Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 2407
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Aihara Takeshi - - 2003
Pharmacological agents, such as histamine H(2) receptor antagonists and acid pump inhibitors, are now the most frequently used treatment for such acid-related diseases as gastroduodenal ulcers and reflux esophagitis. Based on increased understanding of the precise mechanisms of gastric acid secretion at the level of receptors, enzymes, and cytoplasmic signal ...
Leighton Mat - - 2003
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-1 is a zinc-dependent metalloproteinase that cleaves a variety of extracellular matrix substrates, including type I procollagen. Little is known about the site of action of BMP-1, although the extracellular matrix seems likely to be it. BMP-1 is synthesized with an N-terminal prodomain. The removal of the ...
Kim Jae Hak - - 2003
Cysteine proteinases predominate in the midgut fluid (MF) and oral secretion (OS) of adult western corn rootworm (WCR) based on their mild acidic pH optima (pH 6.0), enhanced activities after treatment with thiol reducing agents, and inhibition by selective cysteine proteinase inhibitors (PIs). Four cysteine PIs including E-64, calpeptin, calpain ...
Escobar Claudio M - - 2003
The chemical composition of secretions of precloacal pores from two populations of the lizard Liolaemus fabiani (Puilar and Punta-Brava) were compared. This is an endemic species from the Atacama Salt Flat (26 degrees 46'S 68 degrees 14'W; 2400 m) in northern Chile, restricted to the internal lakes of the salt ...
Zurier Robert B - - 2003
Oral administration of ajulemic acid (AjA), a cannabinoid acid devoid of psychoactivity, reduces joint tissue damage in rats with adjuvant arthritis. Because interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) are central to the progression of inflammation and joint tissue injury in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, we investigated human monocyte IL-1beta ...
Mondal Muhtashan S - - 2003
Neuromedin U (NMU) is a hypothalamic peptide involved in energy homeostasis and stress responses. NMU, when administered intracerebroventricularly, decreases food intake and body weight while increasing body temperature and heat production. In addition, NMU, acting via the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system, induces gross locomotor activity and stress responses. We studied ...
Hunyady B - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The histidine decarboxylase enzyme (HDC) is responsible for the synthesis of histamine in mammals. Histidine decarboxylase-deficient (HDC-/-) mice have recently been developed by targeted mutation of the HDC gene. METHODS: The impact of prolonged histamine deficiency was studied on gastric morphology (by immunohistochemistry and morphometry), gastric acid secretion (by ...
Kendall M J - - 2003
Omeprazole is a racemate, from which the R- and S-isomers can be isolated. At the cellular level, both of these isomers convert to the same inhibitor of the H+,K+-ATPase and produce the same reduction in gastric acid secretion. However, the S-isomer, esomeprazole, is metabolized more slowly and reproducibly than the ...
Borrelli F - - 2003
Nimesulide, a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, has been reported to cause less gastric damage, compared to other NSAIDs. We investigated the effect of nimesulide on basal gastric acid secretion, a contributing factor in NSAID-induced gastric damage, and histamine, pentagastrin, 5-methylfurmethide, isobutyl methylxanthine or high K(+) stimulated acid secretion in the ...
Ishay Jacob S - - 2003
The silk weave spun by hornet larvae before undergoing pupal metamorphosis is composed of fibers and sheets, both containing symbiotic bacteria. The bacteria are secreted from the silk gland and are glued to the secreted silk, which is made up of amino-acid polymers. In the dark, it possesses at first ...
Hamel Robert - - 2003
13C NMR studies with aluminum (Al)-stressed Pseudomonas fluorescens revealed that the trivalent metal was secreted in association with oxalate and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). These moieties were observed in the insoluble pellet obtained upon incubation of these resting cells in the presence of either Al-citrate or citrate. This extrusion process was concomitant ...
Acar O - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome of gastrocystoplasty and the effects of selective antral vagotomy (SAV) on the postprandial gastrin secretion from the antrum as well as on the acid secretion from the augmented bladder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study on 12 male pigs, ...
Peixoto Francisco - - 2003
The herbicide dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) was evaluated for its effects on bioenergetic activities of potato tuber mitochondria to elucidate putative mechanisms of action and to compare its toxicity with 2-chlorobenzoic acid. Dicamba (4 micro mol/mg mitochondrial protein) induces a limited stimulation of state 4 respiration of ca. 10%, and the ...
Betz Oliver - - 2003
SEM studies show that the differentiation among Stenus species with respect to the formation of the tarsi (wide bilobed vs. slender tarsomeres) takes place with a considerable augmentation of tarsal ventral setae in wide bilobed tarsomeres. The structural diversity of ventral tarsal setae among and within species is discussed with ...
Katz Philip O - - 2003
Potential interventions for gastroesophageal reflux disease include lifestyle modifications, antacids, mucosal protectants, prokinetic (promotility) agents, H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and, the agents of choice in 2003, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). This article reviews the current state of the art in use of these agents. Lifestyle changes, though sound in their ...
Acar O - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of hydrochloric acid secretion in gastric pouch (GP), an orthotopic neobladder using a stomach segment, to gastrin. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Pentagastrin (PG) stimulation test (PGST) was applied in 10 patients who had had GP surgery 5-70 months ago, and ...
Hazel Matthew H - - 2003
Insect haemolymph typically contains very high levels of free amino acids. This study shows that amino acids can modulate the secretion of ions and water by isolated Malpighian tubules of Rhodnius prolixus and Drosophila melanogaster. Secretion rates of Rhodnius tubules in amino-acid-free saline increase after addition of serotonin to a ...
Natsch Andreas - - 2003
Human axillary odor is known to be formed upon the action of Corynebacteria sp. on odorless axilla secretions. The known axilla odor determinant 3-methyl-2-hexenoic acid was identified in hydrolyzed axilla secretions along with a chemically related compound, 3-hydroxy-3-methylhexanoic acid. The natural precursors of both these acids were purified from non-hydrolyzed ...
Vötsch W - - 2002
This study is the first attempt to characterise the chemical composition of the secretion of the smooth pads of the locust Locusta migratoria and to relate this to the composition of the cuticle coverage of the pads and the wings. Gas-chromatography and mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) were the principal techniques used for ...
Burger B V - - 2002
Using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (FID) and electroantennographic detection (EAD) in parallel, butanoic acid, skatole, and (E)-2,6-dimethyl-6-octen-2-ol were identified as constituents of the abdominal sex-attracting secretion of the male dung beetle, Kheper subaeneus, which reproducibly elicited EAD responses in male and female antennae. This is the first report ...
Sullivan Benjamin D - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether androgen receptors affect the fatty acid profiles of neutral and polar lipids in human meibomian gland secretions. METHODS: Meibomian gland secretion samples were obtained from both eyes of (1) women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, a condition characterized by dysfunctional androgen receptors, and (2) age-matched female ...
García-Zaragozá Eugenia - - 2003
This study examines the role of a central pathway involving glutamate receptors, nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP in the acute inhibitory effects of central interleukin 1beta on pentagastrin-stimulated acid production.The acid-inhibitory effect of central interleukin 1beta was prevented by intracisternal (i.c.) microinjections of interleukin 1beta together with the NMDA receptor ...
Joseph Ian M P - - 2003
We have developed a unique virtual human model of gastric acid secretion and its regulation in which food provides a driving force. Food stimulus triggers neural activity in central and enteric nervous systems and G cells to release gastrin, a critical stimulatory hormone. Gastrin stimulates enterochromaffin-like cells to release histamine, ...
Wheeler S - - 2002
Absorption of the 4, 10 and 34 amino acid forms of gastrin from the small intestine has been investigated in anaesthetized rats. The method of assessment of successful absorption of the hormone into the systemic circulation was when the amount of acid secreted by the stomach over consecutive 15-min periods ...
Yding Andersen C - - 2002
FSH exists as a family of isohormones exhibiting distinct oligosaccharide structures, and the released FSH isoform mixtures change during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. In addition, the pulsatile release of gonadotrophins seems to expose follicles to bursts of more less-acidic FSH isoforms and the follicle is likely to ...
Akiba Yasutada - - 2002
The gastrointestinal mucosa serves as the interface between the luminal contents, including nutrients and injurious substances, and submucosal structures. Secreted gastric acid is one of the principal injurious components of the luminal contents. To be protected against harm from this acid, the epithelium has an "early warning" system that can ...
Conigrave A D - - 2002
Cellular sensing of L-amino acids is widespread and controls diverse cellular responses regulating, for example, rates of hormone secretion, amino acid uptake, protein synthesis and protein degradation (autophagy). However, the nature of the sensing mechanisms involved has been elusive. One important sensing mechanism is selective for branched chain amino acids, ...
Coskun Tamer T Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, - - 2002
Gastric secretion of hydrochloric acid requires protons and chloride, yet the mechanisms and regulation of gastric chloride secretion remain unclear. We developed an in vivo technique to simultaneously measure acid/base and chloride secretion into the gastric lumen of anesthetized rats. The cannulated stomach lumen was perfused with weakly pH-buffered chloride-free ...
Komasaka Midori - - 2002
Somatostatin is known to inhibit gastric acid secretion via both inhibition of histamine release from gastric enterochromaffin-like cells and direct inhibition of parietal cell function. We tried to clarify which of these two mechanisms plays a more important role in the inhibition of gastric acid section by somatostatin using isolated ...
Lopez Ignacio - - 2002
Because both metabolic (Met Acid) and respiratory acidosis (Resp Acid) have diverse effects on mineral metabolism, it has been difficult to establish whether acidosis directly affects parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. Our goal was to determine whether acute Met Acid and Resp Acid directly affected PTH secretion. Three groups of dogs ...
Takeuchi Koji - - 2002
Duodenal HCO3- secretion increases in response to luminal acid, mediated by endogenous nitric oxide (NO) as well as prostaglandins (PGs). In this study, we examined the effects of various inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX) or NO synthase (NOS) on the acid-induced HCO3- secretion in rats and determined the enzyme isoforms responsible ...
Chang Full-Young - - 2002
The pharmacological potency of ranitidine to inhibit pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid outputs was studied in early diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of streptozotocin 4 days before the acid study. The gastric acid output was measured every 5 min by automatic titration of collected gastric perfusates. Basal acid was ...
Rafsanjani Fatemeh Nabavizadeh - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones are known to influence acid and pepsin secretion, though the exact mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, distension-stimulated acid and pepsin secretions in hypo- and hyperthyroid rats were compared with controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Each group consisted of 8 N-mari rats of both sexes, weighing ...
Martínez Vicente - - 2002
Mechanisms involved in the cephalic phase of gastric acid secretion were studied in awake fasted rats with chronic gastric fistula and exposed to the sight and smell of chow for 30 min. Acid secretion was monitored using constant intragastric perfusion and automatic titration. Sham feeding induced a peak acid response ...
Farine Jean-Pierre - - 2002
The volatile constituents of the supposed defensive secretions of the glandular pouches of the adults of both sexes of the cockroach Therea petiveriana have been shown to contain N-3-methylbutylacetamide (MBA) and N-3-methylbutylpropanamide (MBP), which represented 60% of the volatile fraction. The other 40% included acidic, aromatic, and aldehydic compounds. Behavioral ...
Ballabeni V - - 2002
BACKGROUND: To date, involvement of the histamine H3-receptor in the control of gastric acid secretion in rats is not conclusively defined because of the variability of experimental results. This study was therefore aimed at investigating the role of H3-receptors in acid secretion produced by nervous or pharmacological stimulation in anaesthetized ...
Piepoli A L - - 2002
We investigated the effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) to assess whether this acid may also have "protective" effects similar to those found with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). We used a well-known amphibian model of gastric mucosa, and studied the effects of taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) on electrical transepithelial parameters, acid secretion and ...
Cui G L - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Anaesthetic agents affect gastric acid secretion, but the mechanisms behind this action have not been fully evaluated. The enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell plays a key role in the regulation of gastric acid secretion, and anaesthetic agents have recently been described as inhibiting histamine release from the ECL cell. The present ...
Bastaki S M A - - 2002
This study investigates the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF), urogastrone (UG) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha) and its derivative on dimaprit- and pentagastrin-induced gastric acid secretion and on acidified ethanol (AE)-evoked ulcer formation in anaesthetized rats. EGF, TGFalpha and UG administered subcutaneously (s.c.) 30 min before dimaprit inhibited gastric ...
Zaki Muhammad - - 2002
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Amylin, a peptide that displays 50% homology with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), is colocalized with somatostatin in endocrine cells of the gastric fundus. The present study was designed to determine the mechanism of action of amylin on gastric exocrine and endocrine secretion. METHODS: Acid secretion was measured ...
Nishikawa Hiroyuki - - 2002
Activation of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), a receptor activated by trypsin/tryptase, induces neurally mediated gastric mucus secretion accompanied by mucosal cytoprotection. In the present study, we investigated whether PAR-2 could modulate gastric acid secretion in rats. Messenger RNAs for PAR-2 and PAR-1 were detected in the gastric mucosa and smooth muscle. ...
Han Seo-young - - 2002
A number of sulfur-containing amino acids and peptides are found in allium plants such as onion and garlic that have physiologic functions. In HepG2 cells, S-propyl cysteine decreased the secretion of apolipoprotein B100. The compound reduced the secretion of newly synthesized triacylglycerol and cholesterols from radiolabeled acetate. We associated the ...
Imbert C - - 2002
A 95 kDa metallopeptidase of Candida albicans could be involved in the process of dissemination of the yeast. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are also responsible for collagen breakdown in inflammatory and malignant processes. We tested six compounds on the C. albicans enzyme. Doxycycline, gentamicin, cefalothin, galardin, and elaidic and oleic acids ...
Gesta Stéphane - - 2002
The aim of the present work was to depict the metabolic pathways involved in extracellular production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) by adipocytes. LPA was followed by quantifying the accumulation of LPA in the incubation medium (conditioned medium, CM) of 3T3F442A adipocytes or human adipose tissue explants using a radioenzymatic assay. ...
Laux David C - - 2002
The pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is at least partially attributable to its ability to synthesize and secrete the siderophore pyoverdin and the two zinc metalloproteases elastase and LasA, and its ability to form biofilms in which bacterial cells are embedded in an alginate matrix. In the present study, a lysophospholipid, ...
Tsuchiya Shizuko - - 2002
Mitragynine, an indole alkaloid from Thai folk medicine Mitragyna speciosa, exerts agonistic effects on opioid receptors. Gastric acid secretion is proposed to be regulated by opioid receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). Previously, we reported the dual roles (inhibition via micro-opioid receptors and stimulation via kappa-opioid receptors) of the ...
Smedley Scott R - - 2002
Larvae of the European cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae (Pieridae), are beset with glandular hairs, bearing droplets of a clear oily secretion at their tip. The fluid consists primarily of a series of chemically labile, unsaturated lipids, the mayolenes, which are derived from 11-hydroxylinolenic acid. In bioassays with the ant Crematogaster ...
Samuelson Linda C - - 2003
The regulation of acid secretion in the stomach involves a complex network of factors that stimulate secretion in response to the ingestion of a meal and maintain homeostasis of gastric pH. Genetically engineered mouse models have provided a new opportunity to investigate the importance and function of specific molecules and ...
Gullo Lucio - - 2002
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The effect of intravenous administration of amino acids on exocrine pancreatic secretion is controversial. Since amino acids are used in parenteral nutrition of patients with acute pancreatitis or other pancreatic diseases, it seemed useful to establish whether or not they affect pancreatic secretion. METHODOLOGY: Four patients having an external ...
Metz David C - - 2002
Under normal physiological conditions, gastric acid production is controlled by a negative feedback mechanism. Proton pump inhibitors, such as pantoprazole, inhibit gastric acid secretion by irreversibly binding and inactivating luminally active hydrogen potassium ATPase. Recovery of acid production after treatment with a proton pump inhibitor is driven by new pump ...
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