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Zeneli Gazmend - - 2006
When conifers such as Picea abies Karst. (Norway spruce) are attacked by insects or pathogens, they often respond by producing increased quantities of terpenoid oleoresin. This response can be mimicked in young P. abies seedlings by treatment with methyl jasmonate (MJ). In this study, we determined the effects of MJ ...
Nolan C J - - 2006
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to determine the role of fatty acid signalling in islet beta cell compensation for insulin resistance in the Zucker fatty fa/fa (ZF) rat, a genetic model of severe obesity, hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance that does not develop diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NEFA augmentation ...
Kirchhoff P - - 2006
The gastric H+,K+-ATPase of the parietal cell is responsible for acid secretion in the stomach and is the main target in the pharmacological treatment of acid-related diseases. Omeprazole and other benzimidazole drugs, although having delayed efficacy if taken orally, have high success rates in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. ...
Williams C R - - 2006
The search for novel insect repellents has been driven by health concerns over established synthetic compounds such as diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Given the diversity of compounds known from frog skin and records of mosquito bite and ectoparasite infestation, the presence of mosquito repellents in frogs seemed plausible. We investigated frog skin ...
Zhang Xue-Ying XY College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, Shandong Province, China. - - 2006
To determine the effects of electrical stimulation of nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nuclei of vagus (DMV) on gastric acid and bicarbonate secretion in rats. NA and DMV in rats were electrically stimulated. Pylorus ligation or esophagus perfusion was used to collect the gastric secretion. The titratable H(+) quantum, ...
Aihara Eitaro - - 2006
We investigated the regulatory mechanism of acid-induced HCO(3)(-) secretion in the slightly permeable rat stomach after an exposure to hyperosmolar NaCl. Under urethane anesthesia, a rat stomach was mounted on a chamber and perfused with saline, and the secretion of HCO(3)(-) was measured at pH 7.0 using a pH-stat method ...
Carta Sonia - - 2006
A number of agents reducing interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) activity are being developed as novel immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory therapies. However, the elucidation of their molecular mechanism of action is required in the context of medical management of inflammatory diseases. Inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs) are promising anticancer agents with pleiotropic activities. Of ...
Gao Feng F Department of Endocrinology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province, China. - - 2006
To investigate the effect of long-lasting somatostatin analogue octreotide (Oct) injected into the third cerebral ventricle (TCV) on gastric acid secretion in rats. TCVs were cannulated in male Wistar rats anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital. One week later acute gastric lumen perfusion was carried out and gastric acid was continuously washed ...
Coetzee Magdalena - - 2007
Bone is continuously remodeled through resorption by osteoclasts and the subsequent synthesis of the bone matrix by osteoblasts. Cell-to-cell contact between osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors is required for osteoclast formation. RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand) expressed on osteoblastic cell membranes stimulates osteoclastogenesis, while osteoprotegerin (OPG) secreted by osteoblasts ...
Severyanova L A - - 2006
Intraperitoneal injection of L-arginine to male Wistar rats 12 min before the start of the experiment produced a nociceptive effect on models of electrocutaneous stimulation of the tail or hot-plate test and increased nociceptive behavior due to high sensitivity of supraspinal nociceptive structures to this compound. The nociceptive effect of ...
Ballantyne Garth H - - 2006
Peptide YY (PYY) is a 36 amino acid, straight chain polypeptide, which is co-localized with GLP-1 in the L-type endocrine cells of the GI mucosa. PYY shares structural homology with neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and together form the Neuropeptide Y Family of Peptides, which is also called ...
Patterson Steven - - 2006
Homocysteine and related amino thiols, homocysteic acid, cysteic acid, homocysteine sulphinic acid and cysteine sulphinic acid have been labelled as neurotoxins. Homocysteine thiolactone, a metabolic derivative of homocysteine, is cytotoxic to endothelial cells and other cell lineages. Since pancreatic beta cells share many phenotypic similarities with neuronal cells, the present ...
Ma Bin-Guang - - 2006
CvP-bias (difference between proportions of charged and polar non-charged amino acids) has been recognized as an efficient criterion to distinguish hyperthermophiles from mesothermophiles. By analyzing the CvP-biases of seven barophiles's proteomes, we reveal that this criterion still works for barophiles. As a result, CvP-bias criterion is applicable to disclosing some ...
Feltrin Kate L - - 2006
We have evaluated the effects of fatty acid chain length on ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) secretion and hypothesized that intraduodenal administration of dodecanoic ("C12"), but not decanoic ("C10"), acid would decrease plasma ghrelin and increase PYY, GLP-2 and PP concentrations. Plasma hormone concentrations ...
Brockmann Axel - - 2006
The major component of the mandibular gland secretion of queen honeybees (Apis mellifera L.), 9-ODA ((2E)-9-oxodecenoic acid), has been known for more than 40 yr to function as a long-range sex pheromone, attracting drones at congregation areas and drone flyways. Tests of other mandibular gland components failed to demonstrate attraction. ...
Walz Anke - - 2006
The secretions of the salivary parotid and submandibular-sublingual (SMSL) glands constitute the main part of whole human saliva (WS) in which proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and mucins represent dominant groups. Although proteome analysis had been performed on WS, no identification of PRPs or mucins by 2-DE and MS was achieved in ...
Ancha Hanumantha R - - 2006
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) have been shown to inhibit gastric acid secretion through stimulation of the EGF receptor (EGFR). In this study we examined in vivo the effects of inhibition of the EGFR on histamine-stimulated acid secretion in the rat. Submaximal (1.5 mg/kg/hr) histamine-stimulated ...
Yang Jian Li - - 2006
Aluminium (Al)-induced secretion of organic acids from plant roots is considered a mechanism of Al resistance, but the processes leading to the secretion of organic acids are still unknown. In the present study, a protein-synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHM), was used to investigate its effect on Al-induced organic acid secretion in ...
Kawamata Koichi - - 2006
The gastrointestinal HCO(3)(-) secretion functions to limit the mucosal acid damage due to HCl secreted in the stomach or organic acids produced in the large intestine. We studied HCO(3)(-) secretion in the mouse large intestine with isolated tissues mounted in chambers by using pH stat method. Addition of Cl(-) to ...
Rogers Ian Munro IM - - 2006
Pyloric stenosis (PS) has no known cause. A testable theory of cause is proposed, based on the inheritance of a parietal cell mass (PCM) at the upper end of the normal range. It is proposed that, until 3-4 wk of age, the obligatory high fasting gastrins are at maximal levels ...
Johnson Paul M - - 2006
Sea hares protect themselves from predatory attacks with several modes of chemical defenses. One of these is inking, which is an active release of a protective fluid upon predatory attack. In many sea hares including Aplysia californica and A. dactylomela, this fluid is a mixture of two secretions from two ...
Salam Omar M E Abdel - - 2006
The majority of patients receiving heparin preparations are at stress, which is a risk factor for the development of gastric erosions. Our aim was to examine the effect of unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) on gastric acid secretion. Gastric acid secretion was induced in urethane-anesthetized rats ...
Raspotnig Günther - - 2006
The multicomponent oil gland secretion of Collohmannia gigantea, a middle-derivative mixonomatan oribatid mite, is demonstrated to possess alarm pheromonal and allomonal properties. Four components of the secretion, namely the monoterpenes neryl formate, neral, geranial and the aromatic 2-hydroxy- 6-methyl-benzaldehyde (2,6-HMBD), showed moderate to strong alarm pheromonal activity in adult mites. ...
Geibel J P - - 2006
Gastric acid secretion is a complex process that requires hormonal, neuronal, or calcium-sensing receptor activation for insertion of pumps into the apical surface of the parietal cell. Activation of any or all these pathways causes the parietal cell to secrete concentrated acid with a pH at or close to 1. ...
Meier Juris J - - 2006
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gut-derived peptide glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) has been suggested as a potential drug candidate for the treatment of various intestinal diseases. However, the acute effects of GLP-2 on gastric functions as well as on glucose and lipid homeostasis in humans are less well characterized. METHODS: Fifteen ...
Natsch Andreas - - 2006
Human body odor is to a large part determined by secretions of glands in the axillary regions. Two key odoriferous principles, 3-methylhex-2-enoic acid (3MH2; 4/5) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylhexanoic acid (HMHA; 6) have been shown to be released from glutamine conjugates secreted in the axilla by a specific N(alpha)-acyl-glutamine aminoacylase (N-AGA) obtained ...
Fischer Horst H Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA 94609, USA. - - 2006
One of the main functions of the airway epithelium is to inactivate and remove infectious particles from inhaled air and thereby prevent infection of the distal lung. This function is achieved by mucociliary and cough clearance and by antimicrobial factors present in the airway surface liquid (ASL). There are indications ...
López Pilar - - 2005
Pheromonal communication seems to be especially important in amphisbaenians, a group of reptiles morphologically and functionally adapted to fossorial life. Both male and female amphisbaenians (Blanus cinereus) produce copious amounts of a secretion from the precloacal glands. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that these secretions contain 29 major lipophilic ...
Yakabi Koji - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated relationships between cytokines and gastric acid secretion. The present study was performed in rats to elucidate the effects of interleukin-8 (IL-8) on gastric acid secretion through an increase in histamine release from the stomach. METHODS: The experiments were performed in gastric lumen-perfused rats for the ...
Adami Maristella - - 2006
The discovery of a second isoform of cyclooxygenase has led to a re-evaluation of the mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, focusing in particular on the gastrointestinal system. We investigated the involvement of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in the regulation of gastric acid secretion and cardiovascular functions in ...
Salehi A - - 2005
Free fatty acids (FFA) have generally been proposed to regulate pancreatic insulin release by an intracellular mechanism involving inhibition of CPT-1. The recently de-orphanized G-protein coupled receptor, FFA(1)R/GPR40, has been shown to be essential for fatty-acid-stimulated insulin release in MIN6 mouse insulinoma cells. The CPT-1 inhibitor, 2-bromo palmitate (2BrP), was ...
Whited K L - - 2005
Long chain triglyceride (>C12) in the intestinal lumen potently inhibits gastric emptying and acid secretion via the vagal afferent pathway. While the mechanism of inhibition involves the formation of chylomicrons, the essential role of the apolipoprotein apo A-IV is unclear. Using apo A-IV(-/-) mice, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition ...
Czupalla Cornelia - - 2006
Osteoclasts, the bone-digesting cells, are polarized cells that secrete acid hydrolases into a resorption lacuna where bone degradation takes place. The molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. To analyze the nature of acid hydrolases secreted by osteoclasts, we used the mouse myeloid Raw 264.7 cell line that differentiates ...
Goetze Jens Peter - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: In addition to the acid-stimulatory gastrins, progastrin also release N-terminal fragments. In order to examine the cellular content, secretion and peripheral metabolism of these fragments, we developed an immunoassay specific for the N-terminal sequence of human progastrin. RESULTS: The concentration of N-terminal progastrin fragments in human antral tissue was ...
Pastor Alexandrine - - 2005
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, translocates exoenzymes (Exo) directly into the eukaryotic cell cytoplasm. This is accomplished by a type III secretion/translocation machinery. Here, we show that the P. aeruginosa type III secretory needle structure is composed essentially of PscF, a protein required for secretion and P. aeruginosa cytotoxicity. ...
Iijima Katsunori - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have indicated that serum pepsinogen I levels, as well as the pepsinogen I/II ratio, were positively correlated with maximal gastric output, the relationship may be different between Helicobacter pylori-negative and -positive subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between serum pepsinogen concentrations ...
Itoh Yasuaki - - 2005
GPR40 was originally isolated from human genomic DNA by degenerate PCR. We isolated GPR40 cDNAs from various species, and precisely analyzed its mRNA expression in rat tissues, and found that GPR40 was highly expressed in beta cells in the islets of rat pancreas. When compared to the cell-surface receptors (i.e., ...
Borrelli Francesca - - 2005
Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), one of the major components of propolis (honeybee resin), has demonstrated a wide spectrum of activities including suppression of eicosanoids by inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CAPE on basal and secretagogues-stimulated gastric ...
Adhikari Rajan P - - 2005
Cerulenin is an antibiotic that inhibits fatty acid synthesis by covalent modification of the active thiol of the chain-elongation subtypes of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase. It also inhibits other processes that utilize essential thiols. Cerulenin has been widely reported to block protein secretion at sub-MIC levels, an effect that has ...
McDaniel Nichole - - 2005
Na-K-2Cl cotransporter-1 (NKCC) has been detected at exceptionally high levels in the gastric mucosa of several species, prompting speculation that it plays important roles in gastric secretion. To investigate this possibility, we 1) immunolocalized NKCC protein in the mouse gastric mucosa, 2) compared the volume and composition of gastric fluid ...
Safdar Zeenat - - 2005
RATIONALE: Acid aspiration causes acute lung injury (ALI). Recently, we showed that a brief intravascular infusion of hyperosmolar sucrose, given concurrently with airway acid instillation, effectively blocks the ensuing ALI. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to determine the extent to which intravascular infusion of hyperosmolar sucrose might ...
Wood William F - - 2005
Dichloromethane extracts of wolverine (Gulo gulo, Mustelinae, Mustelidae) anal gland secretion were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The secretion composition was complex and variable for the six samples examined: 123 compounds were detected in total, with the number per animal ranging from 45 to 71 compounds. Only six compounds were ...
Berg Anna - - 2005
We have previously identified cells containing the enzyme nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) in the human gastric mucosa. Moreover, we have demonstrated that endogenous and exogenous NO has been shown to decrease histamine-stimulated acid secretion in isolated human gastric glands. The present investigation aimed to further determine whether this action ...
Ergün Yusuf - - 2005
S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) has previously been shown to have a role in ultraviolet (UV) light-elicited relaxations and proposed to account for the photosensitive store in the mouse gastric fundus. Furthermore, the depletion of this photosensitive store and its replenishment via long-term electrical field stimulation were demonstrated in the same tissue. In ...
Jeong Se Kyoo - - 2005
In a previous study, we reported that alpha-hydroxy acids (AHA), such as glycolic acid and lactic acid, did not induce any significant changes in transepidermal water loss for normal murine skin. The ultrastructural observations, however, showed that the extent of lamellar body exocytosis significantly increased. Because AHA can theoretically decrease ...
Mössner J - - 2005
Understanding the physiology of gastric acid secretion and the pathophysiology of acid-related diseases (e.g. gastrooesophageal reflux and peptic ulcer) has led to the development of numerous ways to decrease acid exposure. Pharmacologically one can try to neutralize secreted acid by antacids, prevent stimulation of the parietal cell, improve mucosal defences ...
Kato Shinichi - - 2005
We examined the role of prostaglandin E (EP) receptor subtypes in the regulation of gastric acid secretion in the rat. Under urethane anesthesia, the stomach was superfused with saline, and the acid secretion was determined at pH 7.0 by adding 50 mM NaOH. The acid secretion was stimulated by intravenous ...
Busque Stephanie M - - 2005
Parietal cells are the primary acid secretory cells of the stomach. We have previously shown that activation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) by divalent (Ca(2+)) or trivalent (Gd(3+)) ions stimulates acid production in the absence of secretagogues by increasing H(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. When overexpressed in HEK-293 cells, the CaSR can be ...
Alada A R A - - 2005
The study aimed to determine the influence of nitric oxide (NO) on the action of histamine and carbachol on acid secretion in the common African toad - Bufo regularis. Gastric acidity was determined by titration method. The acid secretion was determined when nitric oxide was absent following administration of NO ...
Papastamatiou Yannis P - - 2005
Vertebrates differ in their regulation of gastric acid secretion during periods of fasting, yet it is unknown why these differences occur. Elasmobranch fishes are the earliest known vertebrates to develop an acid secreting stomach and as such may make a good comparative model for determining the causative factors behind these ...
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