Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 2407
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >
Joseph Ian M - - 2004
We present a comprehensive mathematical model describing Helicobacter pylori interaction with the human gastric acid secretion system. We use the model to explore host and bacterial conditions that allow persistent infection to develop and be maintained. Our results show that upon colonization, there is a transient period (day 1-20 post-infection) ...
Huang Zhi Hua - - 2004
There has been increasing interest in a potential role for fatty acids in adversely affecting organismal substrate utilization and contributing to the cardiovascular complications in insulin resistance. Fatty acids have already been implicated in regulating the expression of a number of genes in resident cells of the vessel wall. In ...
McHarg S - - 2004
AIMS: Previously, we demonstrated that gastrin peptides as long as 34 amino acids were absorbed from the ileum of rat after conjugation to the C24 position of cholic acid and that these peptides retained full biological activity. As absorption was specific to the ileum, it was inferred that the conjugated ...
Qvigstad Gunnar - - 2004
Drugs inhibiting gastric acid secretion are widely used because of the high prevalence of acid-related disorders. However, from clinical experience it seems that symptom relapse is common after withdrawal of these drugs. Experimental as well as clinical studies have demonstrated an increased acid secretion after a period of treatment with ...
Yaroslavskiy Beatrice B - - 2004
Nitric oxide (NO) can reduce bone loss in chronic bone diseases. NO inhibits or kills osteoclasts, but the mechanism of action of NO in human bone turnover is not clear. To address this, we studied effects of NO on attachment and motility of human osteoclasts on mineralized and tissue culture ...
Helmer Kenneth S - - 2004
To evaluate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Endotoxemia from LPS inhibits gastric acid secretion by an unknown mechanism. Bacterial overgrowth in the stomach caused by decreased acid secretion could be responsible for nosocomial pneumonia developing in critically ill intensive care unit patients. Because acid secretion is via the ...
Ferreira Patrícia Maria - - 2004
Lyophilized aqueous extract of Maytenus ilicifolia leaves (LAEMIL) is commonly used in Brazilian folk medicine in the treatment of dyspepsia as well as gastric ulcers. We have investigated the effect and the possible mechanism of action of the LAEMIL on acid secretion in isolated frog gastric mucosa incubated in an ...
Sachs George - - 2004
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) were initially believed to block acid secretion permanently. Evidence that acid secretion returned after administration of the compounds led to investigations of the mechanism of this phenomenon. Data showing that, after omeprazole administration, acid secretion returned in less time than the half-life of the pump suggested ...
Hirokawa Masahiko - - 2004
Luminal exposure to concentrated acid, the most accepted physiological stimulus for duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS), cannot be used with in vitro preparations due to potential tissue damage. We thus examined whether exposure to PGE(2), a well-characterized physiological duodenal secretagogue, could mimic the effects of acid perfusion. DBS was measured in ...
Suzuki Takahisa - - 2004
The anal secretions of 16 phlaeothripine thrips species (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) were studied, including a reinvestigation of three species previously reported. A total of 37 components were detected, including hydrocarbons, acetates, terpenes, carboxylic acids, a quinone, an aromatic compound, and a pyranone compound. The secretions of all species were composed of ...
Chen Duan - - 2004
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Three pathways control gastric acid secretion: the gastrin-enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell axis, the vagus-parietal cell axis, and the cholecystokinin (CCK)-D cell axis. Mice lacking gastrin or both gastrin and CCK were examined to determine the role of the hormones. METHODS: Acid was measured after pylorus ligation, and biopsies ...
Dhillon Kimvir S - - 2004
TSH-secreting tumors comprise less than 2% of all pituitary adenomas. All patients present with hyperthyroidism with a detectable TSH level, and a majority have macroadenomas. Oral cholecystographic agents (e.g. iopanoic acid) potently inhibit the activation of T(4) to the more potent T(3). They have been used successfully to treat primary ...
Scott-Ward T S - - 2004
Niflumic acid is widely used to inhibit Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels. However, the chemical structure of niflumic acid resembles that of diphenylamine-2-carboxylate, a drug that inhibits the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel. To investigate how niflumic acid inhibits CFTR Cl(-) channel, we studied recombinant wild-type human CFTR ...
Perret S - - 2004
Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 converts sugars and various polysaccharides into acids and solvents. This bacterium, however, is unable to utilize cellulosic substrates, since it is able to secrete very small amounts of cellulosomes. To promote the utilization of crystalline cellulose, the strategy we chose aims at producing heterologous minicellulosomes, containing ...
Xing Jin-Hong - - 2004
Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) was shown to improve symptoms in patients with gastroparesis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study assessed the influence of various patterns of GES on fasting and postprandial gastric acid secretion and 24-hr gastric pH. Eight healthy dogs were studied and we found that in ...
Chattopadhyay Ishita - - 2004
The mechanism of the antiulcer effect of Neem leaf aqueous extract to block gastric lesions in rat has been studied with emphasis on acid secretion, oxidative damage and apoptosis. The extract dose-dependently inhibits gastric lesions induced by restraint-cold stress, indomethacin and ethanol. In stress ulcer model, it is more effective ...
Phillipson Mia - - 2004
The gastric mucosa is frequently exposed to endogenously secreted hydrochloric acid of high acidity. Gastric mucosal defense mechanisms are arranged at different levels of the gastric mucosa and must work in unison to maintain its integrity. In this work, several mechanisms underlying gastric mucosal resistance to strong acid were investigated ...
Salvatella María - - 2004
In nonstimulated rabbit gastric glands, acetylsalicylic acid (10-500 microM) and indomethacin (3-300 microM) did not significantly modify the basal rate of acid secretion, whereas diclofenac and piroxicam (10-1,000 microM each) caused a marked and dose-dependent inhibitory effect (EC(50) = 138 and 280 microM, respectively). In gastric glands stimulated by histamine ...
Pushkin Alexander - - 2004
Many xenobiotics are detoxified through the mercapturate metabolic pathway. The final product of the pathway, mercapturic acids (N-acetylcysteine S-conjugates), are secreted predominantly by renal proximal tubules. Mercapturic acids may undergo a transformation mediated by aminoacylases and cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyases that leads to nephrotoxic reactive thiol formation. The deacetylation of cysteine ...
Kaunitz J D - - 2003
The proximal duodenal mucosa, exposed to frequent pulses of gastric acid, is functionally "leaky", increasing the importance of defense mechanisms such as the mucus gel layer, cellular acid/base transporters, bicarbonate secretion, and mucosal blood flow. Our laboratory has used a unique in vitro perfused microscopic system to measure thickness of ...
KwiecieĊ„ S - - 2003
For centuries it was recognized that the stomach produces a juice, which has acidic properties, however, it was not until 1824 when Prout demonstrated the presence of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice. At the same time experiments on a patient with gastric fistula began by W. Beaumont showing alterations of ...
Konturek S J - - 2003
Gastric acid and pepsin secretions result from the interplay of neurohormonal factors with stimulatory and inhibitory actions on oxyntic glands. At the turn of XIX century, the notion of nervism or entire neural control of digestive functions, developed by Pavlov prevailed. However, in the second part of XX century, hormonal ...
Holzer Peter - - 2003
Deviations from the physiological values of extracellular pH are monitored by multiple acid sensors. Acid-sensing ion channels are activated by moderate acidification, whereas transient receptor potential cation channels, notably TRPV1, are gated by severe acidosis. In contrast, ionotropic purinoceptor (P2X) ion channels, particularly P2X(2), and two-pore domain background K(+) channels, ...
Kim Chul Hong - - 2003
A grass rhizosphere bacterium, Enterobacter intermedium (60-2G), has a strong ability to solubilize insoluble phosphate. Certain phosphate-solubilizing bacteria secrete gluconic acid for this process. The gluconic acid is produced by direct extracellular oxidation of glucose by a glucose dehydrogenase equipped with pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) as a cofactor. A pqq gene ...
Appendino Giovanni - - 2003
Three new diterpenoids belonging to the clerodane (2-3) and halimane (4) structural types have been isolated from the bark of Croton eluteria Bennet, commonly known as cascarilla. Their structures have been fully characterized by spectroscopic means. Cascarilla extract and its major component, cascarillin, were found to significantly increase histamine-induced gastric ...
Bagnasco Patricia - - 2003
To establish peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) as a mediator of acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) function, preparations of recombinant human FGF-1 were treated with the pro-oxidant in vitro and identified amino acid modifications were correlated with biologic activity. The sequence of FGF-1 amino acid modifications induced by increasing concentrations of ONOO(-) was ...
Schubert Mitchell L - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastric acid facilitates the digestion of protein and the absorption of iron, calcium, and vitamin B12. It also protects against bacterial overgrowth and enteric infection, including prion disease. When homeostatic mechanisms malfunction, the volume and concentration of acid may overwhelm mucosal defense mechanisms, leading to duodenal ulcer, ...
Marino Simeone - - 2003
In this work we re-examine an existing model of gastric acid secretion. The model is a 2-compartment model of the human stomach accounting for regions where relevant cells (D, G, ECL and parietal cells) and proteins and acid they secrete (somatostatin, gastrin, histamine, and gastric acid, respectively) are found. These ...
Kazmi S - - 2003
How fatty acids stimulate enteroendocrine cells to release cholecystokinin (CCK) is largely unknown. Recently, we proposed that the murine enteroendocrine cell line, STC-1, responds to insoluble fatty acid aggregates rather than fatty acid monomers in solution. This hypothesis led to two testable predictions. First, other insoluble particles of similar size ...
Bastaki S M A - - 2003
This study investigated the effects of PD-136,450 (PD), a highly selective ligand for the CCK2 receptor, on gastric acid and pancreatic secretions, gastric cytoprotection and anxious behaviour in the rat and rabbit. PD inhibited gastrin (but not dimaprit) stimulated acid secretion in anaesthetized and conscious rats (IC50 of 1 mg ...
Kagawa Shigeru - - 2003
We compared the HCO3(-) secretory response to capsaicin and mucosal acidification in rat duodenums, especially the relation to vanilloid receptor type 1 (VR1). A proximal duodenal loop was perfused with saline, and the HCO3(-) secretion was measured at pH 7.0 using a pH-stat method and by adding 10 mM HCl. ...
Wolfe M Michael - - 2003
GERD is a condition affecting patients throughout the 24-hour period, although the nighttime interval may require special consideration because of the pharmacologic profile of the agents used to treat GERD, and the normal physiologic processes rendering nighttime GERD particularly damaging. GERD patients should be managed with appropriate therapy proportional to ...
Furutani Kazuharu - - 2003
Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) represents the sole enzyme that produces histamine in the body. The present work investigated the role of endogenous histamine in carbachol- and gastrin-induced gastric acid secretion with HDC-knockout (HDC-/-) mice. Acid secretion was measured in either mice subjected to acute fistula production under urethane anesthesia or conscious ...
Rao S P - - 2004
Luminal acidification provides the strongest physiological stimulus for duodenal HCO3- secretion. Various neurohumoral mechanisms are believed to play a role in acid-stimulated HCO3- secretion. Previous studies in the rat and human duodenum have shown that guanylin and Escherichia coli heat-stable toxin, both ligands of the transmembrane guanylyl cyclase receptor [guanylate ...
Bruck Heike - - 2003
In subjects heterozygous for Thr164Ile beta2-adrenoceptor (beta2AR) polymorphism, cardiac responses to beta2AR agonist stimulation are blunted. In this study, we investigated agonist-induced desensitization of Thr164Ile beta2ARs. For this purpose, we assessed in six subjects with heterozygous Thr164Ile beta2ARs and in 10 subjects with homozygous wild-type (WT) beta2ARs the effects of ...
Doherty T J - - 2003
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Endotoxaemia causes a disruption of gastrointestinal motility in the horse but there is no information on its effects on gastric secretion. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration is known to affect gastric secretion in other species. HYPOTHESIS: That LPS, a toxic component of Gram-negative bacteria, would reduce gastric acid ...
He Xingxuan - - 2003
Human acid ceramidase was overexpressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells by amplification of the transfected, full-length cDNA. The majority of the overexpressed enzyme was secreted into the culture media and purified to apparent homogeneity. The purified protein contained the same 13-(alpha) and 40 (beta)-kDa subunits as human acid ceramidase from ...
Yasui Tadashi - - 2003
The distribution and selectivities of glycoconjugates in the ceruminous glands of the North American raccoon (Procyon lotor) were studied by light and electron microscopic histochemical methods, particularly lectin histochemistry. In the modified apocrine glands present, the apocrine secretion mode was combined with exocytosis, whereby the secretory epithelium and the luminal ...
Yakabi Koji - - 2003
Until recently, the secretion of gastric acid, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer, was thought to be controlled by diet, the autonomic nerves and gut hormones. However, peptic ulcer is now known to be caused by the infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), so it ...
Hayes Julie E - - 2003
The secretion of organic acid anions from roots has been identified as a mechanism of resistance to Al. However, the process leading to the secretion of organic acid anions is poorly understood. The effect of Al on organic acid metabolism was investigated in two lines of triticale (xTriticosecale Wittmark) differing ...
Venkatachalam Mahesh - - 2003
Great Northern bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) phaseolin proteolysis at 37 degrees C, varying HCl concentrations (10 mM to 1 M), phaseolin:pepsin ratios ranging from 5:1 to 100:1 (w/w), and incubation times up to 24 h was investigated. The results suggest that phaseolin is not resistant to in vitro pepsin hydrolysis. ...
Cammisotto Philippe G - - 2003
Norepinephrine stimulates lipolysis and concurrently inhibits insulin-stimulated leptin secretion from white adipocytes. To assess whether there is a cause-effect relationship between these two metabolic events, the effects of fatty acids were investigated in isolated rat adipocytes incubated in buffer containing low (0.1%) and high (4%) albumin concentrations. Palmitic acid (1 ...
Zhao Zhuqing - - 2003
While barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) is the most sensitive species to Al toxicity among small-grain crops, variation in Al resistance between cultivars does exist. We examined the mechanism responsible for differential Al resistance in 21 barley varieties. Citrate was secreted from the roots in response to Al stress. A ...
Hubloue Ives - - 2003
To investigate the effects of endogenous endothelins on pulmonary haemodynamics and gas exchange in oleic acid lung injury. Prospective experimental study in dogs. Animal research laboratory in a university teaching hospital. SUBJECTS. Seventeen anaesthetised and ventilated mongrel dogs. Nine pretreated dogs received an infusion of the endothelin A and B ...
Cousson Alain - - 2003
The abscisic acid (ABA) stomatal closing signal might be transduced through different pathways, depending on the plant growth temperature (GT) and the applied ABA concentration. This was investigated in epidermal peels of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Columbia. Different Ca2+ buffers and guanosine-triphosphate-binding protein (G protein) modulators were tested on stomatal closing ...
Mori Naoki - - 2003
Volicitin-related compounds were found in the oral secretion of the three noctuid species, Helicoverpa armigera, Mythimna separata and Spodoptera litura, and one sphingid species, Agrius convolvuli. Volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-glutamine], N-(17-hydroxylinoleoyl)-glutamine, N-linolenoylglutamine and N-linoleoylglutamine were identified in the secretion from the noctuid larvae. In secretions from the sphingid larvae, N-linolenoylglutamine and N-linoleoylglutamine ...
Ohning G V - - 2003
Peptone meal-stimulated gastric acid output is considered to be a reliable means to evaluate drug-mediated inhibition of stimulated gastric acid output, an important measure of the efficacy of the agents--such as proton pump inhibitors--used to treat acid-related disorders. To compare the initial and overall inhibitory effects on peptone meal-stimulated gastric ...
Walker Travis S - - 2003
In addition to accumulating biologically active chemicals, plant roots continuously produce and secrete compounds into their immediate rhizosphere. However, the mechanisms that drive and regulate root secretion of secondary metabolites are not fully understood. To enlighten two neglected areas of root biology, root secretion and secondary metabolism, an in vitro ...
Piqueras Laura - - 2003
Studies in isolated mouse stomach showed that bombesin releases somatostatin. We characterized the effects of exogenous bombesin on gastric acid secretion in mice and determined the involvement of somatostatin and somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) by using somatostatin immunoneutralization, the SSTR2 antagonist, PRL-2903, and SSTR2 knockout mice. Gastric acid secretion ...
de Alencar Cunha K M - - 2003
The effect of kaurenoic acid, a diterpene isolated from the oleo-resin of the popular medicinal plant Copaifera langsdorffii (Leguminaceae), was analysed on rat uterine muscle responsiveness to various drugs in vitro. Cumulative concentration-response curves to acetylcholine and oxytocin were obtained before and after incubation of uterine segments with up to ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >