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Malik Ajamaluddin - - 2005
A fluorometric assay for pepsin and pepsinogen was developed using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as a substrate. Acid denaturation of EGFP resulted in a complete loss of fluorescence that was completely reversible on neutralization. In the proteolytic assay procedure, acid-denatured EGFP was digested by pepsin or activated pepsinogen. After ...
Mikes Libor - - 2005
Induction of penetration gland emptying by cercariae of the bird schistosomes Trichobilharzia szidati and T. regenti employing linoleic acid, linolenic acid, praziquantel and calcium ionophore A23187 showed that both postacetabular and circumacetabular cells released their content at chosen stimulant concentrations. The gland secretions consisted of soluble and insoluble parts. The ...
Zheng Shao Jian - - 2005
Oxalic acid secretion from roots is considered to be an important mechanism for aluminum (Al) resistance in buckwheat (Fygopyrum esculentum Moench). Nonetheless, only a single Al-resistant buckwheat cultivar was used to investigate the significance of oxalic acid in detoxifying Al. In this study, we investigated two buckwheat cultivars, Jiangxi (Al ...
Tamura Atsushi - - 2005
Loss of gastric acid secretion is pathologically known as achlorhydria. Acid-secreting parietal cells are characterized by abundant expression of ezrin (Vil2), one of ezrin/radixin/moesin proteins, which generally cross-link actin filaments with plasma membrane proteins. Here, we show the direct in vivo involvement of ezrin in gastric acid secretion. Ezrin knockout ...
Natsch A - - 2005
Axillary odor is known since 50 years to be formed upon the action of Corynebacteria on odorless axilla secretions, but the nature of the bacterial enzymes involved in this process remained a mystery. We identified the known axilla odor determinant 3-methyl-2-hexenoic acid in hydrolyzed axilla secretions along with a new, ...
Montalti Diego - - 2005
The uropygial gland is a holocrine secretory gland of birds. The lipid and the waxy sebum that the gland secretes is coated on the beak and transferred to the plumage in preening. The composition of the gland secretions from birds of different species has been determined, but little is known ...
Picking Wendy L - - 2005
Shigella flexneri causes human dysentery after invading the cells of the colonic epithelium. The best-studied effectors of Shigella entry into colonocytes are the invasion plasmid antigens IpaC and IpaB. These proteins are exported via a type III secretion system (TTSS) to form a pore in the host membrane that may ...
Zavros Yana - - 2005
The conventional view of gastric acid secretion is that a negative feedback mechanism arises in response to high acidity, such that somatostatin keeps G-cells and parietal cells from producing more gastrin and acid, respectively. When the stomach becomes infected, for example with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), the feedback mechanism is ...
Fykse Vidar - - 2005
Somatostatin is a potent inhibitor of gastric acid secretion. Its effects are mediated through five specific receptor subtypes (sst(1-5)), of which sst(2) is dominant on the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell and the parietal cell. To study the paracrine mechanisms of somatostatin, the sst(2)-specific antagonist PRL-2903 was used. Effects of PRL-2903 on ...
Yamada Hiroto - - 2005
We have previously demonstrated that intracisternal orexin-A potently stimulated gastric acid secretion through the vagus nerve. Considering its stimulatory action on feeding, we hypothesized that orexin-A is a candidate mediator of cephalic phase gastric secretion. It has also been suggested that the stimulation of acid by central orexin-A may be ...
Fossmark R - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Rebound acid hypersecretion develops after the use of acid inhibitors. AIM: To estimate the duration of hypersecretion and to elucidate the role of the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell in rebound acid hypersecretion. METHODS: Patients waiting for anti-reflux surgery who had used a proton pump inhibitor daily > 1 year were ...
Young Andrew - - 2005
Rat amylin subcutaneously injected into rats dose-dependently inhibits pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and protects the stomach from ethanol-induced gastritis. The ED50s for these actions (0.050 and 0.036 microg, respectively) are the lowest for any dose-dependent effect of amylin thus far described, and their similar potencies are consistent with a mechanistic ...
Modlin I M - - 2005
In 1905, John Edkins (1863-1940) undertook the studies of gastrin that have subsequently formed the basis for a century of investigation into the physiological basis of acid secretion and led to the elucidation of a variety of acid-suppressive pharmacological agents that have revolutionized the management of acid peptic disease. Although ...
Allen Adrian - - 2005
Secretion of bicarbonate into the adherent layer of mucus gel creates a pH gradient with a near-neutral pH at the epithelial surfaces in stomach and duodenum, providing the first line of mucosal protection against luminal acid. The continuous adherent mucus layer is also a barrier to luminal pepsin, thereby protecting ...
Mizoguchi Atsuko - - 2005
The female sex pheromone of Rhizoglyphus setosus Manson (Astigmata: Acaridae) was identified as S-isorobinal (4S-4-isopropenyl-3-oxo-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxyaldehyde), which stimulated males sexually and enhanced the frequency of the male's tapping and mounting behavior. Although the female hexane extract indicated no sign of sex pheromone activity against tested males, possibly due to the presence ...
Chen Duan - - 2005
Gastric acid secretion is regulated by endocrine, paracrine and neurocrine signals via at least three pathways, the gastrin-histamine pathway, the CCK-somatostatin pathway and the neural pathway. Genetically-engineered mice, subjected to targeted gene disruption (i.e., knockout mice), have been used to dissect the signaling pathways that are responsible for the complexity ...
Robertson D S - - 2005
Acid hydrolysis of components from the diet in the stomach require the presence of an acid and a hydrolysing agent. The acid involved is hydrochloric acid. The present mechanism of hydrochloric acid production in the stomach is demonstrated to be incompatible with measured intracellular or intercellular concentrations of the relevant ...
Tattersall Amanda L - - 2005
The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) promotes the degradation of articular cartilage by inhibiting matrix synthesis and stimulating degradative enzyme activity. Generation of nitric oxide (NO) in response to IL-1 is implicated in these actions. The catabolic actions of IL-1 can be inhibited by manoeuvres which are predicted to dissipate H+ ...
Liquori Giuseppa Esterina - - 2005
The gastric glands of Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Caudata) have been examined by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods with particular regard to hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen secretion. Fundic glands consist of mucous neck cells, endocrine cells and oxynticopeptic cells producing both pepsinogen and hydrochloric acid. The neck cells showed an unexpected distribution ...
Calvet Xavier - - 2005
The clinical response to antisecretory treatment correlates directly with the degree of inhibition of acid secretion achieved. Acid inhibition able to maintain the intragastric pH at a value greater than 4 for at least 16 h/day seems to heal even the most refractory acid-related diseases. It has also been shown ...
Fenteany Fiona H - - 2005
A single amino acid difference in the catalytic domain of two isoforms of the alpha2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal I) leads to differences in their trafficking, processing, and oligomerization. The STtyr isoform is transiently localized in the Golgi and is ultimately cleaved and secreted, whereas the STcys isoform is stably localized in the ...
Liaw Shwu-Jen - - 2004
After sensing external signals, Proteus mirabilis undergoes a multicellular behavior called swarming which is coordinately regulated with the expression of virulence factors. Here we report that exogenously added fatty acids could act as signals to regulate swarming in P. mirabilis. Specifically, while oleic acid enhanced swarming, some saturated fatty acids, ...
Lee Choong Jae - - 2004
In this study, we investigated whether ursolic acid, betulin and 2 kinds of sulfur-containing compounds--NAC and MESNA--affect mucin release from airway goblet cells and compared the possible activities of these agents with the inhibitory action on mucin release by PLL and the stimulatory action by ATP. Confluent primary hamster tracheal ...
Gluck Stephen L - - 2004
The kidney adjusts net acid excretion to match production with exquisite precision, despite little or no change in the plasma bicarbonate concentration. The acid-sensing pathway that signals the kidney to increase acid secretion involves activation of the proto-oncogene c-Src. A new study in this issue shows that proline-rich tyrosine kinase ...
Paddon-Jones Douglas D Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77550, USA. - - 2005
We sought to determine whether ingestion of a between-meal supplement containing 30 g of carbohydrate and 15 g of essential amino acids (CAA) altered the metabolic response to a nutritionally mixed meal in healthy, recreationally active male volunteers. A control group (CON; n = 6, 38 +/- 8 yr, 86 ...
Haas Wilfried - - 2005
The infective third-stage larvae of the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale infect their human hosts by active skin invasion, but A. duodenale is in addition capable of oral infection. The behaviour of the larvae when crawling on surfaces has already been described. Here we analyse in various in vitro ...
Takahashi Yuji K - - 2004
Two major causes of spoiled food smells such as fatty, fishy off-flavors are alkylamines liberated by bacterial actions and aliphatic acids-aldehydes generated by lipid oxidation. Using the method of intrinsic signal imaging, we mapped alkylamine-responsive glomeruli to a subregion of the aliphatic acid-responsive and aldehyde-responsive cluster in the odor maps ...
Dockray Graham - - 2005
It is exactly a century since the gastric hormone gastrin was first described as a blood-borne regulator of gastric acid secretion. The identities of the main active forms of the hormone (the "classical gastrins") and their cellular and molecular sites of action in regulating acid secretion have all attracted sustained ...
Nichols Frank C - - 2004
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a recognized periodontal pathogen, synthesizes free ceramides as well as other phosphorylated ceramide lipids. The purpose of this study was to separate complex lipids of P. gingivalis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determine the structures and biological activities of the major ceramide classes. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, ...
Moore Patrick C PC Pacific Northwest Research Institute, 720 Broadway, Seattle, WA 98122, - - 2004
Prolonged exposure to elevated levels of fatty acids adversely affects pancreatic beta-cell function. Here we investigated 1) whether ceramide synthesis, which we reported to mediate fatty acid inhibition of insulin gene expression, also inhibits insulin secretion and 2) whether fatty acid inhibition of insulin secretion involves the generation of reactive ...
Watanabe Seiji - - 2005
Cyclosporin A (CsA), a widely used immunosuppressant, causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). It exerts its immunosuppressive effect by a calcineurin-inhibitory complex with its cytosolic receptor, cyclophilin A. However, CsA also inhibits the peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity of cyclophilin A. We studied HCO(3)(-) transport and changes in beta-intercalated ...
Bertsch Andreas - - 2004
The labial gland secretions from males of the bumblebee Bombus (Separatobombus) griseocollis De Geer, a bumblebee exhibiting perching behaviour, were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in the electron impact and positive ion chemical ionization mode. The major compound of the complex mixture of alkenols, acetates, hydrocarbons, wax type esters ...
Paterson Adrienne C - - 2004
Amidated and nonamidated progastrin-derived peptides have distinct biological activities that are mediated by a range of receptor subtypes. The objective was to determine the nature of the stored and secreted progastrin-derived peptides and to investigate whether progastrin release is regulated by gastric acidity. Using an antiserum directed to the C ...
Berg Anna - - 2004
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has previously been detected in the glandular part of the human gastric mucosa. Furthermore, nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to influence gastric secretion in various animal models. The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of exogenously and endogenously derived NO on histamine- ...
Burger B V - - 2004
Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in conjunction with auxiliary techniques such as solid phase microextraction and determination of double bond positions by means of dimethyl disulfide derivatization, 45 constituents of the uropygial secretion of the green woodhoopoe, Phoeniculus purpureus, have been identified. The majority of these constituents are long-chain branched and ...
Piqueras Laura - - 2004
The role of somatostatin in galanin-induced inhibition of gastric acid secretion in urethane-anesthetized mice was investigated by using immunoneutralization of endogenous somatostatin and somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) knockout mice. Intravenous galanin (10 and 20 microg/kg/h) inhibited pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion by 47 and 33%, respectively. Somatostatin antibody injected i.v. ...
Rockwell Cheryl E - - 2004
Arachidonyl ethanolamine, which is commonly known as anandamide, was the first endogenous compound to be identified that binds to the cannabinoid receptors. Anandamide mimics many of the physiological effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), including hypothermia, antinociception, immobility, catalepsy, and immune modulation. In the present studies, we show that anandamide caused a ...
Conde Raúl - - 2004
N-oligosaccharides of Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycoproteins are classified as core and mannan types. The former contain 13-14 mannoses whereas mannan-type structures consist of an inner core extended with an outer chain of up to 200-300 mannoses, a process known as hyperglycosylation. The selection of substrates for hyperglycosylation poses a theoretical and ...
Hashimoto Fumie - - 2004
We studied effects of PPARalpha agonists clofibric acid and gemfibrozil on cell growth and functions of immortalized human extravillous trophoblast cells. Levels of DNA and protein gradually increased during incubation for 4 days. Gemfibrozil (>0.25mM) and clofibric acid (2.5mM) suppressed the rate of increase in DNA and protein. Specific activities ...
Timchalk Charles - - 2004
Phenoxyacetic acids including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) are widely utilized organic acid herbicides that have undergone extensive toxicity and pharmacokinetic analyses. The dog is particularly susceptible to the toxicity of phenoxyacetic acids and related organic acids relative to other species. Active renal clearance mechanisms for organic acids ...
Conigrave Arthur D - - 2004
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is acutely regulated by the extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaR). Thus, Ca(2+) ions, and to a lesser extent Mg(2+) ions, have been viewed as the principal physiological regulators of PTH secretion. Herein we show that in physiological concentrations, l-amino acids acutely and reversibly activated the extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing ...
Haupt Joachim - - 2004
Secretion products from the opisthosomal defense gland of south east Asian whip scorpions were identified for the first time by gas-chromatography and mass-spectrometry. Specimens of the genera Hypoctonus, Typopeltis and Ginosigma were tested. While some ingredients are present in large concentrations, others are possibly only side products and may be ...
Nguyen Nhung V - - 2004
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastric parietal cells secrete acid into the lumen of the stomach. They express a proton pump, the gastric H(+)/K(+) ATPase, the activity of which is tightly regulated. The H(+)/K(+) ATPase traffics between an intracytoplasmic compartment (tubulovesicles) in quiescent parietal cells and the apical plasma membrane in activated ...
Cahlíková Lucie - - 2004
Secretions of three different glands (mandibular gland, labial gland, and Dufour's gland) of virgin queens of five bumblebee species (Bombus lucorum, B. lapidarius, B. hypnorum, B. pascuorum, and B. terrestris) were analysed. Around 200 compounds were identified in the secretions. The compositions of the secretions of labial and mandibular glands ...
Lim Hye Jung - - 2004
Human transferrin (hTf) is a serum glycoprotein involved in Fe3+ transport. Here, a plasmid encoding the hTf gene fused with a hexahistidine (His6) epitope tag under Drosophila metallothionein promoter (pMT) was stably transfected into Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells as a nonlytic plasmid-based system. Following 3 days of copper sulfate induction, ...
Grossmann Klaus - - 2004
The effects of indole-3-acetic acid and auxin herbicides on endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) concentrations were studied in relation to changes in ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) levels in cleavers (Galium aparine). When plants were root-treated with increasing concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ethylene biosynthesis was stimulated in response to the ...
Shin Jai Moo - - 2004
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), drugs that are widely used for treatment of acid related diseases, are either substituted pyridylmethylsulfinyl benzimidazole or imidazopyridine derivatives. They are all prodrugs that inhibit the acid-secreting gastric (H(+), K(+))-ATPase by acid activation to reactive thiophiles that form disulfide bonds with one or more cysteines accessible ...
Piqueras Laura - - 2004
1 We characterized the effects of intravenous GABA and preferential GABAA (muscimol), GABAB (R-baclofen and SKF-97541) and GABAC agonists (imidazole-4-acetic acid) on gastric acid secretion in urethane-anesthetized mice implanted with a gastric cannula, and determined the role of vagal cholinergic mechanisms, and gastrin and somatostatin by using peptide immunoneutralization, the ...
Pilot Guillaume - - 2004
Secretion is a fundamental process providing plants with the means for disposal of solutes, improvement of nutrient acquisition, and attraction of other organisms. Specific secretory organs, such as nectaries, hydathodes, and trichomes, use a combination of secretory and retrieval mechanisms, which are poorly understood at present. To study the mechanisms ...
Feltrin Kate L - - 2004
The gastrointestinal effects of intraluminal fats may be critically dependent on the chain length of fatty acids released during lipolysis. We postulated that intraduodenal administration of lauric acid (12 carbon atoms; C12) would suppress appetite, modulate antropyloroduodenal pressure waves (PWs), and stimulate the release of cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 ...
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