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Nie Biao - - 2012
Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. We tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end, stable ...
Jain Mahendra - - 2012
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tecomella undulata (TU; Family Bignoniaceae) is used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for treating various diseases including hepatic ailments. It is also incorporated in various marketed hepatoprotective polyherbal formulations. AIM: The present study was aimed at evaluating possible hepatoprotective role of isolated compounds from TU stem bark ...
Zhou Linkang - - 2012
High levels of dietary saturated fat have been closely associated with the development of hepatic steatosis, but the factors that mediate this process remain elusive. Here, we observed that the level of cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like effector a (Cidea) expression was highly correlated with the severity of hepatic steatosis ...
Zhong Hongying - - 2012
Organochlorine pesticides have been extensively used worldwide for agricultural purposes. Due to their resistance to metabolism, a major public health concern has been raised. Aberrant hepatic lipid composition has been a hallmark of many liver diseases associated with exposure to various toxins and chemicals. And thus lots of efforts have ...
Kang Hye Won HW Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2012
Members of the acyl-CoA thioesterase (Acot) gene family catalyze the hydrolysis of fatty acyl-CoAs, but their biological functions remain unknown. Thioesterase superfamily member 2 (Them2; synonym Acot13) is a broadly expressed mitochondria-associated Acot. Them2 was previously identified as an interacting protein of phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP). Pctp(-/-) mice exhibit altered ...
Gao Hong-Ying - - 2012
The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. Salvianolic acid B and Matrine has long been used to treat liver fibrosis. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt is a new compound containing Salvianolic acid ...
Tanaka Shizuyo - - 2012
The fatty acid profile of hepatic lipid in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)/NDmcr-cp (cp/cp) rats (SHR/NDcp), which offer an animal model of the metabolic syndrome, was characterized by comparing those in Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), SHR, stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and SHR/NDmcr-cp (+/+) rats (SHR/ND+) . Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed ...
Song Won S - - 2012
We report a case of unexpected heterogeneous uptake of gadoxetic acid into a hepatic metastasis in a patient with T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma that also lacked hypermetabolic characteristics on positron emission (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Therefore, in cases of heterogeneous uptake of gadoxetic acid, infiltrative lesions must be considered.
Yao X - - 2011
PURPOSE: The authors sought to identify metabolic features of pancreatic carcinoma by in vivo proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy at 3 Tesla. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty healthy volunteers and 40 patients with pancreatic carcinoma confirmed by histopathology underwent T2-weighted imaging for localisation of the single voxel. Respiration-triggered (1)H MR spectroscopy ...
Navina Sarah - - 2011
Obesity increases the risk of adverse outcomes during acute critical illnesses such as burns, severe trauma, and acute pancreatitis. Although individuals with more body fat and higher serum cytokines and lipase are more likely to experience problems, the roles that these characteristics play are not clear. We used severe acute ...
Graciano Maria Fernanda - - 2011
Free fatty acids regulate insulin secretion through metabolic and intracellular signaling mechanisms such as induction of malonyl-CoA/ long-chain CoA pathway, production of lipid derivatives, GPRs (G protein coupled receptors) activation and modulation of calcium currents. Fatty acids (FA) are also important inducers of ROS (reactive oxygen species) production in β-cells. ...
Liang Huasheng - - 2011
Saturated fatty acids are implicated in the development of diabetes via the impairment of pancreatic islet β-cell viability and function. Liver X receptors (LXRs) and eicosapentaenoate (EPA) are known regulators of fatty acid metabolism. However, their roles in the pathogenesis of diabetes remain incompletely understood. The aim of this study ...
Dalgaard Louise T - - 2011
Fatty acid-induced damage in pancreatic β-cells is assumed to play an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Lactogens (prolactin, placental lactogen and growth hormone) improve β-cell survival via STAT5 activation but the molecular targets are incompletely characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the effect ...
Gressler Vanessa - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Algae species have been used as an important source of food because they are highly nutritive considering their vitamin, protein, mineral, fiber, essential fatty acid and carbohydrate contents. However, a large number of seaweeds have been poorly studied, especially Brazilian species. Two red macroalgae species from the Brazilian coast ...
Endo A - - 2011
Aims:  To determine the influence of carbohydrates on enrichment isolation of lactic acid bacteria from different niches. Methods and Results:  Lactic acid bacteria in three traditional fermented products in southern Africa (amasi, mahewu and tshwala) and in three fresh samples (two flowers and a fruit) were enrichment cultured in media ...
Bandyopadhyay S S - - 2011
In order to survive in a highly competitive environment, freshwater or marine phototrophic microorganisms have to develop defense strategies that result in a tremendous diversity of compounds from different metabolic pathways. Recent trends in drug research from natural sources have shown that algae and cyanobacteria are promising organisms to furnish ...
Hegyi Péter - - 2011
Acinar and ductal cells of the exocrine pancreas form a close functional unit. Although most studies contain data either on acinar or ductal cells, an increasing number of evidence highlights the importance of the pancreatic acinar-ductal functional unit. One of the best examples for this functional unit is the regulation ...
Shen Qian Jin - - 2010
The free 3-quinolineboronic acid (3-QBA) with the lowest (n-π*) excited singlet is non- or weakly fluorescent while protonated 3-QBA has the lowest (π-π*) excited singlet state and is highly fluorescent. The hybridization of boronic atom or charge transfer from aromatic ring to boronic acid group plays a secondary role in ...
Kopic Sascha - - 2010
Acid-related disorders represent a major healthcare concern. In recent years, our understanding of the physiologic processes underlying gastric acid secretion has improved notably. The identity of several apical ion transport proteins, which are necessary for acid secretion to take place, has been resolved. The recent developments have uncovered potential therapeutic ...
Agrahari P - - 2010
Snail control could play an important role in programmes against fascioliasis, especially if the methods used for molluscicide delivery could be improved, such as by the development of bait formulations containing both an effective attractant and a molluscicide, to ensure good levels of contact between the molluscicide and the target ...
Schubert Mitchell L - - 2010
This review summarizes the past year's literature regarding the regulation of gastric exocrine and endocrine secretion at the central, peripheral, and cellular levels. Gastric acid secretion is an intricate and dynamic process that is regulated by neural (efferent and afferent), hormonal (e.g., gastrin), and paracrine (e.g., histamine, ghrelin, somatostatin) pathways ...
Karaki Shin-ichiro - - 2011
Propionate, a fermented product in the lumen of the large intestine, is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) known to have a variety of localized physiological and pathophysiological functions (e.g., luminal fluid secretion and anti-inflammatory response). In the present study, we investigated propionate-induced transepithelial ion transport and the expression of SCFA ...
Bauera Eva - - 2010
Increased carbohydrate fermentation, compared with protein fermentation, could benefit gut health. In two in vitro experiments, the effect of carbohydrate-rich feed ingredients on fermentation characteristics of ileal chyme from pigs was assessed, using the cumulative gas production technique. Ingredients of the first experiment included gums, inulins, pectins, transgalacto-oligosaccharides, lactose and ...
Feng Jianying - - 2010
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is the major sensor and regulator of extracellular Ca(2+), whose activity is allosterically regulated by amino acids and pH. Recently, CaR has been identified in the stomach and intestinal tract, where it has been proposed to function in a non-Ca(2+) homeostatic capacity. Luminal nutrients, such as ...
Lu Yuxin - - 2011
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been shown to increase the histamine release from gastric enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells and promote gastric acid secretion in rats. In contrast, in mice, PACAP has been demonstrated to induce a decrease of gastric acid secretion, an effect presumably due to somatostatin release. To more ...
Kirchhoff Philipp - - 2011
The overproduction of acid and the associated illnesses linked to hypersecretion have a lifetime prevalence of 25-35% in the United States. Although a variety of pharmaceutical agents have been used to reduce the production of acid, alarming new evidence questions the long-term efficacy and safety of the agents. These issues ...
Liu Xinyao - - 2010
Our purpose is to apply a fatty acid secretion strategy in photosynthetic microbial biofuel production, which will avoid the costly biomass recovery processes currently applied in algal biofuel systems. Starting with introducing acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases, we made five successive generations of genetic modifications into cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. ...
Sakurada Tomoya - - 2010
Ghrelin, a growth-hormone-releasing peptide, has two major molecular forms: acylated (acyl) and desacylated (desacyl). Recent studies suggest different roles for these two forms. In the present study, we compared desacyl and acyl ghrelin with regard to acid secretion and histamine production in the rat stomach. We performed in vivo experiments ...
Oikawa Tomoyuki - - 2010
In Orientals, deficient aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is associated with an increased risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The local metabolism of carcinogenic acetaldehyde in the upper gastrointestinal tract could be involved in the association, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Since an anacidic stomach can ...
Hand Katharine V - - 2010
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide hormone secreted from the I-cells of the intestine and it has important physiological actions related to appetite regulation and satiety. In this study we used STC-1 cells to investigate the effects of common dietary-derived fatty acids (FAs) on I-cell secretory function and metabolism. We extend ...
Waldum Helge L - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: The recent description of dyspepsia in healthy individuals after stopping treatment with proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) indicates that reflux disease may worsen due to this treatment. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge of the regulation of gastric acid secretion, including maximal acid secretion, and to improve ...
Gerbino Andrea - - 2010
Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this ...
Mart?n Jos? - - 2010
Pheromones of vertebrates are often a mixture of several chemicals with different properties and messages, and their production seems condition dependent. Thus, pheromones are a good, but little studied, example of multiple sexual signals. Femoral gland secretions of male rock lizards Iberolacerta cyreni contain steroids that may act as pheromones, ...
Lang Roman - - 2010
A straightforward stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) for the reliable quantitative determination of (beta)N-C(18:0)- to (beta)N-C(24:0)-alkanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamides (C5HTs) in coffee powder and beverages by means of LC-MS/MS was developed. The developed SIDA showing accuracy values of 92.6-107% and precision between 0.5 and 7% relative standard deviation for the individual derivatives allowed ...
von Rosenvinge Erik C - - 2010
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Update on the role of gastrointestinal peptides in regulating gastric acid secretion. RECENT FINDINGS: A novel transgenic mouse that expresses the entire human gastrin gene locus in G-cells of gastrin-null mice will facilitate investigation of gastrin gene regulatory elements. Isolation of a highly homogeneous population of G-cells ...
Gillingham Dennis G - - 2010
3-Deoxysugars are important constituents of complex carbohydrates. For example, 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO) is an essential component of lipopolysaccharides in Gram-negative bacteria, 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nonulosonic acid (KDN) is widely found in carbohydrates of the bacterial cell wall and in lower vertebrates, and sialic acid is a common cap of mammalian glycoproteins. Although ready ...
Kopic Sascha - - 2010
The effects of ethanol on gastric acid secretion remain controversial. The present study examines the effect of low-dose (2%) short term (15-20 min) ethanol exposure on gastric acid secretion via a potential interaction with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Real-time fluorescence digital imaging was used to provide functional evidence for the ...
Chen Duan - - 2010
Physiology of gastric acid secretion is one of the earliest subjects in medical research and education. Gastric acid secretion has been sometimes inadequately expressed as pH value rather than amount of gastric H(+) secreted per unit time. Gastric acid secretion is regulated by endocrine, paracrine and neurocrine signals via at ...
Will Kipling W - - 2010
This study is the first to measure the quantity of pygidial gland secretions released defensively by carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and to accurately measure the relative quantity of formic acid contained in their pygidial gland reservoirs and spray emissions. Individuals of three typical formic acid producing species were induced to ...
Sizovs Antons A Department of Chemistry, Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24060, - - 2010
Carbohydrates have been investigated and developed as delivery vehicles for shuttling nucleic acids into cells. In this review, we present the state of the art in carbohydrate-based polymeric vehicles for nucleic acid delivery, with the focus on the recent successes in preclinical models, both in vitro and in vivo. Polymeric ...
Vallet-Gely Isabelle - - 2010
Pseudomonas entomophila is an entomopathogenic bacterium that is able to infect and kill Drosophila melanogaster upon ingestion. Its genome sequence suggests that it is a versatile soil bacterium closely related to Pseudomonas putida. The GacS/GacA two-component system plays a key role in P. entomophila pathogenicity, controlling many putative virulence factors ...
Okuda S - - 2009
The effect of subtype-selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors on acid secretion was examined in mouse stomachs to investigate which PDE isozymes are involved in the local regulation of this secretion. Male DDY mice were used after 18 h fasting. An isolated stomach was incubated in an organ bath containing buffered solution ...
Schubert Mitchell L - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the last year's literature regarding the regulation and measurement of gastric exocrine and endocrine secretion. RECENT FINDINGS: Parietal cells, distributed along much of the length of the oxyntic glands, with highest density in the neck and base, secrete HCl as well as transforming growth ...
Xu Jie - - 2009
SLC26A7 (human)/Slc26a7 (mouse) is a recently identified chloride-base exchanger and/or chloride transporter that is expressed on the basolateral membrane of acid-secreting cells in the renal outer medullary collecting duct (OMCD) and in gastric parietal cells. Here, we show that mice with genetic deletion of Slc26a7 expression develop distal renal tubular ...
Naik Haley B - - 2009
Secretory compartments of neurons, endocrine cells, and exocrine glands are acidic and contain high levels of labile Zn2+. Previously, we reported evidence that acidity is regulated, in part, by the content of Zn2+ in the secretory [i.e., tubulovesicle (TV)] compartment of the acid-secreting gastric parietal cell. Here we report studies ...
Sidani Shafik - - 2009
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to be a metabolic energy regulator in various cells. Activation is a direct result of rising AMP concentration coupled with falling adenosine triphosphate (ATP). AMPK activation during metabolic stress consequently reduces cellular ATP consumption. The gastric parietal cell has a large ...
Zolotarev Vasiliy - - 2009
The amino acid, L-glutamate, which is abundant in many foodstuffs, is a potent stimulator of gastric vagal afferents. The aim of the study was to evaluate a role of dietary glutamate in neuroendocrine control of gastric secretion of acid, pepsinogen, and fluid. In mongrel dogs with small gastric pouches surgically ...
Mun H-C - - 2009
Primary hyperparathyroidism, which occurs most commonly in patients with adenomatous disease of a single parathyroid gland, arises as a result of impaired extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(o))-dependent feedback on PTH secretion, a process mediated by the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR). Because the Ca(2+)(o) sensitivity of the CaR is positively modulated by L-amino acids, ...
Song Penghong - - 2009
Parietal cell (PC) proton secretion via H(+)/K(+)-ATPase requires apical K(+) recycling. A variety of K(+) channels and transporters are expressed in the PC and the molecular nature of the apical K(+) recycling channel is under debate. This study was undertaken to delineate the exact function of KCNQ1 channels in gastric ...
Nagaraja Narayanappa - - 2009
The queen mandibular gland component (2E)-9-oxodecenoic acid (9-ODA) has been suggested to function as the major sex pheromone component in all honey bee species. In contrast to this hypothesis, chemical analyses showed that in the Asian dwarf honey bee species, Apis florea, a different decenoic acid, (2E)-10-hydroxydecenoic acid (10-HDA), is ...
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