanofiltration (NF) membrane. Rejection study on single organic fractions showed that base fractions are the most difficult ones to be removed, with the removal efficiencies of 40.08-47.73% for hydrophobic-base (Hpo-B) and ...
Sun Xuming - - 2008
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Slc26a7 is a member of a family of anion transport proteins, Solute-Linked Carrier 26 (Slc26). Slc26a7, which can mediate Cl-/HCO3- exchange, is expressed in the acid-secreting, A-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct. On the basolateral side of the A-intercalated cells, Slc26a7 co-localizes with the anion exchanger 1 (AE1), ...
Bouchard J - - 2008
Continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) are often used to manage complex acid-base problems in critically ill patients. These techniques allow a constant manipulation of the plasma composition. Several technical factors from CRRT influence the acid-base status; namely, the effluent rate, the operational characteristics of the technique, the content of the ...
Hwang I H - - 2008
Automobile shredder residue (ASR) was pretreated to improve its quality for fuel utilization. Composition analysis revealed that ASR components could be classified into four groups: (1) urethane and textile-light fraction and combustibles containing low levels of ash and Cl; (2) plastics and rubber-light or heavy fraction and combustibles containing high ...
Garcia P T - - 2008
The concentrations of fatty acids were measured in total lipids, triacyglycerol and phospholipid fractions of intramuscular fat (IMF) from the Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of 10 lambs reared to approximately 30kg live weight on natural pasture with their dams. Fatty acid composition was also measured in 25 (five of each) ...
Ohnishi Takahiro - - 2008
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may potentially worsen infectious diseases because EDCs disturb human immune function by interfering with endocrine balance. To evaluate the influence of EDCs on the innate immune function of macrophages, we investigated the effects of 37 possible EDCs on lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of the IFN-beta promoter. Alachlor, atrazine, ...
Roche Victoria F - - 2007
Despite repeated exposure to the principles underlying the behavior of organic acids and bases in aqueous solution, some pharmacy students remain confused about the topic of acid-base chemistry. Since a majority of organic drug molecules have acid-base character, the ability to predict their reactivity and the extent to which they ...
Greer Edyta M - - 2008
Computations provide insight to the stability and isomeric possibilities of thiotropocin, tropodithietic acid, and troposulfenin. Thiotropocin and tropodithietic acid contain a flat 7-membered ring and delocalized pi-bonds similar to those of tropylium ion (C(7)H(7)(+)). Troposulfenin is far less stable; it contains a puckered tropone ring and localized bonds similar to ...
Stelzleni A M - - 2008
The effects of short-term realimentation (0, 42 or 84 days) of cull beef cows (n=24) and post-mortem aging (10 or 20 days) of selected muscles on sensory off-flavor score, off-flavor descriptors of m. Gluteus medius (GLM), m. Longissimus lumborum (LOL), m. Triceps brachii-long head (LON) and m. Rectus femoris (REF) ...
Wei Lai - - 2008
Cinnabar, an important traditional Chinese mineral medicine, has been widely used as a Chinese patent medicine ingredient for sedative therapy. However, the pharmaceutical and toxicological effects of cinnabar, especially in the whole organism, were subjected to few investigations. In this study, an NMR-based metabolomics approach has been applied to investigate ...
Kellum John A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Intensivists spend much of their time managing problems related to fluids, electrolytes, and blood pH. Recent advances in the understanding of acid-base physiology have resulted from the application of basic physical-chemical principles of aqueous solutions to blood plasma. All changes in blood pH, in health and in disease, occur ...
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