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Results 351 - 400 of 2407
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Hoshimoto Aihiro - - 2002
1. Medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) is often administered to patients with Crohn's disease (CD) or short-bowel syndrome. However, little is known about the effects of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and MCT on intestinal inflammation. In this study we examined whether caprylic acid, one of the MCFAs, and MCT suppress IL-8 secretion ...
Li Weiming - - 2002
We show that reproductively mature male sea lampreys release a bile acid that acts as a potent sex pheromone, inducing preference and searching behavior in ovulated female lampreys. The secreted bile acid 7alpha,12alpha,24-trihydroxy-5alpha-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate was released in much higher amounts relative to known vertebrate steroid pheromones and may be secreted ...
García-Rubio Silvina - - 2002
The secretion of the paracloacal glands of the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) contains over 80 lipophilic compounds, including saturated and unsaturated long-chain alcohols along with their formic, acetic, and butyric acid esters, and several isoprenoids. Most of these compounds were identified on the basis of mass spectra, obtained by GC-MS. ...
Matsuno K - - 2002
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine are well known to potently stimulate gastric acid secretion, most probably through an increase in circulating gastrin level. The present study examined whether or not wine stimulates gastric acid secretion by a direct effect on parietal cells, enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells ...
Sobhani Iradj - - 2002
Helicobacter pylori may increase or inhibit gastric acid. We studied acid variations and plasma gastrin in cats harboring Helicobacter felis, harboring H. pylori, or free of gastric pathogens with reference to thioperamide (H(3) receptor antagonist) and SR-27417A (PAF receptor antagonist). In cats harboring H. felis, gastric mucosa were histologically normal. ...
Abdul-Ghaffar Al-Shaibani Tarik A - - 2002
Many studies have implicated F-actin in the regulation of gastric acid secretion using cytochalasin D (CD) to disrupt apical actin filaments in oxyntic cells. However, it is known that CD also affects mucosal permeability by disrupting tight junction structure. Here we investigated the contribution of F-actin to mucosal permeability and ...
Furse Robert K - - 2002
Administration of gammalinolenic acid (GLA), an unsaturated fatty acid, reduces joint inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Addition of GLA in vitro suppresses release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) from human monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS-induced IL-1beta release is followed by IL-1-induced IL-1beta release, an amplification process termed "autoinduction." We show ...
Kaunitz Jonathan D - - 2002
Measuring duodenal epithelial intracellular pH (pHi), blood flow and mucus gel thickness (MGT), we studied duodenal defense mechanisms in vivo so as to more fully understand the protective mucosal response to luminal acid. Exposure of the mucosa to physiologic acid solutions promptly lowered pHi, followed by recovery after acid was ...
Lowes Simon - - 2002
1. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, T84 cells, and MDCKII cells transfected with human MDR1, were used to investigate the mechanistic basis of transintestinal fluoroquinolone secretion. 2. The fluoroquinolone grepafloxacin was secreted across Caco-2 monolayers by a saturable process (V(max)=16.9 +/- 3.4 nmol.cm(-2).h(-1)). Net secretion was reduced by 2-deoxyglucose/azide treatment ...
Narayanan Sanjeev Kumar - - 2002
Leukotoxins are a group of exotoxins that produce their primary toxic effects against leukocytes, especially polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs). Leukotoxins include a variety of chemicals ranging from 9,10-epoxy 12-octadecenoate, a fatty acid derivative secreted by leukocytes themselves, to proteins such as RTX (repeats in toxin). This review focuses on leukotoxins of ...
Sibilia V - - 2002
We examined the possible central and peripheral effects of synthetic growth hormone secretagogues (GHS), hexarelin (Hexa) and EP 40737 (D-Thr-D-Trp (2-Me)-Ala- Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2), and of their endogenous counterpart, ghrelin, on gastric acid secretion. The compounds were administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) in conscious male rats and the volume of gastric ...
Cui G-L - - 2002
The effects of gastrin precursors have been discussed during recent years. However, the mechanism for their action, whether through a novel receptor on the parietal cell or a cholecystokinin-2 (CCK-2) receptor on the enterochromaffin like (ECL) cells, is still not settled. This study examines the effect of glycine-extended gastrin-17 (Gly-G-17), ...
Onaga Takenori - - 2002
In the last two decades, multiple aspects of the peptide YY (PYY) secretion have been investigated. Besides fat and fatty acids, many luminal nutrients in the distal intestine appear to induce PYY release. Some studies have shown that bile acid, but not nutrients, plays a crucial role in the regulation ...
Gardner Jerry D - - 2002
Measurement of meal- stimulated gastric acid secretion using manual intragastric titration is demanding in terms of personnel and specialized equipment. In the present study, we used a new method, in vivo gastric autotitration, to determine meal-stimulated gastric acid secretion. Gastric pH was measured every 4 s before, during, and after ...
Niv Y - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The maintenance of an intact gastric mucosa implies a balance between aggressive, such as acid, and protective factors such as mucin. We examined gastric aspirates to determine a possible correlation between gastric acid and mucin contents. METHODS: Gastric contents were aspirated at gastroscopy in 14 patients. Acid ...
Tanaka Satoshi - - 2002
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Histamine, gastrin, and acetylcholine are known to be the primary secretagogues of gastric acid secretion, but how the roles are shared among these secretagogues remains to be fully clarified. To evaluate the cooperation between histamine and the other secretagogues, acid secretion responses induced by each secretagogue were ...
Stander M A - - 2002
Gas chromatographic and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques were employed to identify 83 compounds, including alkanes, alkenes, aldehydes, 2-methylalkanes, carboxylic acids, 1-alkyl formates and alken-1-yl formates, benzoic acid, and cholesterol, in the preorbital secretion of the male suni, Neotragus moschatus. Dimethyl disulfide derivatization and lithium aluminum hydride reduction were used to ...
Tsai L H - - 2001
The mechanism of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) inhibits oxotremorine-induced acid secretion was examined in rat stomach, in relation to the cyclic GMP system. NMDA (10(-7) M) did not affect the spontaneous acid secretion from the everted preparations of isolated rat stomach, but inhibited the acid secretion stimulated by oxotremorine, and this effect ...
Isidoro N - - 2001
In parasitic wasps, various kinds of antennal plates have been interpreted as olfactory organs due to the presence of numerous pores. However, on the basis of ultrastructural investigations, some of these multiporous plates were revealed as being release sites of exocrine glands while others were postulated to have a gustatory ...
Sáez C - - 2001
AIMS: Mucinous (colloid) adenocarcinomas represent a distinct group of tumours defined by the presence of large amounts of extracellular mucins. By using histochemical methods, we analysed mucins secreted by mucinous versus non-mucinous adenocarcinomas and looked for differential secretion profiles. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-four adenocarcinomas were studied (23 colorectal, 17 gastric, ...
Okabe S - - 2001
We examined the local effect of several drugs against secretagogue-stimulated acid secretion in dogs. Test drugs were applied to denervated gastric pouches in conscious dogs either for 5 to 30 min beginning 1 hr after or for 30 min before intravenous infusion of gastric secretagogues (histamine, pentagastrin, or carbachol). The ...
Waterhous J S - - 2001
Secretions from the dorsal gland of male and female free-ranging adult white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) from Bolivia were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fifty compounds were identified, some provisionally. Secretions of both sexes contain saturated and unsaturated C5-C18 carboxylic acids as well as isomers of the diterpene springene. The females' ...
Smith A M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Gastrimmune is an immunogenic form of gastrin. It raises in situ antibodies against two proliferative forms of gastrin: amidated and glycine-extended gastrin-17. It has been shown to have a therapeutic action in several in vivo tumour models. Following immunization, due to the complex equilibrium that exists between the antibodies ...
Kaunitz J D - - 2001
The proximal duodenum is unique in that it is the only leaky epithelium regularly exposed to concentrated gastric acid. To prevent injury from occurring, numerous duodenal defense mechanisms have evolved. The most studied is bicarbonate secretion, which is presumed to neutralize luminal acid. Less well studied in their protective roles ...
Ishikawa T - - 2001
Bombesin injected into the cisterna magna potently inhibits gastric acid secretion stimulated by intravenous infusion of pentagastrin. Sites in the medulla oblongata where bombesin acts to suppress gastric acid secretion were investigated in urethane-anesthetized rats with gastric cannula. Bombesin or vehicle was injected into the medullary parenchyma or intracisternally (i.c.) ...
Lowes S - - 2001
Unconjugated bile acids such as cholic acid cause diarrhoea, mucosal irritation and toxicity. We sought to define the mechanism of cholate permeation across intestinal mucosal cells to understand how cellular exposure and accumulation are deleterious to mucosal function. Human intestinal Caco-2 and T84 cell monolayers were prepared by high-density seeding ...
Sandvik A K - - 2001
Previous studies have shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) stimulates enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell histamine release, but its role in the regulation of gastric acid secretion is disputed. This work examines the effect of PACAP-38 on aminopyrine uptake in enriched rat parietal cells and on histamine release and acid secretion ...
Wada A - - 2001
The lycaenid butterfly, Niphanda fusca, has a parasitic relationship with its host ant, Camponotus japonicus: the caterpillars may use chemical mimicry to enter the ant nest where they are fed mouth-to-mouth by the adult ants until pupation. Nevertheless, larvae offer their host ants a nutritious secretion that contains 160 mM ...
Brown M - - 2001
Acid-related disorders are common conditions that negatively impact quality of life for a significant number of people nationwide. The pathology of these conditions involves an imbalance between acid secretion by gastric parietal cells and the ability of upper GI tract mucosa to defend against the effects of the acid. Therefore, ...
Muhia D K - - 2001
Sex is an obligate step in the life cycle of the malaria parasite and occurs in the midgut of the mosquito vector. With both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei, the tryptophan metabolite xanthurenic acid induces the release of motile male gametes from red blood cells (exflagellation), a prerequisite for fertilization. ...
Lloyd K C - - 2001
We examined the role of CCK-A receptors in acid inhibition by intestinal nutrients. Gastric acid and plasma CCK and gastrin levels were measured in rats with gastric and duodenal fistulas during intragastric 8% peptone and duodenal perfusion with saline, complete liquid diet (CLD; 20% carbohydrate, 6% fat, and 5% protein), ...
Jennings M L - - 2001
This work was undertaken to obtain a direct measure of the stoichiometry of Na(+)-independent K(+)-Cl(-) cotransport (KCC), with rabbit red blood cells as a model system. To determine whether (86)Rb(+) can be used quantitatively as a tracer for KCC, (86)Rb(+) and K(+) effluxes were measured in parallel after activation of ...
Lin Y - - 2001
The effect of different conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers (trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12)-CLA and cis-9,trans-11 (c9,t11)-CLA), compared with oleic acid (OA) and linoleic acid (LA), on hepatic lipid synthesis and secretion were investigated in Hep G2 cells. The cells were incubated in a medium containing 1 mmol/l fatty acid-bovine serum albumin (BSA) ...
Escobar C A - - 2001
Interspecific chemical variation of precloacal pore secretions of Liolaemus lizards was characterized in 20 species, and intraspecific chemical variation was characterized using nine individuals of L. bellii. The latitude (Chile, 18 degrees to 33 degrees South latitude) and altitude (100 to 4350 m.a.s.l.) of the capture sites were recorded, as ...
Youmans S J - - 2001
An earlier report indicated that acid secretion in turtle urinary bladder is driven by an unusual vacuolar H+-ATPase and that the ATPase accounts for essentially all acid secreted. These results, however, are difficult to reconcile with the acid transporters currently ascribed to the renal collecting duct. Here, we re-examine the ...
Holm M - - 2001
It has previously been shown that mucosal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is involved in acid-induced duodenal mucosal alkaline secretion. The primary aim of the present study was to elucidate which isoform of NOS is responsible in rats. Immunohistochemistry showed that inducible NOS (iNOS) was constitutively expressed in villous epithelial cells. ...
Scholtmeijer K - - 2001
Class I and class II hydrophobins are small secreted fungal proteins that self-assemble at hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces into amphipathic films. Apart from eight conserved cysteine residues, the amino acid sequences between and within both classes have diverged considerably, and this is reflected in the biophysical properties of these proteins. For instance, ...
Hildebrand P - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The main goal of our study was to characterise the activity of BIM26226 as a peripheral gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) receptor antagonist in healthy human subjects and to determine if endogenous GRP is a physiological regulator of gastric acid secretion and gastrin release. METHODS: Our study consisted ...
Schultheiss G - - 2001
Ca2+-dependent secretagogues evoke only a transient Cl- secretion in intestinal epithelia, although they induce a prolonged increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, suggesting that they may exert an additional antisecretory action. In order to study the mechanism of this antisecretory effect, Cl- secretion, measured as the increase in short-circuit current ...
Ohtani N - - 2001
Our aim was to determine the mechanisms by which intraileal fat alters proximal gastrointestinal motility--the ileal brake. Five mongrel dogs with ileal Thiry-Vella fistulas were equipped with strain gauge force transducers on the upper gut to measure contractile activity. Ileal infusions of 115 mmol/L oleic acid and triglyceride were studied ...
Furse R K - - 2001
Administration of gammalinolenic acid (GLA), an unsaturated fatty acid, reduces joint inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Addition of GLA in vitro suppresses release of IL-1beta from human monocytes stimulated with LPS. LPS-induced IL-1beta release is followed by IL-1-induced IL-1beta release, an amplification process termed autoinduction. We show here with ...
Kaunitz J D - - 2001
HCO(3)(-) secretion, which is believed to neutralize acid within the mucus gel, is the most studied duodenal defense mechanism. In general, HCO(3)(-) secretion rate and mucosal injury susceptibility correlate closely. Recent studies suggest that luminal acid can lower intracellular pH (pH(i)) of duodenal epithelial cells and that HCO(3)(-) secretion is ...
Simon U E. - - 2001
The quantity and composition of the six major mandibular gland components of young queenless workers of the Cape honeybee (Apis mellifera capensis) were determined. The total amount of the six components increased with age. The relative quantities in the mandibular gland secretion of queenless caged workers were found to change ...
Darling D C - - 2001
The thyridid caterpillar, Calindoea trifascialis, when disturbed, emits a defensive secretion from two sac-like glands that open dorsolaterally on the first abdominal segment. The larva has two arm-like protuberances that project outward from the body just in front of the gland openings. These "arms", which are wetted by secretion when ...
Burger B V - - 2001
As a first step in a study of the role of the secretion of the supplementary sacculi (buccal secretion) of the dwarf hamster, Phodopus sungorus sungorus, almost complete chemical characterization of the secretion was achieved. The 35 compounds identified include carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, a large number of carboxylic acids ...
Padol I T - - 2001
As a bacterial product, Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can originate in close proximity to parietal cells, but the role of this uniquely structured endotoxin on acid secretion has not been fully investigated and remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the direct effect of purified LPS (tested ...
del Valle J C - - 2001
Ethanol (1-20% vol/vol) caused a dose-dependent reduction in the basal rate of acid formation in isolated rabbit gastric glands with a calculated EC(50) value of 4.5 +/- 0.2%. Ethanol also reduced ATP levels in isolated gastric glands and in cultured parietal cells (EC(50): 8.8 +/- 0.4% and 8.5 +/- 0.2%, ...
Burger B V - - 2001
In a study aimed at the chemical characterization of constituents of the ventral gland secretion of the male dwarf hamster, Phodopus sungorus sungorus, 48 compounds, including saturated alcohols, saturated and unsaturated ketones, saturated and unsaturated straight-chain carboxylic acids, iso- and anteisocarboxylic acids, 3-phenylpropanoic acid, hydroxyesters, 2-piperidone, and some steroids were ...
Akagi K - - 2001
When isolated rabbit gastric glands were permeabilized with digitonin, they lost their ability to secrete acid, as monitored by [14C]aminopyrine accumulation, and they never recovered by supplement with cytosol prepared from gastric mucosa. However, the permeabilized glands elicited acid secretion when brain cytosol was supplemented. Fractionation of gastric cytosol by ...
Hasebe K - - 2001
We previously reported on the stimulatory role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in gastric acid secretion. In the present study, we investigated the effects of NO donors on acid secretion in isolated mouse stomach. Nitroprusside (100 microM(-1) x mM) inhibited the gastric acid secretion induced by histamine (500 microM) in ...
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